Lipid and fatty acid composition of brackishwater- and freshwater-reared milkfish (Chanos chanos Forskal)
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Lipid and fatty acid composition of the various sections of brackishwater- and freshwater-reared milkfish were determined by chromatographic methods. Lipids consisted mainly of the neutral type, which in turn was composed primarily of triglycerides and cholesterol esters. Palmitic and stearic acids were the predominant saturated fatty acids in both types of fish, although the brackishwaterreared milkfish contained more palmitic acid and the freshwater-reared milkfish more stearic acid. Unsaturated fatty acids of C16 and C18 were more characteristic of the freshwater-reared milkfish lipid, while those of C20 and C22 were the major acids of the brackishwater-reared milkfish lipid. Saturation and unsaturation in the fatty acid composition characterized both types of fish although the brackishwater-reared milkfish lipids had fatty acids of higher unsaturations (C20 and C22).
CitationBautista, M. N., del Valle, M. J., & Orejana, F. M. (1991). Lipid and fatty acid composition of brackishwater- and freshwater-reared milkfish (Chanos chanos Forskal).
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Conference paperLV Benitez - In RD Fortes, LC Darvin & DL de Guzman (Eds.), Fish and crustacean feeds and nutrition : Proceedings of the seminar-workshop on fish and crustacean feeds and nutrition held on 25-26 February 1985 at UPV, Iloilo City, 1989 - Philippine Council for Aquatic and Marine Research and DevelopmentThis paper reviews recent work on milkfish nutrition. Substantial progress had been made towards understanding the digestive physiology of milkfish. Major enzaymes envolved in the digestions of carbohydrates, protein and lipids had been detected in the pyloric caece, intestines and pancreas of milkfish. The most active carbohydrates were involved in the hydrolysis of α - glocosidic bonds. Intestinal amylase activity consistently reached the peak at about noon when milkfish gut was full. This confirms that milkfish is s daytime feeder. No cellulase activity was detected in any region orf the digertive treat although the fish relies heavily algae and other plant source for food. Trypsin, chymotrypsin and general proteases were also detected in milkfish digestive tract. A powerful milkfish trypsin inhabitor was detected in the filementous algae, Chaetomorpha brachygona which is predominant species in lumot. Lipass in the pancreas and intestines had two pH optima, suggesting a physiologic versatility for lipid digestion in milkfish. There is a limit information on the nutrient requirement of milkfish. Most studies showed that milkfish fry has a dietary requirement of 40% protein, and 7-10 lipid. Studies on the protein-energy requirement of fingerlings suggested that 30-40% protein, 10% fat and 25% carbohydrates are required. Subsequent studies showed an optimum protein energy to total metabolizable energy ratio of 44.4%. Amino acid test diets for milkfish had been formulated to contain white fish meal, gelatin and approprate amino acid mix.
Lactate dehydrogenase isozyme patterns during the development of milkfish, (Chanos chanos (Forskal)) PD Requintina, LM Engle & LV Benitez -
Kalikasan, The Philippine Journal of Biology, 1981 - University of the Philippines at Los BañosPolyacrylamide disc gel electrophoresis was done to determine the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) isozyme patterns for fry (5-3 mg), fingerling (6-12 g), pond-size (150-250 g) and adult (6-9 kg) milkfish. The patterns were tissue specific; the different tissues examined, viz., eye, liver, heart, and skeletal muscle had different expressions of LDH isozymes. The resolved patterns appeared to be products of LDH gene loci A, B, and C. Subunits A and B were present in all tissues. A4 and B4 were predominant in skeletal and heart muscle, respectively; the two associated non-randomly in vivo and formed only the heteropolymers A3B and AB3. A liver band, L4, was most conspicuous in the fingerling, pond-size, and adult; it was assumed to be coded by locus C. A negatively charged band, X4, was detected in fully developed ovary and in fry homogenized as whole individuals, but it could not be resolved in tissues of fingerling. Six-mo old stunts and 3-mo old fingerlings had similar LDH patterns for all tissues examined. The patterns for 11-mo old stunts and fingerlings also were similar but the one for the eye of the former was the same pattern resolved for the eye of adults. There was no change in the LDH isozyme patterns of milk fish stunted for 6 mo under different salinity levels (0-5, 15-20, 32-35 ppt).
Conference paperEO Tan, DL de Guzman, LC Darvin & MC Balgos - In JV Juario, RP Ferraris & LV Benitez (Eds.), Advances in milkfish biology and culture: Proceedings of the Second International Milkfish Aquaculture Conference, 4-8 October 1983, Iloilo City, Philippines, 1984 - Published by Island Pub. House in association with the Aquaculture Dept., Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center and the International Development Research CentreDevelopment and directions in milkfish (Chanos chanos ) research in the Philippines from 1976 to the present are reviewed and analyzed. The problems of milkfish culture are dichotomous: low productivity vis-a-vis seasons of glut and price fluctuations. To intensify fish production extensive research has been conducted on fertilizer management, reclamation of acid sulfate soils, and pond construction and engineering. Research efforts have also been heavily directed toward increasing fry production through artificial propagation, improvement of fry collecting gear, and increasing fry survival through nutrition, control of parasites, and proper handling. Research on improved icing, packaging, and processing techniques along with market analysis are necessary for maximizing economic returns.