Food value of Brachionus plicatilis fed three selected algal species as live food for milkfish, Chanos chanos Forsskal, fry production
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The effects of three selected algal species, Tetraselmis tetrahele, Isochrysis galbana and marine Chlorella sp. on the population growth of Brachionus plicatilis was evaluated after 3, 5 and 7 days of culture. The rotifers fed on T. tetrahele showed superior growth with mean peak density of 92.5 individuals per ml to those fed on I. galbana (48.2 individuals per ml) and Chlorella sp. (47.2 individuals per ml) in 5 days. In another experiment, milkfish. Chanos chanos Forsskal, fry with initial mean body weight and standard length of 6.26 ± 1.07mg and 13.04 ± 1.40mm, respectively, were fed B. plicatilis reared on the three algal species for 30 days. Results showed that growth, measured in terms of gain in weight and length, was significantly different (P > 0.05) among treatments. Fastest growth was obtained in fry fed B. plicatilis cultured on T. tetrahele with mean gains in weight and length of 61.48 ± 8.40mg and 9.37 ± 1.68 mm, respectively, followed by fry fed B. plicatilis reared on I. galbana (43.56 ± 8.35mg and 6.25 ± 0.48mm). Milkfish fry fed B. plicatilis cultured on Chlorella sp. gave the poorest growth with mean gains in weight and length of 11.05 ± 1.82mg and 2.33 ± 0.29mm, respectively. Percentage survival ranged from 93.1 to 95.3 percent and was not significantly different between treatments (P < 0.05). The differences in population growth of B. plicatilis and consequently growth of milkfish fry was almost certainly attributed to the differences observed in the biological values of their algal diet, and in particular their protein and lipid contents. T. tetrahele and I. galbana improved the food value of B. plicatilis as live food for the milkfish fry. Their high dietary value was related to the higher algal protein and fat levels and contents of n-3 HUFA particularly 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 compared to B. plicatilis cultured on Chlorella sp. The results of the present study point to T. tetrahele as the most suitable food for the mass culture of the rotifer, B. plicatilis.
Villegas, C. T., Millamena, O., & Escritor, F. (1990). Food value of Brachionus plicatilis fed three selected algal species as live food for milkfish, Chanos chanos Forsskal, fry production. Aquaculture Research, 21(2), 213–220. (new journal title)
CitationVillegas, C. T., Millamena, O., & Escritor, F. (1990). Food value of Brachionus plicatilis fed three selected algal species as live food for milkfish, Chanos chanos Forsskal, fry production.
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The effect of tank color and rotifer density on rotifer ingestion, growth and survival of milkfish (Chanos chanos) larvae MN Duray -
The Philippine Scientist, 1995 - San Carlos Publications, University of San CarlosThe effect of tank color on rotifer ingestion, early growth and survival of milkfish larvae was assessed. The larvae were stocked at 30/L in 200-L fiberglass tanks coated black or unpainted (tan). Larvae were fed rotifers at densities of 5, 10, and 15/ml. Growth and survival were higher in black tanks than in tan tanks. Rotifers ingested were also higher in larvae reared in black tanks. In black tanks, the survival of the larvae was enhanced at high rotifer density of 15/ml. Rotifer ingestion and growth of larvae improved at higher feeding levels.
Qualitative analysis of the contents of the anterior portion of the oesophagus from adult milkfish, Chanos chanos, captured in Pandan Bay from 10 May-June 1975 AC Villaluz, LB Tiro, LM Ver & WE Vanstone - In Proceedings of the International Milkfish Workshop Conference, May 19-22, 1976, Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines, 1976 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterQualitative analysis of food items in the anterior spiral portion of the oesophagus suggests that adult milkfish feed on both benthic and planktonic materials.
Conference paperCL Marte & JD Toledo - In MRR Romana-Eguia, FD Parado-Estepa, ND Salayo & MJH Lebata-Ramos (Eds.), Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia: Challenges in Responsible Production … International Workshop on Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia 2014 (RESA), 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterThe basic procedures for producing marine fish fry in hatcheries developed for milkfish fry production nearly 3 decades ago are the basis of fry production systems for all other marine fish species that are now reared in hatcheries in the Philippines and other Southeast Asian countries. These include large-scale microalgae production in outdoor tanks, feeding of appropriate sized rotifer grown on microalgae such as Nannochlorum during the first feeding phase, and shifting to larger prey such as Artemia towards the latter stages of production. In recent years, the increasing demand for high-value species such as groupers, sea bass, red snapper, and pompano in both local and export markets has encouraged a number of hatcheries to produce fry to supply the requirements of fish cage farmers. Techniques are modified using information from research institutions and multi-national firms active in developing products and equipment to improve commercial production of these species. Larval feeds of appropriate sizes, forms and presentation for various larval stages incorporating essential nutrients, micronutrients, and feed stimulants are now available in the market. Diseases in marine fish hatcheries have become common occurrences such that various chemotherapeutants, vaccines, and immunostimulants are now available and increasingly being applied in fish hatcheries. Technological developments in hatchery systems, such as the use of recirculating systems, water pretreatment protocols (ozonation, mircrofiltration, UV light treatment) are also increasingly being adopted by commercial establishments. A critical link between fry production and production of marketable fish is fingerling/ juvenile production in nurseries. Fry are commonly grown in brackishwater fishponds to appropriate size for stocking in fish cages. Methods to improve growth through proper feeding and nutrition, eliminate or reduce disease occurrence and parasite infestation, reduce cannibalism in cannibalistic species such as sea bass, grouper and snappers are active areas of research. Nursery production is integrated with fry production in large commercial facilities but is also done by small-scale fish farmers who have access to fry either from the wild or hatcheries. Commercial hatcheries adopt fingerling production from well-studied species in developed countries. Smallscale farmers however still rely on zooplanktons collected from the wild such as copepods, Moina, mysids, and trash fish as feed. Production is dependent on availability of feed sources and susceptibility to pathogens and parasites that come with the feed. It can also be erratic since smallscale farms are vulnerable to changes in climate and weather conditions. Further technological advancement in marine fish hatcheries will increasingly be led by commercial establishments and industries developing equipment like photobioreactor for microalgae to produce algal paste, or methods to develop intensive systems for rotifer culture. Research institutions will however need to support the needs of the small-scale farmers and hatchery operators who may not be able to apply costly products from these companies by developing innovative simple techniques that can improve culture systems such as producing fry and fingerlings in mesocosm pond system, appropriate use of probiotics as water stabilizer, and production of zooplankton in ponds.