A preliminary report on the gonadal development of adult milkfish, Chanos chanos, reared in tank
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Milkfish is one of the most important food fishes in Taiwan. There are more than 16,000 ha of culture area and over 160 millions of fry are needed for milkfish farming industry every year. The fry are collected from the sea and also imported from other countries. However, due to several environmental factors, there is unpredictable fluctuations in the occurrence of these wild fry. In recent years, the demand for milkfish fry has gone up considerably owing mainly to the fast-growing populations, the natural resources being so limited that there is insufficient supply of stocking materials of this important foodfish. To solve the problem of shortage of milkfish fry, Tungkang Marine Laboratory started the preliminary work on artificial propagation of milkfish in 1970. In addition to capturing wild spawners, the Laboratory has also been raising the adult milkfish in tanks for this objective. After being reared for six years, one male and one female were dissected on 11 April 1976. The male had ripe sperms; the testes weighing 4.63 g with the GSI of 0.12. The gonad of the female weighed 21.20 g with the GSI of 0.66 and part of the ovarian oocytes was found to be at the oil droplet (yolk vesicle) stage. Judging from the condition of maturity of the above female, the feasibility of raising tank-reared spawners was ensured. It is believed that this is the first attempt on the world and is the prelude to successful artificial propagation by using tank-reared milkfish as spawner.
Liao, I.-C., & Chang, Y.-S. (1976). A preliminary report on the gonadal development of adult milkfish, Chanos chanos, reared in tank. In Proceedings of the International Milkfish Workshop Conference, May 19-22, 1976, Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines (pp. 121-132). Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines: Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center. http://hdl.handle.net/10862/3378
PublisherAquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
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Conference paperLV Benitez - In RD Fortes, LC Darvin & DL de Guzman (Eds.), Fish and crustacean feeds and nutrition : Proceedings of the seminar-workshop on fish and crustacean feeds and nutrition held on 25-26 February 1985 at UPV, Iloilo City, 1989 - Philippine Council for Aquatic and Marine Research and DevelopmentThis paper reviews recent work on milkfish nutrition. Substantial progress had been made towards understanding the digestive physiology of milkfish. Major enzaymes envolved in the digestions of carbohydrates, protein and lipids had been detected in the pyloric caece, intestines and pancreas of milkfish. The most active carbohydrates were involved in the hydrolysis of α - glocosidic bonds. Intestinal amylase activity consistently reached the peak at about noon when milkfish gut was full. This confirms that milkfish is s daytime feeder. No cellulase activity was detected in any region orf the digertive treat although the fish relies heavily algae and other plant source for food. Trypsin, chymotrypsin and general proteases were also detected in milkfish digestive tract. A powerful milkfish trypsin inhabitor was detected in the filementous algae, Chaetomorpha brachygona which is predominant species in lumot. Lipass in the pancreas and intestines had two pH optima, suggesting a physiologic versatility for lipid digestion in milkfish. There is a limit information on the nutrient requirement of milkfish. Most studies showed that milkfish fry has a dietary requirement of 40% protein, and 7-10 lipid. Studies on the protein-energy requirement of fingerlings suggested that 30-40% protein, 10% fat and 25% carbohydrates are required. Subsequent studies showed an optimum protein energy to total metabolizable energy ratio of 44.4%. Amino acid test diets for milkfish had been formulated to contain white fish meal, gelatin and approprate amino acid mix.
Lactate dehydrogenase isozyme patterns during the development of milkfish, (Chanos chanos (Forskal)) PD Requintina, LM Engle & LV Benitez -
Kalikasan, The Philippine Journal of Biology, 1981 - University of the Philippines at Los BañosPolyacrylamide disc gel electrophoresis was done to determine the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) isozyme patterns for fry (5-3 mg), fingerling (6-12 g), pond-size (150-250 g) and adult (6-9 kg) milkfish. The patterns were tissue specific; the different tissues examined, viz., eye, liver, heart, and skeletal muscle had different expressions of LDH isozymes. The resolved patterns appeared to be products of LDH gene loci A, B, and C. Subunits A and B were present in all tissues. A4 and B4 were predominant in skeletal and heart muscle, respectively; the two associated non-randomly in vivo and formed only the heteropolymers A3B and AB3. A liver band, L4, was most conspicuous in the fingerling, pond-size, and adult; it was assumed to be coded by locus C. A negatively charged band, X4, was detected in fully developed ovary and in fry homogenized as whole individuals, but it could not be resolved in tissues of fingerling. Six-mo old stunts and 3-mo old fingerlings had similar LDH patterns for all tissues examined. The patterns for 11-mo old stunts and fingerlings also were similar but the one for the eye of the former was the same pattern resolved for the eye of adults. There was no change in the LDH isozyme patterns of milk fish stunted for 6 mo under different salinity levels (0-5, 15-20, 32-35 ppt).
Ongoing research studies on maturation and spawning of milkfish, Chanos chanos at the brackishwater shrimp and milkfish culture applied research and training project, Jepara, Indonesia KH Alikunhi - In Proceedings of the International Milkfish Workshop Conference, May 19-22, 1976, Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines, 1976 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterThe paper gives an account of the research work carried out at Jepara, Indonesia, on induction of maturity of milkfish in ponds and enclosures, and procurement of the spawners from the wild for seed production by hypophysation. Seven to eight years old pond grown milkfish were found sexually immature. Experiments are being conducted for growing and inducing maturity in 1-2 years old milkfish in fertilized ponds with regular tidal flow of water and also under regular hypophysation program. Milkfish spawners collected from sea had a few males in oozing condition and females mostly spent.