Perspectives in Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia and Japan: Contributions of the SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department. Proceedings of the Seminar on Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia, 8-12 September 1987, Iloilo City, Philippines.

Contents

Recent Submissions

  • Conference paper

    Summary of workshop recommendations 

    JV Juario & LV Benitez (Eds.) - In JV Juario & LV Benitez (Eds.), Seminar on Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia, 8-12 September 1987, Iloilo City, Philippines, 1988 - SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department
    A special workshop among participants was conducted to assess the status of the aquaculture industry in Southeast Asia, particularly in Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand. Although hatchery, nursery, and grow-out culture techniques had already been developed for most of the economically important species cultured in Southeast Asia, the outcome of the workshop showed that there are still major constraints to be able to increase production. Further studies have to be conducted to have greater control of factors that lead to better production. The participants prioritized the economically important species and the research area for each species for the Region.
  • Conference paper

    Aquaculture development in Japan 

    S Mito - In JV Juario & LV Benitez (Eds.), Seminar on Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia, 8-12 September 1987, Iloilo City, Philippines, 1988 - SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department
    Along with the growth of the national economy, aquaculture in Japan has steadily developed in recent years. From 1976 to 1985, production of cultured fish and shellfish increased by 28% from 927 thousand mt to 1184 thousand mt. The contribution of aquaculture to total domestic production constituted 22% in value and 9.7% in weight for 1985. Increase in aquaculture production may be attributed to stronger domestic consumer demand for high grade fish products.

    The principal species for culture include sea bream (Pagrus major), black sea bream (Acanthopagrus schelegi), yellowtail (Seriola guinqueradiata), Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus), pufferfish (Takifugu rubrives), Kuruma ebi (Penaeus japonicus), abalone (Nordicus discus), blood ark shell (Scapharca broughtonii) and edible seaweeds (Porphyra, Undaria, Laminaria). Rapid strides in improved culture techniques have been attained in seed production, grow-out, harvest and disease control in these various species.

    Present trend show increasing reliance on cultured rather than fishery products to meet market demand. In some species, e.g., coho salmon, rainbow trout, oyster and laver, production depends entirely on culture. In other species, production by aquaculture contribute a significant portion to total production. However, to maintain the balance between supply and demand for certain principal aquaculture products, controlled production is now being practised for certain species. In addition to these trends, technical improvements in aquaculture has led to a decrease in the number of management units and area of facilities devoted to production.

    In the future, greater efforts will be directed to diversify the species cultured to suit consumer preference. Emphasis will also be placed on improving taste and texture of cultured products. New types of feed that will not pollute areas around the culture facilities will be developed. Remarkable achievements in biotechnology will also be applied in aquaculture to improve seed quality.

    Parallel with developments in aquaculture, Japan is exerting greater efforts to propagate fishery resources in coastal waters through stock enhancement activities. This is aimed at establishing a multiple fish and shellfish propagation system in the seas surrounding Japan to maintain or increase production from fishery resources.
  • Other

    List of participants and guest 

    JV Juario & LV Benitez (Eds.) - 1988 - SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department
  • Book | Conference publication

    Perspectives in aquaculture development in Southeast Asia and Japan: proceedings of the Seminar on Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia, Iloilo City, Philippines, 8-12 September 1987 

    JV Juario & LV Benitez (Eds.) - 1988 - SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department
    This proceedings is a comprehensive account of the seminar and contains the papers read and discussed at the sessions, and the recommendations reached and formulated.
  • Conference paper

    Broodstock management and seed production of milkfish 

    CL Marte - In JV Juario & LV Benitez (Eds.), Seminar on Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia, 8-12 September 1987, Iloilo City, Philippines, 1988 - SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department
    Milkfish (Chanos chanos Forsskal) remains one of the cheapest sources of protein for developing countries in Southeast Asia, particularly in the Philippines. The unpredictable supply of wild fry, the only source of seed for the milkfish farmer, contributed largely to the slow growth of the milkfish industry. Research on the artificial propagation of this fish was, therefore, given emphasis.

    Major research achievements in milkfish breeding of the SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department in the last decade include: (1) successful induced spawning of wild and captive breeders using gonadotropin preparations and gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogues (GnRHa); (2) spontaneous maturation and spawning of captive breeders; (3) completion of the life cycle of milkfish in captivity; (4) development of a simple egg-collecting method; and (5) development of techniques for mass production of milkfish fry.

    Information on fry ecology and behavior, larval morphology and physiology were also gathered. These published data constitute the bulk of current knowledge on milkfish biology and natural history.

    Milkfish breeding technology is currently being pilot-tested in several breeding sites of the Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources (BFAR). Spontaneous maturation and spawning of milkfish have been verified in four sites which differ in environmental characteristics. The economic feasibility of producing milkfish fry and the socio-economic impact of artificial propagation of milkfish are now being assessed.
  • Conference paper

    Aquaculture development in Singapore 

    L Cheong - In JV Juario & LV Benitez (Eds.), Seminar on Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia, 8-12 September 1987, Iloilo City, Philippines, 1988 - SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department
    The trend of fish production in Singapore is towards increasing contribution from marine and brackishwater aquaculture. Aquaculture production in 1986 represented 6.8% of local fish production. It is envisaged that this sector will provide about 37.5% of production by 1995. Freshwater aquaculture will focus mainly on production of ornamental fish. Production from farming of freshwater food fish is not likely to increase significantly.

    Commonly farmed marine finfishes are groupers (Epinephelus tauvina), sea bass (Lates calcarifer), and golden snapper (Lutjanus johni). Crustaceans include prawns (Penaeus merguiensis), crabs (Scylla serrata) and mussels (Perna viridis). Of the freshwater finfishes, the most commonly cultured are the grass, silver and bighead carps, red tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus hybrid), Lampam jawa (Puntius gonionotus), marble goby (Oxyleotrix marmorata) and the snakehead (Channa sp.).

    Aquaculture systems use a combination of floating and shorebased techniques. Earthen ponds are utilized for the culture of freshwater carps, floating netcages for marine finfish, ponds and floating netcages for marine crustaceans, and rope culture for mussels. Some research and development studies conducted presently include maturation studies to solve the problem of inconsistent supply of prawn spawners, experiments or use of dry formulated feed to do away with dependency on trash fish as main feed for grow-out marine finfish, and investigations on diseases of prawns under intensive culture.

    Constraints for large-scale production of finfish seeds lie in the large tank facilities required for producing live feed; for nursery operations, time and manpower required for grading and feeding; for growout systems, disease prevention and control; for prawn production, inconsistent spawner supply; and for mussel production, low consumer demand.

    The species with the highest potential for fanning in Singapore is the banana prawn, Penaeus merguiensis as its culture can be intensified and high yields can be obtained.
  • Conference paper

    Training programs of SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department 

    J Honculada-Primavera - In JV Juario & LV Benitez (Eds.), Seminar on Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia, 8-12 September 1987, Iloilo City, Philippines, 1988 - SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department
    With training as one of its three mandated functions, the SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department offered its first training course in 1974. Since then it has trained some 6 519 participants in various degree and non-degree programs. The degree courses are MS. Fisheries (Aquaculture) and M. Aquaculture in collaboration with the University of the Philippines in the Visayas.

    The non-degree programs include regular short-term courses, onsite seminars internship training and practicum for graduating students. The "hands-on" short-term courses cover Prawn Hatchery and Nursery, Marine Finfish Hatchery, Brackishwater Pond Culture, Sanitation and Culture of Bivalves, Freshwater Aquaculture, Aquaculture Management, Aquaculture Engineering, and Aquaculture for Social Scientists. A profile of 637 1982-1986 training participants show 82.3% from Southeast Asia, 79% male and 57.5% from government sector.

    The paper discusses planning and implementation of training programs, funding support (Japanese Government, International Development Research Centre of Canada, FAO Network of Aquaculture Centres in Asia), and future trends.
  • Conference paper

    Nursery and grow-out operation and management of milkfish 

    I Bombeo-Tuburan & DD Gerochi - In JV Juario & LV Benitez (Eds.), Seminar on Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia, 8-12 September 1987, Iloilo City, Philippines, 1988 - SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department
    This paper reviews the results of studies on the pond culture of milkfish Chanos chanos Forsskal at the SEAFDEC Leganes Brackishwater Station, Leganes, Iloilo since its establishment in 1973. Substantial contribution on the nursery system includes increased stocking density and survival through the use of nylon substrates, supplemental feeding with rice bran, the use of hatchery-reared and stunted fingerlings as alternative sources of stocks, and improvements in the acclimation process. Studies on monoculture and polyculture in grow-out ponds investigated the use of stunted fingerlings, kitchen or algal nursery ponds, stock manipulation techniques, increased stocking density using the plankton method, method frequency and quantity of fertilization, modular pond culture system, and initial findings on fish diseases. Constraints setting back increased production in the Philippines are discussed.
  • Conference paper

    Nursery and grow-out operation for tilapia and carp 

    MH Carlos & CB Santiago - In JV Juario & LV Benitez (Eds.), Seminar on Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia, 8-12 September 1987, Iloilo City, Philippines, 1988 - SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department
    Most researches conducted at the Binangonan Freshwater Station of the SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department were directed toward enhancing growth and survival of the young tilapia and carp in the nursery as well as increasing yields in grow-out cages, pens, and ponds. Studies included the culture and evaluation of phytoplankton and zooplankton as feeds of the tilapia and carp fry to fingerlings; determination of protein and amino acid requirements of young Nile tilapia; development of practical dry diets; evaluation of feeding regimes, feeding rates, and feeding frequencies ; and the use of fertilizers in nursery ponds.

    For the grow-out aspect, one of the earliest studies demonstrated the profitability of the monoculture of tilapia in cages which triggered the initial proliferation of tilapia cage culture by the private sector in areas near the Station. Subsequently, supplemental feeds were developed and evaluated; non-conventional feedstuffs were tested as feeds or feed components; and the growth rates of Nile tilapia fingerlings in cages at varying stocking densities were evaluated at three distinct rearing periods covering one year.

    Prior to the successful mass production of bighead carp fingerlings at the Station, studies on polyculture of tilapia, milk fish, and different species of carp were conducted in cages and pens with remarkable results. This led to the technology-verification projects on polyculture at various areas in Laguna Lake. With the availability of freshwater fishponds for research purposes, studies on polyculture in ponds were also conducted.
  • Conference paper

    Farming of mussels and oysters 

    HS Sitoy - In JV Juario & LV Benitez (Eds.), Seminar on Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia, 8-12 September 1987, Iloilo City, Philippines, 1988 - SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department
    This paper reviews the works on mussel and oyster culture conducted from 1975 to 1985 by the Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center Aquaculture Department at Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines. Innovative techniques developed in increasing collection of natural seeds and in improving farming techniques are presented. Results of the work on artificial seed production, bacterial depuration, uptake and elimination of heavy metals by green mussel, investigations on red tides, and microbiology of spoilage are discussed.
  • Conference paper

    Broodstock management and seed production of Penaeus monodon (Fabricius) 

    FD Parado-Estepa & J Honculada-Primavera - In JV Juario & LV Benitez (Eds.), Seminar on Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia, 8-12 September 1987, Iloilo City, Philippines, 1988 - SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department
    Research on the maturation of Penaeus monodon at AQD has focused on three broad areas, namely, reproductive biology and ecology, induced maturation and broodstock management. Studies on reproductive biology provided information on the life cycle, ovarian maturation stages, courtship and mating behavior, minimum size at sexual maturation (sperm occurrence, first spawning), and morphological egg types. Induced maturation has mainly been done through the eyestalk ablation method. Nutritional and environmental parameters were studied to enhance reproductive performance or as an alternative to ablation. Pond-reared and wild broodstock sources and marine pen and land-based tanks as maturation systems were also tested and compared. Size, shape, color, substrate material and other aspects of tank design and construction, sex ratio, stocking density, water management, and other parameters of the management system were also studied and refined.

    Early techniques in larval and postlarval rearing of P. monodon at AQD were based on the community culture method of growing natural food in larval tanks. However, low and inconsistent survival led to a shift in rearing methods toward pure phytoplankton culture grown in separate tanks as food for the larvae. Henceforth, refinement of rearing methods have been conducted to improve larval survival through effective water management, nutrition, and disease control. Efforts are continuously being geared toward making the technology affordable to Filipino farmers.
  • Conference paper

    The Philippine aquaculture industry 

    AS Camacho & N Macalincag-Lagua - In JV Juario & LV Benitez (Eds.), Seminar on Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia, 8-12 September 1987, Iloilo City, Philippines, 1988 - SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department
    The aquaculture sector of the Philippine fishing industry registered the highest growth rate of 12.5% in 1977-1986. The contribution of aquaculture to the total fish production was equivalent to 24% in 1986 compared to only 85 in the early 1970's. In terms of quantity, the mariculture subsector registered the highest growth rate of 10.2% in 1982-1986, whereas in terms of value the brackishwater fishpond subsector showed the highest growth rate of 33%. Meanwhile, freshwater aquaculture production exhibited a negative growth rate due to reduction of activities in Laguna de Bay and the slow expansion in hectarage of the commercial freshwater fishponds.

    Research by several agencies concentrated heavily on the culture of milkfish (Chanos chanos), tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), Chinese carps (Aristichthys nobilis and Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon), and sea bass (Lates calcarifer). Innovations in seaweed, oyster, and mussel farming are also discussed.

    Research directions are presented to assure an ecologically sustainable growth in aquaculture with emphasis on countryside development.
  • Conference paper

    Aquaculture development in Thailand 

    B Sirikul, S Luanprida, K Chaiyakam & R Sriprasert - In JV Juario & LV Benitez (Eds.), Seminar on Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia, 8-12 September 1987, Iloilo City, Philippines, 1988 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    Aquaculture practised in Thailand is in the form of pond culture and cage culture in freshwater, brackishwater and coastal areas. The main species cultured include freshwater prawns, brackishwater shrimp, cockles, mussels, and various freshwater and marine finfishes. There is good potential for increased production from freshwater, brackishwater and marine aquaculture. However, the 1983 production of 145 000 mt represents only about 6% of Thailand's total fish production and production in this subsector has fluctuated widely. It will be several years before aquaculture production will contribute substantially to total production. Nonetheless, the culture of high value species of shrimp and fish could contribute significantly to export earnings during the next 5 to 10 years.

    Conducted primarily by government agencies, research and development are along the lines of increasing seed supply, establishing new culture techniques or improving older ones. The Department of Fisheries (DOF) together with some private companies have ventured into the development and testing of artificial diets for the various cultured species using a variety of indigenous feed stuffs.

    It is estimated that with adequate investments and appropriate support, aquaculture production will increase from 145 000 mt in 1983 to 378 000 mt in 1991, showing an annual increase of about 13% over this period. Major increases would come from bivalve mariculture (131 000 mt), brackishwater ponds (36 000 mt) freshwater ponds (46 000 mt) and brackishwater cage culture (20 000 mt).
  • Other

    Preliminary pages 

    JV Juario & LV Benitez (Eds.) - 1988 - SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department
    Cover page, title page and table of contents.
  • Conference paper

    Development of aquaculture industry in Southeast Asia: An overview 

    HR Rabanal - In JV Juario & LV Benitez (Eds.), Seminar on Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia, 8-12 September 1987, Iloilo City, Philippines, 1988 - SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department
    Southeast Asia, a Subregion of the Asia-Pacific Region, is composed of countries of diverse socio-economic circumstances. Fisheries production, particularly that of the aquaculture sector, is relatively developed and is important to the economy of this area. Some 80 economic aquatic species are the subject of culture. Many of these species, which include fin fish, crustaceans, molluscs, and seaweeds, are produced in consequential quantities.

    Total production from the Subregion in 1983 amounted to about 880 000 mt which represented nine percent of total world aquaculture production in said year, and a 100% increase in the area within the decade (1975-1983). Unit production is comparatively low as it is usually done with the use of the extensive level of management developed after long years of experience by fish farmers. Higher rate of production in recent years is a trend especially for high value and exportable species like the penaeid shrimps. Aquaculture production tends to have accelerated growth while capture fisheries production tends to increase very gradually or levels off.

    Technical and non-technical constraints occur which hinder rapid progress of aquaculture in Southeast Asia. This will require the attention of research institutions and governments. However, bright prospects for future increase in production in this industry are developing in the area. Specific instances to support this forecast are discussed.
  • Conference paper

    Foreword 

    FJ Lacanilao - In JV Juario & LV Benitez (Eds.), Seminar on Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia, 8-12 September 1987, Iloilo City, Philippines, 1988 - SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department
  • Conference paper

    Broodstock management and seed production of tilapia and carp 

    AC Fermin - In JV Juario & LV Benitez (Eds.), Seminar on Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia, 8-12 September 1987, Iloilo City, Philippines, 1988 - SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department
    Bighead (Aristichthys nobilis) and silver (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) carps were reared in ponds, pens and floating cages in Laguna Lake until maturity. Spontaneous gonadal maturation and rematuration of carp broodstock occurred within 2-2.5 years with average weight of 3-4 kg. Under lake conditions, broodstock were not given supplemental feeds. Induced spawning of gravid females was done by intraperitoneal injections using HCG combined with either common carp pituitary homogenates or LHRH-A. Stripping and dry-fertilization of eggs were done 6-8 hr after the final injection. Eggs were incubated in water containing 300-500 ppm Total Hardness. Fertilization and hatching rates were 23-88% and 7-36%, respectively. Post-larval carps were reared in tanks and fine-meshed nylon net cages installed in manured ponds. Tank-reared post-larvae were fed with Brachionus plicatilis and subsequently with Moina macrocopa in combination with powered formulated feeds containing 40% crude protein. Fry were harvested and stocked in nursery cages after 30-45 days of rearing in tanks.

    Four-month old 50-100 g tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) stocked in hapa net cages, tanks or ponds were used for breeding. Egg and fry production was significantly high at 4 females/m2 stocking density Different sex ratios, however, did not affect fry production. Spawning frequency and total growth of broodstock was highest in fry fed formulated diets containing 50% crude protein. Harvesting of fry was done every 15 days during summer months and every 21 days during cold months. Fry were reared in tanks and hapa cages and fed diets containing 35% crude protein. Supplemental feeding in the lake was suspended when productivity reached 3 gC/m2 /day.
  • Conference paper

    Nursery and grow-out operation and management of Penaeus monodon (Fabricius) 

    KG Corre - In JV Juario & LV Benitez (Eds.), Seminar on Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia, 8-12 September 1987, Iloilo City, Philippines, 1988 - SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department
    The results of research on nursery and grow-out rearing of prawn conducted by the SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department for over a decade are reviewed. Different rearing facilities designed to accommodate hatchery-produced prawn fry are presented with corresponding data on growth, survival and production. Studies on stocking density, fertilization/natural food production, water management, feeds and feeding schemes and harvest/post-harvest handling are evaluated and viable technology identified. Diseases, pests and predators and other factors considered as production constraints are also mentioned.

    The success in hatchery operation for prawn coupled by the gradual emergence of nursery and grow-out rearing technology have triggered off a technology-dependent prawn industry. When SEAFDEC AQD was established in 1973, there were very few commercial prawn monoculture ventures in the country. Prawn pond production was mostly an incidental crop in milkfish culture. At present, various prawn grow-out techniques ranging from extensive, semi-intensive and intensive culture systems are in practice. SEAFDEC AQD focused its research on the extensive and semi-intensive culture systems which are within the reach of most farmers in contrast to the intensive system that is highly capital-intensive.

    There have been much work done in nursery and grow-out operations, but much remains to be done in research, among which are the development of nutritionally-efficient and low-cost feed, control of diseases, etc.
  • Conference paper

    Aquaculture development in Malaysia 

    PC Liong, HB Hanafi, ZO Merican & G Nagaraj - In JV Juario & LV Benitez (Eds.), Seminar on Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia, 8-12 September 1987, Iloilo City, Philippines, 1988 - SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department
    Malaysia is a fish-consuming country with fish representing 60% of a total animal protein intake. At an annual per capita consumption of 32 kg some 560 000 mt of fish is required for the projected of 17.5 million people in year 2000.

    Coastal marine capture fisheries, the mainstay of Malaysia's fishsupply, has not shown any increase in landings over the last few years. In fact in 1985 there was a decline of 3.7% compared to 1984 fish landings. This declining contribution of marine fisheries is compensated by an increase in aquaculture production. In 1985, aquaculture contributed 51 709 mt to the total fish supply. This represents 10% of the total fish landings of 514 570 mt or 13% of total table (edible) fish landings.

    Malaysia does not have a long standing aquaculture tradition unlike its neighbours in the Indo-Pacific. Even then, the industry has seen rapid growth in the last few years. Today there are 19 species of finfishes, crustaceans and shellfish cultured in the country. The main freshwater fish species bred and cultured are bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis), grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), common carp (Cyprinus carpio), Indonesian carp (Punctius gonionotus), catfish (Clarias macrocephalus and Pangasius spp), snakefish gourami (Trichogaster pectoralis) and tilapia (mainly Oreochromis niloticus). Marine finfishes bred and cultured are sea bass (Lates calcarifer), grouper (Epinephelus sp.) and snapper (Lutjanus johni). Penaeus monodon is the dominant marine prawn species bred and cultured but culture of P. merguiensis is receiving considerable interest. Macrobrachium rosenbergii is the only freshwater prawn cultured commercially. Molluscs cultured are the blood clam (Anadara granosa) and the green mussel (Perna viridis).

    In 1985, blood clam and mussel culture accounted for 87% of all aquaculture production of Malaysia, freshwater fish 12%, floating cage culture of marine fish 0.7% and brackishwater pond culture 0.3%. In terms of value blood clam and mussels represented 30% (M$15M) of total value (M$49.5M), freshwater fish 57% (M$28M),cage culture of marine fin fishes 7% (M$3.4M),and brackishwater pond production 6% (M$2.1M).

    Aquaculture in Malaysia has considerable growth potential. It is projected that 22 000 ha of mangrove will be opened by the year 2000 for shrimp culture. Some 330 000 m2 of protected coastal waters have been identified for cage culture. Some 6500 rafts can considerably expand the present capacity. In freshwater culture about 8000 ha of land and 17 500 ha of mining pools can be developed while 200 000 ha of artificial lakes and impoundments for freshwater fish cage culture are available. Yet such development is not without constraints. Freshwater finfish culture is hampered by lack of good quality broodstock. There is also a limited market for freshwater finfishes. Marine finfish culture is limited by lack of fingerlings and good quality compounded diet to replace trash fish which is deteriorating in quality and quantity. Marine prawn culture is heavily dependent on wild spawners, the supply unpredictable and inadequate. Acid sulfate soil continues to cause the deterioration of brackishwater ponds. Cockles and mussels can be sold to export markets only if they meet specific quality standards.
  • Conference paper

    Broodstock management and seed production of the rabbitfish Siganus guttatus (Bloch) and the sea bass Lates calcarifer (Bloch) 

    MN Duray & JV Juario - In JV Juario & LV Benitez (Eds.), Seminar on Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia, 8-12 September 1987, Iloilo City, Philippines, 1988 - SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department
    This paper reviews results of studies conducted on the rabbitfish, Siganus guttatus (Bloch) and the sea bass Lates calcarifer (Bloch) at the Aquaculture Department of the Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center. Studies include broodstock development and management, induced breeding, effect of handling stress and diet on egg quality, early life history, food, feeding strategy, weaning to artificial diets, effect of stocking density and salinity on egg development, larval growth and survival, and advancement of metamorphosis in sea bass by using thyroxine.

    A seed production technique had been developed for rabbitfish with survival rates ranging from 5-35% while the seed production technique for sea bass developed in Thailand had been modified to suit local conditions. Based on results from recent morphological and physiological studies, the stocking density, water management, and feeding scheme for the production of rabbitfish and sea bass fry had been modified to reduce cannibalism and improve survival.