Abalone seed production and culture
Details the research conducted at AQD for the tropical abalone Haliotis asinina. AQD has developed the rudiments of a hatchery protocol.
PublisherAquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center (SEAFDEC/AQD)
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Evaluation of density and cage design for the nursery and grow-out of the tropical abalone Haliotis asinina Linne 1758 VC Encena II, M de la Peña & VT Balinas -
Journal of Shellfish Research, 2013 - National Shellfisheries AssociationThe effect of stocking density and cage design on the growth, survival rate, and feed conversion ratio was evaluated for the nursery (11–15 mm in shell length) and juvenile grow-out (26–30 mm in shell length) of the tropical abalone Haliotis asinina. Abalone were fed Gracilaria sp. within a randomized 2 × 3 factorial experiment using 2 stocking densities (Tl (500 pieces/m2) and T2 (1,000 pieces/m2)) and 3 cages (D1, box; D2, mesh cage; D3, prefabricated multitier trays). In addition, 3 stocking densities (T1, 50 pieces/m ; T2, 100 pieces/m; T3, 200 pieces/m) were evaluated in the prefabricated multitier trays. We found that, in the nursery experiment, 4-mo-old tropical abalone juveniles reared for 90 d showed no significant differences in growth (shell length and body weight) and survival rates among the 3 nursery cages used (Tukey's post hoc test, P > 0.05). Feed conversion ratio, however, was lowest for the high-density treatment T1D3 (7.8 ± 0.76) and was significantly different from the low density treatment T1D1 (11.32 ± 1.2) and intermediate density treatment T1D2 (12.39 ± 1.12; t-test, P > 0.05). Conversely, at higher densities (T2), the same trend applied with abalone reared in multitier basket systems (T2D3), having the highest growth rates and survival rates (29.3 ± 0.07 mm average shell length (ASL) and 5.16 ± 0.52 g average body weight (ABW)), followed closely by those reared in mesh cages (T2D2) and boxes (T2D1). Feed conversion ratio was also lowest for T2D3 (7.56 ± 0.79) and was significantly lower than T2D1 and T2D2. Between treatments, however, abalone reared at lower densities (T1) had significantly higher growth and survival than those reared at higher densities (T2), regardless of the nursery cage used, indicating an inverse relationship between stocking density, growth, and survival. For the grow-out study, tropical abalone reared in multitier trays at low densities (T1) attained the highest growth in shell length and body weight (49.7 ± 0.11 mm ASL and 29.8 ± 2.6 g ABW, respectively) at 180 d of culture, which was significantly greater than those reared in the high-density treatment (T3) with significantly smaller shell length and body weight (43.8 ± 0.18 mm ASL and 21.2 ± 2.0 g ABW), but not significantly different than the intermediate density treatment. This trend started from day 60 of culture onward when analyzed using Duncan's multiple range test (P > 0.05). Survival rates were not significantly different among stocking density treatments, nor were feed conversion ratios. We recommend, for nursery rearing of abalone juveniles, using multitier trays (D3) or boxes (D1) at 500 pieces/m2 stocking density to attain a grow-out size of 26–30 mm in shell length in 90 days. A stocking density of 100 pieces/m2 is recommended to grow abalone in multitier trays to attain a cocktail size of 50 mm ASL and 30 g ABW in 180 d with survival rates between 85.6% and 83.1%.
Evaluation of post-release behavior, recapture, and growth rates of hatchery-reared abalone Haliotis asinina released in Sagay Marine Reserve, Philippines MJH Lebata-Ramos, EFC Doyola-Solis, JBR Abrogueña, H Ogata, JG Sumbing & RC Sibonga -
Reviews in Fisheries Science, 2013 - Taylor & FrancisThe lucrative returns brought by abalone fisheries have caused overexploitation and decline of the wild population. In the Philippines, the Aquaculture Department of the Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center has successfully produced Haliotis asinina seeds in the hatchery. Aside from utilizing these seeds in aquaculture, they are also being considered for future stock enhancement endeavors of the department. This study aimed to evaluate post release behavior, recapture and growth rates of hatchery-reared abalone juveniles released in the Sagay Marine Reserve. From the two release trials conducted, results showed that abalone of shell length >3.0 cm had lower mortality during onsite acclimation and utilized transport modules as temporary shelter for a shorter period after release. Both wild and hatchery-reared abalone preferred dead branching corals with encrusting algae as their habitat. Recapture rates were comparable between the wild (7.97%) and hatchery-reared (HR2) abalone (6.47%). Monthly growth rates were almost the same between wild (0.25 cm, 4.0 g), hatchery-reared (HR1: 0.27 cm, 4.6 g; HR2: 0.35 cm, 3.8 g) abalone. Moreover, hatchery-reared abalone were recaptured up to 513 days post-release, indicating viability of released stocks in the wild. Results of releases revealed that hatchery-reared abalone can grow and survive with their wild conspecifics.
Use of thraustochytrid Schizochytrium sp. as source of lipid and fatty acid in a formulated diet for abalone Haliotis asinina (Linnaeus) juveniles MR de la Peña, MB Teruel, JM Oclarit, MJA Amar & EGT Ledesma -
Aquaculture International, 2016 - Springer VerlagThe effects of using thraustochytrid Schizochytrium sp. as source of lipid and fatty acids in a formulated diet on growth, survival, body composition, and salinity tolerance of juvenile donkey’s ear abalone, Haliotis asinina, were investigated. Treatments consisted of diets either containing a 1:1 ratio of cod liver oil (CLO) and soybean oil (SBO) (Diet 1) or thraustochytrid (Diet 2) as source of lipid and fatty acids at 2 % level. Natural diet Gracilariopsis heteroclada (Diet 3) served as the control. No significant difference in growth was observed in abalone fed Diet 3 (SGR: 5.3 % BW day−1; DISL: 265 μm day−1) and Diet 2 (SGR: 5.2 % BW day−1; DISL: 255 μm day−1). Survival ranged from 78 to 85 % for all treatments and was not significantly different from each other. A 96-h salinity stress test showed highest survival of 84 % in abalone fed Diet 2 compared with those fed diets 1 and 3 (42 %). The high growth rate of abalone fed Diet 2 and high tolerance to low salinity could be attributed to its high DHA content (8.9 %), which resulted to its high DHA/EPA ratio of 10.5 %. These fatty acids play a significant role in abalone nutrition. The fatty acid profile of abalone meat is a reflective of the fatty acid profile of the oil sources in the diet. The present study suggests that the use of Schizochytrium oil in lieu of CLO and SBO can support good growth of abalone which is comparable with abalone fed the natural seaweeds diet.