Studies on the digestive proteases of the milkfish Chanos chanos
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The protease activity of crude extracts from various organs of the digestive tract of two groups of milkfish was determined. One group (Sample A) derived their food from ponds that had predominantly unicellular algae while the other group (Sample B) were reared on ponds dominated by the filamentous green algae Chaetomorpha brachygona . In general, crude extracts from Sample A fish had a higher protease activity than Sample B fish. In both samples, high protease activity was observed in crude extracts from the pyloric caeca, intestines and pancreas. Chymotryptic activity was observed in crude extracts of pancreas, intestines and pyloric caeca of both fish samples. Tryptic activity was, however, observed only in fish grown on unicellular algae. Experimental evidence suggests that a powerful trypsin inhibitor in Chaetomorpha brachygona may account for the absence of tryptic activity in all crude extracts of Sample B fish. The presence of this inhibitor may also explain the widely observed poor growth rate of milkfish reared on this natural food.
SEAFDEC contribution no. 112.
CitationBenitez, L. V., & Tiro Jr., L. B. (1982). Studies on the digestive proteases of the milkfish Chanos chanos.
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Lactate dehydrogenase isozyme patterns during the development of milkfish, (Chanos chanos (Forskal)) PD Requintina, LM Engle & LV Benitez -
Kalikasan, The Philippine Journal of Biology, 1981 - University of the Philippines at Los BañosPolyacrylamide disc gel electrophoresis was done to determine the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) isozyme patterns for fry (5-3 mg), fingerling (6-12 g), pond-size (150-250 g) and adult (6-9 kg) milkfish. The patterns were tissue specific; the different tissues examined, viz., eye, liver, heart, and skeletal muscle had different expressions of LDH isozymes. The resolved patterns appeared to be products of LDH gene loci A, B, and C. Subunits A and B were present in all tissues. A4 and B4 were predominant in skeletal and heart muscle, respectively; the two associated non-randomly in vivo and formed only the heteropolymers A3B and AB3. A liver band, L4, was most conspicuous in the fingerling, pond-size, and adult; it was assumed to be coded by locus C. A negatively charged band, X4, was detected in fully developed ovary and in fry homogenized as whole individuals, but it could not be resolved in tissues of fingerling. Six-mo old stunts and 3-mo old fingerlings had similar LDH patterns for all tissues examined. The patterns for 11-mo old stunts and fingerlings also were similar but the one for the eye of the former was the same pattern resolved for the eye of adults. There was no change in the LDH isozyme patterns of milk fish stunted for 6 mo under different salinity levels (0-5, 15-20, 32-35 ppt).
Conference paperLV Benitez - In RD Fortes, LC Darvin & DL de Guzman (Eds.), Fish and crustacean feeds and nutrition : Proceedings of the seminar-workshop on fish and crustacean feeds and nutrition held on 25-26 February 1985 at UPV, Iloilo City, 1989 - Philippine Council for Aquatic and Marine Research and DevelopmentThis paper reviews recent work on milkfish nutrition. Substantial progress had been made towards understanding the digestive physiology of milkfish. Major enzaymes envolved in the digestions of carbohydrates, protein and lipids had been detected in the pyloric caece, intestines and pancreas of milkfish. The most active carbohydrates were involved in the hydrolysis of α - glocosidic bonds. Intestinal amylase activity consistently reached the peak at about noon when milkfish gut was full. This confirms that milkfish is s daytime feeder. No cellulase activity was detected in any region orf the digertive treat although the fish relies heavily algae and other plant source for food. Trypsin, chymotrypsin and general proteases were also detected in milkfish digestive tract. A powerful milkfish trypsin inhabitor was detected in the filementous algae, Chaetomorpha brachygona which is predominant species in lumot. Lipass in the pancreas and intestines had two pH optima, suggesting a physiologic versatility for lipid digestion in milkfish. There is a limit information on the nutrient requirement of milkfish. Most studies showed that milkfish fry has a dietary requirement of 40% protein, and 7-10 lipid. Studies on the protein-energy requirement of fingerlings suggested that 30-40% protein, 10% fat and 25% carbohydrates are required. Subsequent studies showed an optimum protein energy to total metabolizable energy ratio of 44.4%. Amino acid test diets for milkfish had been formulated to contain white fish meal, gelatin and approprate amino acid mix.
BookER Cruz-Lacierda, EG Estante, EGT de Jesus-Ayson & VL Corre Jr. - 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterThis monograph provides updated information on diseases of marine and brackishwater cultured milkfish in the Philippines. The information presented here is largely based on the results of a three-year research project on milkfish at the University of the Philippines Visayas funded by the Department of Science and Technology (DOST). The project involved surveillance and monitoring of hatchery, nursery and grow-out operations for occurrence of diseases as well as on disease diagnosis, prevention and control. Previously documented reports in the Philippines and in other documents, both published and unpublished, are also included in this monograph. The diseases are discussed on a culture phase basis, that is, disease problems encountered in hatchery-reared larvae and fry are listed first, followed by diseases observed in fingerlings and juveniles grown in nursery and grow-out culture areas, and adult stages maintained in broodstock facilities. Information regarding the causative agent, diagnostic procedures, and methods of prevention and control for each disease are provided, if available.