Nursery and grow-out operation and management of Penaeus monodon (Fabricius)
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The results of research on nursery and grow-out rearing of prawn conducted by the SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department for over a decade are reviewed. Different rearing facilities designed to accommodate hatchery-produced prawn fry are presented with corresponding data on growth, survival and production. Studies on stocking density, fertilization/natural food production, water management, feeds and feeding schemes and harvest/post-harvest handling are evaluated and viable technology identified. Diseases, pests and predators and other factors considered as production constraints are also mentioned. The success in hatchery operation for prawn coupled by the gradual emergence of nursery and grow-out rearing technology have triggered off a technology-dependent prawn industry. When SEAFDEC AQD was established in 1973, there were very few commercial prawn monoculture ventures in the country. Prawn pond production was mostly an incidental crop in milkfish culture. At present, various prawn grow-out techniques ranging from extensive, semi-intensive and intensive culture systems are in practice. SEAFDEC AQD focused its research on the extensive and semi-intensive culture systems which are within the reach of most farmers in contrast to the intensive system that is highly capital-intensive. There have been much work done in nursery and grow-out operations, but much remains to be done in research, among which are the development of nutritionally-efficient and low-cost feed, control of diseases, etc.
Corre, K. G. (1988). Nursery and grow-out operation and management of Penaeus monodon (Fabricius). In J. V. Juario & L. V. Benitez (Eds.), Perspectives in Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia and Japan: Contributions of the SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department. Proceedings of the Seminar on Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia, 8-12 September 1987, Iloilo City, Philippines. (pp. 249-267). Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines: SEAFDEC, Aquaculture Department. http://hdl.handle.net/10862/134
PublisherAquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
Stocking density; Fish handling; Shrimp culture; Feed; Extensive culture; Fry; Husbandry diseases; Pond culture; Disease control; Survival; Biological fertilization; Aquaculture systems; Aquaculture economics; Intensive culture; Aquaculture facilities; Water management; Feeding experiments; Parasitic diseases; Aquaculture techniques; Crustacean larvae; Penaeus monodon; Philippines
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Conference paperS Mito - In JV Juario & LV Benitez (Eds.), Seminar on Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia, 8-12 September 1987, Iloilo City, Philippines, 1988 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterAlong with the growth of the national economy, aquaculture in Japan has steadily developed in recent years. From 1976 to 1985, production of cultured fish and shellfish increased by 28% from 927 thousand mt to 1184 thousand mt. The contribution of aquaculture to total domestic production constituted 22% in value and 9.7% in weight for 1985. Increase in aquaculture production may be attributed to stronger domestic consumer demand for high grade fish products. The principal species for culture include sea bream (Pagrus major), black sea bream (Acanthopagrus schelegi), yellowtail (Seriola guinqueradiata), Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus), pufferfish (Takifugu rubrives), Kuruma ebi (Penaeus japonicus), abalone (Nordicus discus), blood ark shell (Scapharca broughtonii) and edible seaweeds (Porphyra, Undaria, Laminaria). Rapid strides in improved culture techniques have been attained in seed production, grow-out, harvest and disease control in these various species. Present trend show increasing reliance on cultured rather than fishery products to meet market demand. In some species, e.g., coho salmon, rainbow trout, oyster and laver, production depends entirely on culture. In other species, production by aquaculture contribute a significant portion to total production. However, to maintain the balance between supply and demand for certain principal aquaculture products, controlled production is now being practised for certain species. In addition to these trends, technical improvements in aquaculture has led to a decrease in the number of management units and area of facilities devoted to production. In the future, greater efforts will be directed to diversify the species cultured to suit consumer preference. Emphasis will also be placed on improving taste and texture of cultured products. New types of feed that will not pollute areas around the culture facilities will be developed. Remarkable achievements in biotechnology will also be applied in aquaculture to improve seed quality. Parallel with developments in aquaculture, Japan is exerting greater efforts to propagate fishery resources in coastal waters through stock enhancement activities. This is aimed at establishing a multiple fish and shellfish propagation system in the seas surrounding Japan to maintain or increase production from fishery resources.
Conference paperH Sako - In TU Bagarinao & EEC Flores (Eds.), Towards sustainable aquaculture in Southeast Asia and Japan: Proceedings of the Seminar-Workshop on Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia, Iloilo City, Philippines, 26-28 July, 1994, 1995 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterLosses of cultured marine and freshwater fishes due to diseases averaged about 20,000 tons each year or 6% of the aquaculture production in Japan in 1980-1991. During this last decade, bacterial diseases have been responsible for most of the losses. Three trends are evident from epidemiological data. First, diseases caused by bacteria with multiple drug resistance are prevalent, and these are difficult to overcome by chemotherapy. Second, parasitic diseases and viral diseases that are practically impossible to cure are increasing. Third, some diseases seem to originate in juveniles (seed) imported from other countries. Further research should focus on: (1) improving dietary and environmental conditions, (2) giving the host animals resistance against disease through methods such as vaccination, and (3) developing diagnostic and disinfection procedures for epidemics. Active exchange of information is necessary to prevent, or alleviate the effects of, the spread of diseases through international export and import of juveniles.
Conference paperO Lang & M Sothea - In RV Pakingking Jr., EGT de Jesus-Ayson & BO Acosta (Eds.), Addressing Acute Hepatopancreatic Necrosis Disease (AHPND) and Other Transboundary Diseases for Improved Aquatic … Diseases for Improved Aquatic Animal Health in Southeast Asia, 22-24 February 2016, Makati City, Philippines, 2016 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterThe farming of penaeid shrimps in Cambodia began in 1989 and has significantly expanded since 1991. Shrimp cultivation has been carried out in the four coastal provinces, i.e. Kampot, Kep, Preah Sihanouk Ville, and Koh Kong. Black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) and whiteleg shrimp (P. vannamei) are the main species being cultured extensively and intensively in brackishwater ponds in Kampot, Kep, and Preah Sihanouk Ville, and Koh Kong, respectively. Extensive shrimp ponds were constructed close to the mangrove areas with some containing mangroves within the pond and stocking density ranging from 5,000 to 20,000 postlarvae/ha. However, the productivity remains low at >100 kg/ ha/ year. On the contrary, intensive culture has a stocking density ranging from 300,000 to 500,000 postlarvae/ha. While high cost of investment for farm establishment, pond construction and farm operation are required, productions of newly established farms have reached 7 to 8 metric tons (MT) /ha per crop. The occurrence of white spot disease, monodon baculovirus disease, and yellow head disease was first reported in 1999 among cultured P. monodon in Koh Kong province causing a number of farmers to stop the intensive cultivation of black tiger shrimp. To date, only a small proportion of shrimp farmers have ventured into extensive shrimp farming with approximately 10 ha of shrimp areas currently in operation. To mitigate the negative impacts of shrimp diseases and promote the expansion of the shrimp industry in Cambodia, development of a national reporting system for aquatic animal diseases; capacity building for detection, monitoring and disease surveillance; creation of National Guidelines On Good Shrimp Aquaculture Practices; establishment of subresearch centers and concomitant funding support for marine aquaculture development and extension services; establishment of local shrimp hatcheries and provision of hands-on trainings for farmers; and strengthening collaborations among provincial officers, researchers and farmers network should be accordingly instituted.