Seminal plasma composition, sperm motility, and milt dilution in the Asian catfish Clarias macrocephalus (Gunther)
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Ionic composition of the seminal plasma and factors that initiate sperm motility in the freshwater Asian catfish Clarias macrocephalus, were examined to develop an artificial seminal plasma (ASP) that can be used to dilute milt. The optimum ratio of milt:ASP that can reversibly activate the sperm and milt–ASP:ovulated eggs that will result in high fertilization rates were further determined to minimize the number of males to be sacrificed during artificial insemination. Seminal plasma of C. macrocephalus contained 17.8±0.1 mM/l potassium, 164.4±0.6 mM/l sodium, 8.4±0.0 mM/l calcium and 1.6±0.0 mM/l magnesium, and had an osmolality of 269.0±6.4 mOsm/kg, and pH of 7.8±0.2. Sperm motility was highest and longest in all electrolyte (NaCl, CaCl2, KCl) and non-electrolyte (mannitol) solutions of 200 mOsm/kg. Catfish sperm were motile in all isotonic NaCl–KCl solutions, and were reversibly activated in the ASP (143 mM NaCl, 30 mM KCl, 8 mM CaCl2, 2 mM MgCl2, 10 mM HEPES) solutions of pH 6.4–9.4. Altogether, these results suggest that sperm motility in C. macrocephalus was mainly initiated by a decrease in osmotic pressure, rather than ions and pH. High fertilization rates (89–94%) were observed when 10 μl milt, diluted with 1000 μl ASP, was activated with 5 ml of 0.6% NaCl (198.24 mOsm/kg) to fertilize 5 or 10 g of ovulated eggs. Results obtained from the present study provide information on sperm physiology that will lead to more efficient gamete management, and hopefully, an increase in the yield of catfish fry in the hatchery.
CitationTan-Fermin, J. D., Miura, T., Adachi, S., & Yamauchi, K. (1999). Seminal plasma composition, sperm motility, and milt dilution in the Asian catfish Clarias macrocephalus (Gunther).
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Conference paperIC Liao & YS Chang - In Proceedings of the International Milkfish Workshop Conference, May 19-22, 1976, Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines, 1976 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterMilkfish is one of the most important food fishes in Taiwan. There are more than 16,000 ha of culture area and over 160 millions of fry are needed for milkfish farming industry every year. The fry are collected from the sea and also imported from other countries. However, due to several environmental factors, there is unpredictable fluctuations in the occurrence of these wild fry. In recent years, the demand for milkfish fry has gone up considerably owing mainly to the fast-growing populations, the natural resources being so limited that there is insufficient supply of stocking materials of this important foodfish. To solve the problem of shortage of milkfish fry, Tungkang Marine Laboratory started the preliminary work on artificial propagation of milkfish in 1970. In addition to capturing wild spawners, the Laboratory has also been raising the adult milkfish in tanks for this objective. After being reared for six years, one male and one female were dissected on 11 April 1976. The male had ripe sperms; the testes weighing 4.63 g with the GSI of 0.12. The gonad of the female weighed 21.20 g with the GSI of 0.66 and part of the ovarian oocytes was found to be at the oil droplet (yolk vesicle) stage. Judging from the condition of maturity of the above female, the feasibility of raising tank-reared spawners was ensured. It is believed that this is the first attempt on the world and is the prelude to successful artificial propagation by using tank-reared milkfish as spawner.
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Conference paperGV Hilomen-Garcia, RB Baldevarona & FJ Lacanilao - In CL Marte, GF Quinitio & AC Emata (Eds.), Proceedings of the Seminar-Workshop on Breeding and Seed Production of Cultured Finfishes in the Philippines, Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines, 4-5 May 1993, 1996 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterMilt volume, sperm density, and number of spermatozoa were determined to quantify milt production of mature sea bass after a single injection of LHRHa [(D-Ala6,Pro9-N-ethylamiide)LHRH] in saline solution and 17α-methyltestosterone in corn oil (MT). Two measures of sperm density, sperm count and spermatocrit, were highly correlated (r=0.85). Compared with control, milt volume and the number of spermatozoa collected increased but sperm count decreased (24% at 24 h) after a LHRHa (20 µg/kg body weight treatment, suggesting a stimulation of spermatozoa production and not merely milt dilution. Further milt dilution (44%) was induced by 80 µg/kg LHRHa (LHRHa80) at 12 h post-treatment but not by 200 µg/kg MT (MT200) alone. A milt dilution of only 27% at 12 h after simultaneous injections of LHRHa80 and MT200 may indicate some inhibitory effect of MT on the efficiency of LHRHa. These results demonstrate that the stimulation of milt production by LHRHa involves testicular hydration resulting in milt dilution.