Milkfish (Chanos chanos) fingerling production in freshwater ponds with the use of natural and artificial feeds
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Milkfish fry were reared to fingerling size in freshwater ponds. For the first experiment, fish were fed the blue-green algae Oscillatoria inoculated and grown in the ponds, Oscillatoria supplemented with a fishmeal-based formulated diet, and the formulated diet alone. Twelve 50-m2 earthen ponds were prepared to enhance growth of the indigenous natural foods. Acclimated wild milkfish fry were stocked randomly at 90/m2 and were fed for 6 weeks. Milkfish fed the formulated diet alone had a significantly higher (P<0.05) mean weight gain (1.314±0.201 g) than milkfish given the combination of Oscillatoria and formulated diet (0.882±0.230 g). Growth was lowest for fish fed Oscillatoria alone. The feeding treatments in the second experiment were: combination of Spirulina powder and formulated diet, formulated diet alone, and rice bran alone. The stocking rate was equivalent to 91.5–92.5 fry/m2 and feeding lasted for 7 weeks. All feeds promoted some growth but the milkfish fed the formulated diet alone invariably had the highest weight increment (1.504±0.167 g), followed by fish given the feed combination (0.881±0.140 g). Rice bran alone gave the lowest growth response. For both pond experiments, growth trends of the young milkfish were similar to those grown under laboratory conditions. Although survival rates were significantly different in one aquarium experiment, survival rates of milkfish in ponds did not differ significantly (P>0.05) among treatments.
CitationSantiago, C. B., Pantastico, J. B., Baldia, S. F., & Reyes, O. S. (1989). Milkfish (Chanos chanos) fingerling production in freshwater ponds with the use of natural and artificial feeds.
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Book chapterVR Alava - In OM Millamena, RM Coloso & FP Pascual (Eds.), Nutrition in Tropical Aquaculture: Essentials of fish nutrition, feeds, and feeding of tropical aquatic species, 2002 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterThis chapter teaches the reader to: differentiate the different feeding strategies in pond culture; learn feeding management methods such as stock sampling and record keeping, calculating daily feed ration, choosing appropriate feed size, and methods of applying feeds; understand the impact of feeding management on water quality and environment and on the cultured animal’s growth, survival, and feed conversion ratio; and describe the different feeding schemes used to culture fishes (milkfish, tilapia, rabbitfish, bighead carp, native catfish, sea bass, orange-spotted grouper, and mangrove red snapper; and crustaceans (tiger shrimp and mud crab). Other species for aquaculture stock enhancement (donkey’s ear abalone, seahorses, window-pane oyster) are also discussed.
Conference paperDL Lee & IC Liao - In Proceedings of the International Milkfish Workshop Conference, May 19-22, 1976, Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines, 1976 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterIn studying the nutritional requirements of young milkfish experiments were conducted to develop a purified test diet. Mixtures of the purified constituents tested were: vitamin-free casein, vitamin-free gelatin, supplemented with L-tryptophan and L-cystine as the protein sources; shark liver oil and soybean oil as the far sources; and dextrin as the carbohydrate source. Mineral mixture and vitamin mixture were also added. The results showed that a test diet containing vitamin-free casein supplemented with L-tryptophan as the protein source, was best for the growth of young milkfish. Soybean oil was found to be a better source of fat. Vitamin mixture (4%) and mineral mixture (10%) were observed to promote growth in young milkfish. A purified test diet consisting of vitamin-free casein 60%, L-tryptophan 0.5%, soybean oil 10%, vitamin mixture 4%, mineral mixture 10%, carbohydrate and others 16% was thus suggested for young milkfish.
Conference paperRM Coloso - In MR Catacutan, RM Coloso & BO Acosta (Eds.), Development and Use of Alternative Dietary Ingredients or Fish Meal Substitutes in Aquaculture Feed Formulation … Ingredients or Fish Meal Substitutes in Aquaculture Feed Formulation, 9-11 December 2014, Nay Pyi Taw, Myanmar, 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterFish production from aquaculture in Asia has steadily increased during the past decade. In 2012, Asia s share in the total world aquaculture production was about 89% with 60 M metric tons valued at US$ 120 B. ASEAN Member States such as Viet Nam, Indonesia, Thailand, Myanmar, and the Philippines are among the top producers in Asia contributing 9 M metric tons of production from aquaculture valued at US$ 19 B (FAO, 2014). To sustain the production and profitability of aquaculture operations, reducing costs is needed mainly through feeds and feeding which represent up to 60% of operational costs. Reductions in feeding costs can be realized through optimizing nutrient levels of diets, feeding strategies, and by using plant protein sources as fish meal substitutes. As more intensive methods for production of the top five commodities (carps, tilapia, milkfish, catfish, and Pangasius sp.) become popular in ASEAN Member States, practical feeds need to be formulated using plant protein sources that are locally available. Plant protein sources such as soy proteins and corn gluten have been used as partial or total replacements for fish meal quite extensively in aquafeed for the top aquaculture commodities because of their high protein content (40-60%) and good digestibility. Other alternative dietary protein sources with emphasis on oilseed meals, peas and other leguminous seed meals, leaf meals from terrestrial plants, aquatic plants, plant protein concentrates, single cell proteins, cereal by products, fermentation and other products have been or are currently being evaluated as fish meal substitutes for their nutritive values, inclusion levels, constraints in processing mainly to reduce the effects of anti-nutritional factors as well as economic value. The proper use of these ingredients would promote good fish growth, survival, production, and boost the income of small scale farmers. Testing of aquaculture feeds containing these local ingredients will help the regional as well as worldwide research and development efforts and ultimately benefit the local small scale fish farmers and other stakeholders.