Milkfish fry and fingerling resources of Sri Lanka
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Sri Lanka has the milkfish (Chanos chanos) seed and water resources for the development of milkfish aquaculture as a new industry. Milkfish fry and fingerlings are present in all surveyed coastal wet lands, but are abundant in Mannar and Puttalam regions. The species enter tidal pools as larvae and develop into juveniles of about 50 mm. FL in one month. The fry and fingerlings are caught with seine net in tidal pools, transported in plastic bags and stocked in ponds and/or lakes. Mortality ranges 2-100% during transport; 2-15% during acclimatization; and 40-50% after 3 weeks in holding tanks. Careful handling and the application of appropriate transportation, acclimatization and nursing procedures would reduce mortality considerably.
This report was partially supported by the Canadian International Development Research Centre under Project No. 3-P-78-0033.
CitationVillaluz, A. C., Amandakoon, H. P., & de Alwis, A. (1982). Milkfish fry and fingerling resources of Sri Lanka.
PublisherMinistry of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources
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Larval and early juvenile development of silver therapon, Leiopotherapon plumbeus (Actinopterygii: Perciformes: Terapontidae), reared in mesocosms FA Aya, MNC Corpuz, MA Laron & LMB Garcia -
Acta Ichthyologica et Piscatoria, 2017 - Szczecińskie Towarzystwo NaukoweThe silver therapon, Leiopotherapon plumbeus (Kner, 1864), is an endemic and economically important freshwater food fish in the Philippines. The natural populations of this species have been declining during the past years, mainly due to intense fishing pressure, habitat degradation, and introduction of invasive alien species. At present, it is considered a target species for domestication and conservation efforts. Despite several attempts of artificial reproduction and larval rearing, little is known on larval and early juvenile development of silver therapon. The presently reported study was therefore intended to fill this gap in the knowledge by determining the growth and describing body proportions, pigmentation, and fin formation of this fish. Newly hatched larvae were reared in mesocosm tanks at a mean temperature of 29.5°C. Larvae up to 30 days after hatching were sampled at irregular intervals and preserved in 5% buffered formalin. Early development stages for 245 preserved specimens were described in detail with reference to changes in morphology, growth and body proportions, pigmentation, and fin formation. Five developmental stages of silver therapon were identified: yolk sac larva (1.88 mm TL), preflexion (2.51 mm TL), notochord flexion (4.50-8.27 mm TL), postflexion larva (6.90-12.21 mm TL), and early juvenile (>13.40 mm TL). Growth was isometric for eye diameter and gape size whereas positive allometry was observed for body depth, head length, and preanal length. Some body proportions showed abrupt changes from preflexion to postflexion larvae before it stabilized during the early juvenile stage. Pigmentation in the form of stellate and punctate melanophores increased with developmental stage, with larvae becoming heavily pigmented from postflexion to early juvenile stage. These morphological changes, together with the full complement of fin rays and squamation observed in specimens larger than 13.4 mm TL, suggest the attainment of the juvenile stage of this species. These morphological changes may explain the food and feeding habits during the early life stages of silver therapon which is critical to their survival and recruitment in the wild and in a mesocosm hatchery environment.
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Conference paperR Yashiro, S Limthammahisorn & U Suntornratana - In BO Acosta, RM Coloso, EGT de Jesus-Ayson & JD Toledo (Eds.), Sustainable aquaculture development for food security in Southeast Asia towards 2020. Proceedings of the Regional Technical Consultation on Sustainable Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia Towards 2020, 2011 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterAquaculture development in Thailand is based on the principle of balance and sustainability. The missions of aquaculture development include the development of fishery products from aquaculture to achieve international quality standards, enhanced sustainability of fishery products from aquaculture, stock enhancement of aquatic resources, and development of research and technology for aquaculture. The national directive aims at increasing production by 5% per year to provide at least 30 kg per person per year of food fish consumption. In recent years, Thailand aquaculture technology developments have increased not only in productivity but also in terms of quality and safety of products throughout the production line. Its development has become more harmonious with the natural environment and more consistent with socioeconomic development. With regard to supply of quality seeds on consistent and sustainable basis, the Department of Fisheries (DoF) supports both the government and private sector hatcheries to produce quality seeds. The Good aquaculture practices (GAPs) and Code of conduct (CoC) which comply with the environmental theme are also applied. Research for broodstock development is aimed at enhancing reproduction by nutritional manipulation and closed recycling water system for broodstock. Promotion of domestication and research in genetic manipulation for broodstock are practiced. Moreover, the regulations of feed quality control have been performed according to the Feed quality act (1982). The Good manufacture practices (GMPs) and HACCP for aqua-feed manufacturing are promoted as voluntary. Currently, the use of ingredients for bio-energy production is emerging in aqua-feed industry. Research to develop suitable alternative protein sources to reduce the use of fish meal is on-going and is being supported by DoF. The expanded scientific information and technology development designed for aquaculture offer significant benefits to both producers and consumers by enhancing the production efficiency and quality of cultivated aquatic species with appropriate culture practices.