Now showing items 1-20 of 3342

    • Article

      Fire + water + bombs: Disaster management among academic libraries in Marawi City, Lanao del Sur, Philippines 

      DL Superio, EM Abaday, MGH Oliveros, AS Delgado, VEV Palcullo & JF Geromiano - International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, 2019 - Elsevier
      The academic libraries in Marawi City, Lanao del Sur, Philippines are vulnerable to disasters. In the last ten years, the majority of the 13 respondent libraries have sustained at least one disaster that may have been caused by civil unrest, war or terrorism, flood, earthquake, or fire. The majority were unprepared to face such disasters, may it be small-scale or catastrophic, and only one library has a disaster management plan. The lack of significant holdings of rare books, shortage of financial resources, no perceived risk, and the unavailability of staff to write a disaster management plan, are the reasons why most libraries do not have a plan. Moreover, the majority lacked staff that has undergone training in disaster preparedness and management. On the other hand, all of the libraries have disaster management practices that although not enough, will still enable them to lessen the effects of the disaster and save their library and parts of their collection when necessary. The respondents identified management support as an essential factor in their success in disaster management. The results of the study provide valuable information on the current state of the libraries in the Philippines with regards to disaster preparedness and management. Therefore, it is an essential addition to the literature on disaster management in the Philippines, which is very scarce as of the moment.
    • Article

      Evaluation of the bioremediation potential of mud polychaete Marphysa sp. in aquaculture pond sediments 

      MAE Mandario, VR Alava & NC Añasco - Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 2019 - Springer
      Organic enrichment from aquaculture could alter the chemical composition of the fishpond bottom by increasing the levels of organic matter (OM), sulfur (S), iron (Fe), and lower pH of the sediment. Polychaetes can contribute to the nutrient cycling and remediation of polluted sediment. A laboratory experiment was conducted to test the remediation potential of small and large mud polychaete Marphysa sp. introduced to two types of fishpond sediment. Initially, Sediment A had lower OM, S, Fe, and higher pH than Sediment B. After 30 days, in Sediment B, large polychaetes significantly decreased the OM level (27%) while both small and large polychaetes promoted significant decreases of S (71%) and Fe (70–73%) in both sediment types. The increase of sediment pH was promoted by the presence of polychaetes (0.53–0.69) although pH level in small polychaete was not significantly different with the no polychaete treatment. Regardless of polychaete treatment, the pH level of Sediment B (1.04 ± 0.10) was significantly improved than that of Sediment A (0.17 ± 0.02). In both sediments, large polychaetes (95%) had better survival rates than small polychaetes (73%). These findings reveal that large Marphysa sp. can significantly improve sediment quality by decreasing the levels of OM, S, and Fe and improve pH level to a more basic form without compromising its survival. Large polychaetes are recommended to be used as bioremediators of organically enriched aquaculture pond sediment.
    • Article

      Induction of gonadal development in protogynous grouper with orally delivered FSH DNA 

      P Palma, J Nocillado, J Superio, EG de Jesus-Ayson, F Ayson, A Takemura, MW Lu & A Elizur - Marine Biotechnology, 2019 - Springer
      The availability of sexually mature fish often dictates the success of its captive breeding. In this study, we induced reproductive development in juvenile protogynous tiger grouper through oral administration of a plasmid (p) containing an engineered follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). An expression construct (pcDNA3.1) was designed to express a single-chain FSH consisting of giant grouper FSH β-subunit and glycoprotein subunit-α (CGα), linked by the carboxy-terminal peptide (CTP) sequence from the human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). Single oral delivery of pFSH encapsulated in liposome and chitosan to tiger grouper yielded a significant increase in plasma FSH protein level after 4 days. Weekly pFSH feeding of juvenile tiger groupers for 8 weeks stimulated ovarian development as indicated by a significant increase in oocyte diameter and progression of oocytes to cortical alveolar stage. As the pFSH treatment progressed from 20 to 38 weeks, female to male sex change was initiated, characterized by oocyte regression, proliferation of spermatogonial cells, and occurrence of spermatogenic cysts. It was also associated with significantly lower mRNA expression of steroidogenic genes (cyp11b, cyp19a1a, and foxl2) and basal plasma levels of sex steroid hormones 17β-estradiol (E2), testosterone (T), and 11-ketotestosterone (11KT). Results suggest that pFSH stimulates ovarian development up to cortical alveolar stage and then initiates sex change in tiger grouper. These findings significantly contribute to our knowledge on the role of FSH in the development of protogynous hermaphroditic fish. This study is the first to demonstrate induction of reproductive development in fish through oral delivery of plasmid gonadotropin.
    • Article

      Solar irradiation as an alternative bleaching process for agar extracted from Gracilariopsis heteroclada in Iloilo, Philippines 

      LF Endoma, LM Nacional & MRJ Luhan - Botanica Marina, 2019 - De Gruyter
      The current industrial practice of using chemical bleach to achieve the pure white colour of agar is deleterious to both human and environmental health. This study evaluates the potential of solar irradiation as an alternative bleaching process for agar extracted from Gracilariopsis heteroclada in Iloilo, Philippines. The physico-chemical properties of agar obtained from alkaline-treated seaweed after exposure to different bleaching conditions (e.g. solar irradiation, hypochlorite solution, and ultraviolet and fluorescent lights) were examined and compared with commercial bacteriological agar. Photobleaching through solar irradiation produced agar with superior gel strength (1038.61 g cm−2), high 3,6-anhydrogalactose content (41.44%) and low total inorganic sulphate content (1.87%) without compromising agar yield (19.37%). Solar irradiation offers very promising results as a simple, low-cost, environmentally friendly alternative to the chlorine bleaching process for agar extraction.
    • Article

      Fish performance, nutrient digestibilities, and hepatic and intestinal morphologies in grouper Epinephelus fuscoguttatus fed fermented copra meal 

      REP Mamauag, JA Ragaza & T Nacionales - Aquaculture Reports, 2019 - Elsevier
      Protein enhanced copra meal (PECM®) is an alternative, cheap, and sustainable source of plant protein for the aquafeed industry, albeit its use on carnivorous fish species has been very limited. A 70-day feeding trial using grouper Epinephelus fuscoguttatus (initial mean body weight of 1.86 ± 0.19 g) tested fermented copra meal as feed ingredient. Six isonitrogenous (crude protein of 45%) and iso-lipidic (crude fat of 11%) diets consisted of PECM®: a control diet at 0% soybean meal replacement (C); four diets replacing soybean meal at 25% (FC25), 50% (FC50), 75% (FC75), 100% (FC100) – all with methionine and lysine supplementation; and 100% soybean replacement without methionine and lysine supplementation (FCW100). Growth and feed performance were not significantly (P > 0.05) affected by PECM® replacement of soybean meal up to 100%, even without methionine and lysine supplementation. Chemical body composition was likewise not significantly (P > 0.05) altered. PECM® when used as a grouper feed ingredient has protein, lipid, carbohydrate and dry matter digestibilities of 89.28%, 78.63%, 82.57%, and 48%, respectively. Hepatic and intestinal morphologies displayed no apparent pathological changes. PECM® can be efficiently utilized by grouper and can replace soybean meal up to 100% (16% in diet) for normal fish performance and digestive organ functions.
    • Article

      Reproductive development of the threatened giant grouper Epinephelus lanceolatus 

      The giant grouper is presumed to follow the reproductive pattern of most Epinephelus species, characterized by protogynous hermaphroditism wherein male maturation is attained through sex reversal of a functional female. This hypothesis, however, has not been verified due to lack of biological data. The present study addresses this gap by investigating the reproductive development of giant groupers from juvenile stage through sexual maturity. Gonad histological analysis of hatchery-bred juvenile giant grouper from Queensland, Australia (0.8–5.2 kg, n = 43) have shown earliest occurrence of primary oocytes (i.e. ovarian differentiation) in 47.8 cm and 2.5 kg fish. Monitoring of sexual maturity by gonadal biopsy was performed in a stock of wild-caught giant groupers (2–52 kg) held in sea cages in the Philippines and Vietnam from 2015 to 2017. Onset of female sexual maturity was at 96.9 ± 1.6 cm and 23.5 ± 1.5 kg in the Philippines, and 103.0 ± 4.1 cm and 33.5 ± 2.5 kg in Vietnam. In both locations, development of primary males was observed wherein fish produced milt (or spermiated) without passing through a functional female phase. The ratio of primary males to females in both locations was about 1:2. Size at maturity of primary males is 86.5 ± 4.8 cm and 17.1 ± 2.1 kg in the Philippines, and 97.3 ± 1.3 cm and 34.3 ± 0.9 kg in Vietnam. To aid in the monitoring of female maturation, we developed a non-invasive method based on immunoassay of vitellogenin in skin mucus and this was shown to be effective in detecting female maturation 9 ± 2 months prior to first observation of oocytes through gonadal biopsy. Our findings suggest that giant grouper is a diandric protogynous hermaphrodite. This study provides novel information on the reproductive biology of giant grouper, an economically important and vulnerable species.
    • Article

      Gonadal response of juvenile protogynous grouper (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus) to long term recombinant follicle-stimulating hormone administration 

      P Palma, J Nocillado, J Superio, EGdJ Ayson, F Ayson, I Bar & A Elizur - Biology of Reproduction, 2019 - Oxford University Press
      The role of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) in the gonadal development of protogynous hermaphroditic grouper (E. fuscoguttatus) was investigated. Recombinant giant grouper (E. lanceolatus) FSH (rggFSH) was produced in yeast. Its receptor binding capacity and steroidogenic potency were confirmed in vitro. Weekly injections of rggFSH to juvenile tiger grouper for 8 weeks (100 μg/kg body weight, BW) resulted in significantly larger and more advanced oocytes (cortical alveolar stage vs. primary growth stage in control). Sustained treatment with rggFSH (20 to 38 weeks at 200 μg/kg BW) resulted in significant reduction in gonad size, degeneration of oocytes and proliferation of spermatogonial cells, indicative of female to male sex change. Gene expression analysis showed that, while initiating female to male sex change, the rggFSH significantly suppressed the steroidogenic genes cyp11b, cyp19a1a and foxl2 which restrained the endogenous production of sex steroid hormones thus prevented the differentiation of spermatogonial cells. Expression profile of sex markers dmrt1, amh, figla and bmp15 suggests that the observed sex change was restricted at the initiation stage. Based on these results, we propose that the process of female to male sex change in the protogynous grouper is initiated by FSH, rather than sex steroids and likely involves steroid-independent pathway. The cortical alveolar stage in oocyte development is the critical point after which FSH-induced sex change is possible in grouper.
    • Book

      Nursery culture of tropical anguillid eels in the Philippines 

      ML Cuvin-Aralar, FA Aya, MR Romana-Eguia & DJ Logronio - 2019 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Series: Aquaculture extension manual; No. 65
      This technical publication focused on nursery production of anguillid eels from glass eels to elver using data gathered from eel farm surveys and rearing trials conducted by SEAFDEC/AQD as part of the JAIF (Japan-ASEAN Integration Fund) project on Enhancing Sustainable Utilization and Management Scheme for Tropical Anguillid Eel Resources in Southeast Asia.
    • Article

      Artificial substratum consisting of poly-β-hydroxybutyrate-based biodegradable plastic improved the survival and overall performance of postlarval tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon 

      G Ludevese-Pascual, JL Laranja, E Amar, P Bossier & P De Schryver - Aquaculture Research, 2019 - Wiley
      The use of artificial substratum consisting of poly‐β‐hydroxybutyrate (PHB)‐based biodegradable plastic for penaeid shrimp culture was investigated in the present study. The survival of postlarval tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon (30 ± 5 mg) provided with PHB substratum made out of PHB type DP9002 (Metabolix GmbH, Köln, Germany) was 88.7 ± 3.4% and this was significantly higher as compared to postlarvae provided conventional substratum consisting of polyvinylchloride (PVC) pipes (67.3 ± 6.5%). However, no significant weight improvement was observed for the postlarval tiger shrimp indicating that PHB could not be used as growth promoter. Nevertheless, a trend of improved robustness against adverse environmental conditions (lethal ammonium chloride concentration) and increased resistance to pathogenic Vibrio was observed in postlarval tiger shrimp provided with PHB substratum as compared to postlarvae provided with PVC substratum. Results indicate higher preference by postlarvae on PHB substratum over PVC substratum. Overall, this study indicates the potential of artificial substratum consisting of PHB‐based biodegradable plastic as replacement for conventional substratum consisting of PVC pipes in enhancing the survival of postlarval tiger shrimp and improving its performance against adverse environmental conditions and disease resistance.
    • Newsletter

      AQD Matters 2019 January - February 

      RH Ledesma (Ed.) - 2019 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    • Article

      Gonad development and size‐at‐maturity of silver therapon Leiopotherapon plumbeus (Kner 1864; Teleostei:Terapontidae) in tropical volcanic lakes in south Luzon, Philippines 

      PJT Denusta, EG de Jesus-Ayson, MA Laron, FA Aya & LMB Garcia - Journal of Applied Ichthyology, 2019 - Wiley
      Gonad development of the silver therapon Leiopotherapon plumbeus in two volcanic crater lake habitats (Sampaloc Lake, Taal Lake) in south Luzon, Philippines was examined during the annual reproductive cycle. The minimum body size‐at‐maturity of fish in these two lake habitats was also compared. Four gonad development stages were characterized as basis for the classification of ovarian (immature, maturing, mature, spawned) and testicular maturation (immature, maturing, mature) phases. The occurrence of all development stages in individual gonads suggest an asynchronous development whereby advanced stages are recruited continuously from a pool of younger stage germ cells to result in elevated female and male GSI throughout the annual cycle due to active gonadogenesis. Together with the increasing occurrence of advanced stage oocytes and spermatozoa from March until October, the elevated GSI of fish may indicate peak gonadal growth during the onset of the dry season (December–January) for eventual spawning from the beginning (May–June) until the end of the wet season (October–November). In both lake habitats, male fish were smaller than females but, regardless of sex, the minimum size‐at‐maturity of fish in Sampaloc Lake was significantly smaller than fish in Taal Lake. Overall, asynchronous development during oogenesis and spermatogenesis allows for year‐round reproduction of silver therapon, with elevated gonad growth in the dry season in preparation for spawning during the wet season. Compared with fish in Taal Lake, a smaller size‐at‐maturity of fish in Sampaloc Lake may be a response of the wild fishery stock to long‐term high fishing mortality and degradation of the lake habitat.
    • Book chapter

      Poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) and infection reduction in farmed aquatic animals 

      JLQ Laranja & P Bossier - In H Goldfine (Ed.), Health Consequences of Microbial Interactions with Hydrocarbons, Oils, and Lipids, 2019 - Springer International Publishing
      There is a continuous effort in finding effective and sustainable strategies to control diseases in farmed animals, and in recent years, the application of the bacterial storage compound poly-β-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) was identified as a new disease control agent for aquaculture. The idea of using PHB as a biocontrol agent was conceived based on the knowledge that this biopolymer can be degraded into short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), and SCFAs are known compounds with antimicrobial properties. At the beginning of this chapter, an overview about the PHB granule, its detection, quantification, production, and recovery in microorganisms is presented. The main topic focuses on the application and beneficial effects of PHB in farmed aquatic animals. The mechanisms by which PHB provides beneficial effects to the host are discussed.
    • Conference paper

      Transboundary aquatic animal diseases: History and impacts in ASEAN aquaculture 

      EM Leaño - In EA Tendencia, LD de la Peña & JMV de la Cruz (Eds.), Aquatic Emergency Preparedness and Response Systems for Effective Management of Transboundary Disease Outbreaks … of Asean Regional Technical Consultation, 20-22 August 2018, Centara Grand Central Ladprao, Bangkok, Thailand, 2019 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Aquaculture is one of the important sectors in the economy of most Asia-Pacific countries. However, majority of aquaculture farms are small-scale and most often lack the necessary facilities to comply with or are not well informed of the product standards imposed by concerned authorities, especially for international trade. Most countries in the region have a high reliance on aquatic animals as the major source of protein for their populations. In the past 20 years, farming of shrimp and fish for export has become a major employer and revenue earner for many countries in the region. Aquaculture is a major employer, contributes significantly to national economies, assists in poverty reduction, and is an important element in food security and other national development priorities. Aquaculture has developed rapidly in the region and is now a significant component in the national economies of many countries. However, recent disease events in fish and shrimp farming have indicated that preparedness and response measures are lacking, contributing to spread of disease across large areas of the countries involved.

      The growth of aquaculture in recent decades has been dependent on the international movement of aquatic animals and, in particular, the introduction of non-native species. The movement of live aquatic animals and their products has the potential to spread pathogens from one country or region to another, which may result to disease outbreaks. In shrimps as example, most major disease outbreaks were associated with the movement of live animals (broodstock, nauplii and postlarvae) when the patterns of disease spread were analyzed. Many aquatic animal diseases, once established, are often difficult to treat or to eliminate. Over the past 30 years, the Asia-Pacific region has been swept by a number of devastating diseases of aquatic animals which have caused massive economic and social losses. These include spread and outbreaks of infection with Aphanomyces invadans (EUS) in freshwater fish, viral nervous necrosis (VNN) in marine fish, viral hemorrhagic septicaemia (VHS) in marine and freshwater fish, and several viral diseases in shrimps such as white spot disease (WSD), white tail disease (WTD), yellow head disease (YHD) and infectious myonecrosis (IMN) among others. This demonstrates the vulnerability of the aquaculture industry as well as the wild populations to disease emergence in the region. The impacts of these diseases have been aggravated by the lack of effective preparedness and response whenever diseases emerge. Although some national, regional and international actions towards disease emergencies have paved way to disease spread prevention in recent years (e.g. Acute hepatopancreatic necrosis diseases; AHPND), there are still several emerging diseases that need to be considered by aquaculture-producing countries, especially in the ASEAN, through a harmonized and effective emergency preparedness and disease response.
    • Conference paper

      Components and implementation strategies for effective hazard monitoring and early warning 

      C Chiesa, V Leat & J Bean - In EA Tendencia, LD de la Peña & JMV de la Cruz (Eds.), Aquatic Emergency Preparedness and Response Systems for Effective Management of Transboundary Disease Outbreaks … of Asean Regional Technical Consultation, 20-22 August 2018, Centara Grand Central Ladprao, Bangkok, Thailand, 2019 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Effective monitoring of hazardous incidents for timely dissemination of notifications and warnings involves a thoughtful mixture and application of information, technology and intuitional processes. It starts with the identification of the right data - data to be used in decision making processes - from the right sources - authoritative sources that can be trusted and relied upon. Processes must then be developed to routinely and swiftly acquire, process, and ingest these data into an early warning system (EWS). Decision criteria - sometime referred to as business rules - must be established to transform these data into actionable information, including for the dissemination of warning messages. Finally, the warning messages must be quickly and securely transmitted to the intended recipients, often via redundant mechanisms to insure receipt. Of course, warning messages themselves, even if timely, accurate, and actionable, are not sufficient without an overall context in which to assess them as well as pre-established processes for taking actions, sometimes referred to as Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs). However, even the best SOPs will be ineffective if their users are not adequately skilled and knowledgeable. This generally means that a training and exercise program must be a key component of any successful monitoring and warning system. These elements of effective monitoring - and strategies for their implementation - are described and illustrated via the Pacific Disaster Center s DisasterAWARE all-hazards monitoring, early warning and decision support system.
    • Conference paper

      Current status, issues and gaps of aquatic emergency preparedness and response systems practiced in Brunei Darussalam 

      W Tamat, DSNPHA Halim & EFB Pakar - In EA Tendencia, LD de la Peña & JMV de la Cruz (Eds.), Aquatic Emergency Preparedness and Response Systems for Effective Management of Transboundary Disease Outbreaks … of Asean Regional Technical Consultation, 20-22 August 2018, Centara Grand Central Ladprao, Bangkok, Thailand, 2019 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Importation of live fish to Brunei Darussalam have incurred a major biosecurity risk to the aquaculture industry. Preventing disease incursions through quarantine, legislation and education is currently the most cost-effective management approach in Brunei. Once an incursion has occurred, national emergency response system arrangements are implemented to facilitate immediate response actions for containment and eradication. Brunei Darussalam has a list of legislation and policies to aid in the immediate response of disease outbreak. However, fisheries staff lack basic emergency response training and there are few skilled staff and resources available. Simulation exercise to review the effectiveness of the AEPR system needs to be addressed.
    • Conference paper

      Emergency response to emerging diseases: TiLV in tilapia 

      S Senapin - In EA Tendencia, LD de la Peña & JMV de la Cruz (Eds.), Aquatic Emergency Preparedness and Response Systems for Effective Management of Transboundary Disease Outbreaks … of Asean Regional Technical Consultation, 20-22 August 2018, Centara Grand Central Ladprao, Bangkok, Thailand, 2019 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Tilapia lake virus (TiLV) is a novel RNA virus resembling Orthomyxovirus. It has been recently re-classified to Tilapia tilapinevirus species, under Tilapinevirus genus, Amnoonviridae family (ICTV, 2018). Since the first discovery in Israel in 2014, so far TiLV has been reported from 14 countries in three continents (Asia, Africa, and South America). Thailand is one of the affected countries that reported emergence of this virus in 2017. Initially, we employed nested RT-PCR primer sequences previously published for TiLV diagnosis. However, the resulting amplification of nonspecific fish genes led us to modify the nested RT-PCR protocols into a semi-nested RT-PCR by omitting a non-specific primer to avoid false positive results. Subsequently, our molecular work together with histopathology and sequence analysis confirmed the presence of TiLV infection in Thailand. Prior to the publication of our manuscript, we informed the Thai Department of Fisheries of our discovery of TiLV in Thailand. Our publication was preceded by a brief article at the website of the Network of Aquaculture Centers in Asia-Pacific in which we warned of the spread of TiLV and offered free use of a newly improved, semi-nested RT-PCR method and positive control plasmid for detection of TiLV. To date, we have provided positive controls in response to 44 requests from 24 countries who have expressed their appreciation for our attempt to help in emergent controlling the spread of this fish pathogen. Our current study focuses on genetic diversity of TiLV and development of detection method that covers all genetic variants.
    • Conference paper

      Emergency preparedness and contingency plans to aquatic animal disease emergencies 

      MG Bondad-Reantaso - In EA Tendencia, LD de la Peña & JMV de la Cruz (Eds.), Aquatic Emergency Preparedness and Response Systems for Effective Management of Transboundary Disease Outbreaks … of Asean Regional Technical Consultation, 20-22 August 2018, Centara Grand Central Ladprao, Bangkok, Thailand, 2019 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Emergency preparedness is the ability to respond effectively and in a timely fashion to aquatic animal disease emergencies (e.g. disease outbreaks, mass mortalities). It is a key element of a National Strategy on Aquatic Animal Health and an important consideration of the Progressive Management Pathway for improving Aquaculture Biosecurity.

      The important principles, requirements and elements and components of emergency prepareness and contingency plans are briefly described. The emergency preparedness response system audit is also presented as contingency planning arrangements that can provide useful insights and guidance in improving response action to disease emergencies.

      The paper concludes that many important lessons and insights learned from dealing with disease epizootics in the early 2000 remains valid after more than two decades when the aquaculture sector continues to be plagued with emerging diseases. Past lessons and more recent experiences demonstrated the value of rapid response, reporting/notification by competent authorities, continuous development of knowledge base and capacities in diagnostics, epidemiology, risk analysis, advanced financial planning and the important roles of governments and producer sectors in co-managing disease outbreak events as they both remain the critical entities responsible for launching rapid response.

      Skills and knowledge need to be passed on to locals as they are in the frontline of any disease emergency. Share key lessons from experiences by state and non-state actors (producer and academic sectors and other important players in the value chain), the international players that launch emergency responses, disease investigations and field situation assessments as well as financial entities that support these actions need to be continued. However, we also need to do - a stock taking exercise to evaluate what worked, what did not work, what resources are needed and to understand what are the new drivers for aquatic animal disease emergence in order to move forward with the right and timely response actions to disease emergencies in aquaculture.

      Key questions remain: Are we prepared for the next outbreak/mortality event? What are the minimum preparedness and advance preparedness actions needed?
    • Conference paper

      Aquatic emergency preparedness and response systems in Singapore 

      D Chee & XH Teo - In EA Tendencia, LD de la Peña & JMV de la Cruz (Eds.), Aquatic Emergency Preparedness and Response Systems for Effective Management of Transboundary Disease Outbreaks … of Asean Regional Technical Consultation, 20-22 August 2018, Centara Grand Central Ladprao, Bangkok, Thailand, 2019 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Singapore s population-dense, urban environment presents a unique context for her increasingly important aquaculture industry. This paper provides an overview of Singapore s existing aquatic emergency preparedness and response systems, which have been constructed and refined by the Agri-Food and Veterinary Authority (AVA) in view of past experience with detections of pathogens of warmwater fish. These systems have been developed to fulfil Singapore s obligations as an OIE member country and AVA s duty to safeguard food security, animal and public health. As a trade and export hub, it is critical for Singapore to have timely detection and reporting of diseases which can have an impact on trade. Singapore also needs to balance the needs and perceptions of the multiple stakeholders using the limited space and resources in our island state. Finally, this paper outlines the current issues and gaps of Singapore s existing aquatic emergency preparedness and response systems.
    • Conference paper

      Aquatic emergency preparedness and response system in Viet Nam 

      VHT Bui, VNT Nguyen, LHT Nguyen, HT Nguyen, QH Pham, CD Vo & TN Nguyen - In EA Tendencia, LD de la Peña & JMV de la Cruz (Eds.), Aquatic Emergency Preparedness and Response Systems for Effective Management of Transboundary Disease Outbreaks … of Asean Regional Technical Consultation, 20-22 August 2018, Centara Grand Central Ladprao, Bangkok, Thailand, 2019 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Viet Nam is one of the top worldwide producers of aquaculture products which accounts for about 22 percent of total agricultural GDP of Viet Nam. Recently, diseases have become the biggest challenge for global aquaculture development therefore the Vietnamese government has paid close attention to develop an effective aquatic emergency preparedness and response system to timely deal with disease introduction and outbreaks. The Department of Animal Health (DAH), under the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development (MARD), which is the competent authority of aquatic animal health management. To monitor transboundary diseases (especially the OIE-listed diseases), the current Vietnamese regulations only allow import of aquatic animals and its products which are certified as disease-free by competent authority of exporting country, and export aquatic animals and its products complying with importing conditions of importing country. Regional Animal Health Offices (belong to DAH) shall carry out sampling for testing pathogens and isolation for imported aquatic animals and its products as regulated in Circular 26/2016/TT-BNNPTNT dated 30 June 2016 before granting permit to import or export. For domestic transportation of aquatic animals, provincial sub DAH is responsible for monitoring infectious pathogens to certify disease-free status of aquatic animals before issuing health certificate for movement. In addition, a reporting and response system to aquatic animal diseases was established in the country from farm level to central level (DAH). Early detection and warning of diseases is critical for disease prevention and control, thus since 2014, the DAH has implemented national surveillance programs focusing on dangerous diseases in the key farming species (brackish-water shrimps, pangasius catfish) according to Circular 04/2016/TT-BNNPTNT dated 10 May 2016 of MARD and support exportation of aquatic animals and its products complying with international regulations and importing countries based on OIE recommendations and Circular 14/2016/TT-BNNPTNT dated 2 June 2016.
    • Conference paper

      Philippines: Aquatic emergency preparedness and response systems for transboundary diseases 

      SS Somga, JR Somga, GM Quiatchon & SE Regidor - In EA Tendencia, LD de la Peña & JMV de la Cruz (Eds.), Aquatic Emergency Preparedness and Response Systems for Effective Management of Transboundary Disease Outbreaks … of Asean Regional Technical Consultation, 20-22 August 2018, Centara Grand Central Ladprao, Bangkok, Thailand, 2019 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      The Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources (BFAR) of the Department of Agriculture as the Competent Authority, develops and implements rules and regulations on aquatic animal health for the Philippines. It establishes the monitoring system for OIE/NACA listed aquatic animal diseases. The disease surveillance and reporting activities are being carried out by the BFAR Fish Health Laboratory of the National Fisheries Laboratory Division and its counterparts at the regional offices. BFAR Fish Health Laboratories have different levels of diagnostic and detection capabilities for aquatic animal diseases. Diagnostic services and technical assistance are rendered to farmers on aquatic animal health. Results of diagnostic services and surveillance by BFAR central and regional offices, and other laboratories (SEAFDEC/AQD-Fish Health, DA-Biotech, Negros Prawn Cooperative) are part of the country s aquatic animal disease reports to the OIE/NACA. BFAR has a Fish Health Network that responds to aquatic animal disease emergencies. It also coordinates and collaborates through networking with research agencies, academe, private sectors and other stakeholders on aquatic animal health.

      The Fisheries Inspection and Quarantine Division implements the policies on biosecurity, quarantine and health certification for trade and transboundary movement of aquatic animals. It is also responsible for risk analysis on the importation of fish and fishery/aquatic products. Other regulatory requirements for in-country movement include local transport permit for fish and fishery/aquatic products for traceability. Importers and exporters are also registered by BFAR to ensure compliance to sanitary and food safety measures and requirements. BFAR is continuously strengthening its technical capacity, human resources, policies and regulations for a more efficient implementation of aquatic animal health services that includes response to transboundary disease emergencies of aquatic animals.