The effects of artificial diets on fry production and growth of Oreochromis niloticus breeders
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Tilapia breeders were fed with pelleted supplemental diets containing 20 or 40% crude protein at a daily feeding rate of 1% of fish biomass for 24 weeks in cages and tanks. Breeders were weighed and fry were collected at 3-week intervals. The 40% protein diet consistently gave the highest fry production and growth of breeders. The 20% protein diet gave variable results; fry production and growth were comparable to those of breeders fed with the 40% protein diet in some trials but significantly low in others. Breeders without supplemental feeding invariably had the least number of fry and the lowest body weights.
Contribution No. 153 of the Aquaculture Department, SEAFDEC.
CitationSantiago, C. B., Aldaba, M. B., Abuan, E. F., & Laron, M. A. (1985). The effects of artificial diets on fry production and growth of Oreochromis niloticus breeders.
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Conference paperAC Fermin & AQ Hurtado - In LMB Garcia (Ed.), Responsible Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia. Proceedings of the Seminar-Workshop on Aquaculture Development … Southeast Asia organized by the SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department, 12-14 October 1999, Iloilo City, Philippines, 2001 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterThis paper reviews the progress of mollusc and seaweed research at SEAFDEC AQD from 1995 to 1999. Because of the pressing need for seedstocks for stocking, research on the donkey s ear abalone, Haliotis asinina focused on the development of seed production and culture techniques. To improve the spawning performance and egg/larvae production of captive broodstock studies on reproductive biology, management of broodstock and development of diet were conducted. Studies to refine techniques for post-larval settlement and metamorphosis and development nursery rearing techniques were carried out to increase production of abalone juveniles. An artificial diet has been developed to enhance growth rates of juveniles during nursery as well as grow-out. However, since long-term use of artificial feeds did not favor the growth and survival of abalone during grow-out culture in tanks due to difficulties in maintaining water quality, sequential feeding with artificial diets and then seaweed Gracilariopsis bailinae seemed more practical. Broodstock development and seed production were the major research areas for the window-pane oyster Placuna placenta. Gonad development was enhanced by feeding a mixture of high densities of Isochrysis galbana and Tetraselmis tetrahele at a 3:1 ratio. P. placenta larvae reared with Isochrysis as feed showed best growth and survival. Settling stage was reached after 14 days of rearing. A salinity of 34 ppt was optimal for larval survival. Poor growth and survival of larvae was observed at low (10 ppt) and high salinity (40 ppt) levels. Re-stocking immature adults and juveniles was conducted in a depleted coastal bed to evaluate potentials for recruitment of the window-pane oyster. After 91 days, a survival rate of 51% was observed among immature adults. No juveniles survived after re-stocking. Studies on seaweeds focused on three economically important genera of red algae: (1) Gracilaria, (2) Gracilariopsis, and (3) Kappaphycus. These studies are in recognition of Gracilaria and Gracilariopsis as agarophytes and Kappaphycus as carrageenophyte having significant roles in the seaweed industry. Research studies therefore aimed to optimize culture techniques for and to develop environment-friendly aquaculture of these seaweeds. Optimization of biomass production was attempted by manipulating the nutrient environment, biomass density, the proportion of harvested biomass, and crop quality for conversion to agar and carrageenan. The use of G. bailinae as a bio-filter focused on the capacity of the seaweed and its agar to sequester heavy metals like cadmium copper, lead and zinc after exposure to various concentrations of these metals. Likewise, excess levels of nitrogen and phosphorus in a finfish broodstock tank with re-circulating water were reduced, demonstrating the efficiency of the seaweed as a bio-filter in aquaculture. Eco-physiological studies of Gracilaria changii, G. coronopifolia, G. firma, and G. bailinae involved the mass production of spores-in vitro as a possible source of seedlings for outplanting. A socioeconomic survey of Kappaphycus culture in the Philippines revealed that, although expensive, deep-sea farming of K. alvarezii using the multiple raft long-line technique was more productive and profitable than the traditional mono-line or the popularly practiced hanging long-line technique.
Conference paperED Gomez, PC Cabaitan & KC Vicentuan - In JH Primavera, ET Quinitio & MR Eguia (Eds.), Proceedings of the Regional Technical Consultation on Stock Enhancement for Threatened Species of International Concern, Iloilo City, Philippines, 13-15 July 2005, 2006 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterRecently, the Pew Project (2001 to 2005) of the senior author entitled ‘Coral reef habitat and productivity enhancement through coral transplantation and giant clam restocking’ was implemented with the aim to improve the biodiversity and productivity of stressed coral reef habitats in 10 selected demonstration sites in the Philippines. These were meant to serve as models for other communities. Transplantation of corals and reseeding of giant clams were the approaches. Nubbins or small fragments from nearby large coral colonies and abundant solitary forms were transplanted to the target sites. Care was exercised to avoid or reduce any negative impacts on the natural source communities. Only cultured giant clams were used, specifically the threatened Tridacna gigas at sizes that would ensure their chances of survival in the wild (approximately 20-30 cm shell length). Following deployment, monitoring activities were undertaken, focusing on macro-invertebrates and fish, as well as the assessment of the survival and growth of experimental animals. Liaison work was done with local communities to raise their environmental awareness and to ensure their cooperation. This manuscript draws principally from results of the Pew Project. At present, two other restoration projects supported by the European Union and the Global Environment Facility Coral Reef Targeted Research Project are being implemented at the Bolinao Marine Laboratory of the University of the Philippines Marine Science Institute (UP-MSI) in Pangasinan. These projects are testing the efficiency of floating and standing coral nurseries in growing coral nubbins in addition to transplanting fragments or branches of corals to restore degraded coral reefs.
Book chapterMRR Romana-Eguia, MA Laron & MR Catacutan - In MR Hasan & MB New (Eds.), On-farm feeding and feed management in aquaculture, 2013 - Food and Agriculture Organization
Series: FAO fisheries and aquaculture technical paper; No. 583The contribution of the Philippines to tilapia production in Asia has increased steadily in the past five years as it addresses hunger and poverty alleviation in the region. Commercial tilapia aquaculture in the Philippines has improved as farmers have become aware of the importance of adopting innovative husbandry technologies. These include the use of intensive culture, using novel feed ingredients, improving the quality of industrial aquafeeds, adopting cost- effective feeding strategies and efficient pond fertilization methods, and culturing improved genetic strains. A case study was conducted to: a) assess current tilapia feed management practices; b) determine recent nutrition-based innovations that include the use of alternative feed ingredients, the adoption of nutritionally complete commercial tilapia feeds, and improvements to feed management practices; and c) evaluate these factors in terms of improved production efficiencies. Thirty-two farmers from selected tilapia cage hatcheries, pond hatcheries, grow- out cages and ponds in Regions III and IV-A (known major tilapia producing regions in the Philippines) were interviewed. The issues addressed included their farm management practices, with particular focus on tilapia feed preferences; quality, procurement and storage methods; and feeding strategies. Their responses were collated and analysed in the context of information simultaneously gathered from the scientific literature, popular publications and relevant websites. The results from the case study highlight the importance of farmers being trained and remaining well-informed about recent improvements in feed technologies and the use of efficient cost-saving feeding strategies to optimize the production of seed and marketable tilapia. Recommendations on how to increase tilapia production through improved feed and feed management practices are described. Finally, recommendations for local regulatory agencies to implement aquafeed quality and nutrient standards are provided.