Effect of detention time on aerobic waste stabilization pond performance in Southeast Asia
MetadataShow full item record
Cited times in Scopus
The rising level of pollution in rivers, lakes and other bodies of water has created problems of significant magnitude in Southeast Asia. Apart from the aesthetic desirability of clean rivers are the pressing dangers to health and detrimental effects on aquatic life. Pollution of these sources must be controlled so as not to interfere with the waters' legitimate uses. Waste stabilization ponds are well-accepted as an effective and economical means of waste disposal. A "stabilization pond" is an artificially created body of water intended to retain sewage or organic wastes until biological processes have rendered the wastes stable. The stabilization process consists of bacteria and algae interaction. Bacteria oxidize the wastes and produce sludge, carbon dioxide and ammonia. The nutrients produced from bacterial oxidation, along with light energy, supply the requirements for algal photosynthesis. Algae produce oxygen needed to sustain the treatment process. Optimum detention time refers to the average length of time required for waste to become stabilized within a pond. Properly designed and operated, a stabilization pond can provide treatment comparable to a more costly waste treatment plant. However, the design criteria for a particular climate may not be applicable to other climates. This study was conducted to establish suitable detention times for aerobic stabilization ponds in Southeast Asia.
CitationMillamena, O. M. (1994). Effect of detention time on aerobic waste stabilization pond performance in Southeast Asia.
- Journal Articles 
Showing items related by title, author, creator and subject.
ArticleMLA Cuvin-Aralar -
Aquaculture, 1990 - ElsevierMonthly samples of sediment, water and commercially important species of fish, primarily Oreochromis niloticus and Chanos chanos , plus a few other species, were collected from the West Bay area of Laguna Lake, The Philippines from January to December 1987. Mercury levels were determined in all samples by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Results showed that sediment samples contained mercury levels ranging from 26.7 to 117 ppb. Mercury levels in water samples were low, ranging from below detectable to 0.5670 ppb. The mercury levels in the water were negatively correlated with conductivity and dissolved oxygen and positively correlated with turbidity. The mercury burden of the fish species samples was below the maximum permissible level set by the WHO and USFDA of 0.05 ppm. No direct correlation was observed between mercury levels in sediment and water, water and fish and sediment and fish.
Water quality in Imbang river, Negros Occidental: effluents and pollutant loads from agriculture, sugar mills, households, and shrimp farms GA Gonzales, HJ Gonzales, RC Sanares & ET Taberna - In TU Bagarinao (Ed.), Research Output of the Fisheries Sector Program, 2007 - Bureau of Agricultural Research, Department of AgricultureAn ecological assessment of Imbang River in Negros Occidental was undertaken from December 1992 to February 1995. The effluents from sugar mills, households, shrimp farms, sugarcane plantations and rice fields were characterized and their pollutant loads estimated. Water quality and invertebrate assemblages were analyzed at several sites along the river to determine the environmental status. Results showed significant seasonal and site variations in water quality along Imbang River. The dry season, coinciding with the milling season, was the more critical time of the year as water quality tended to deteriorate. The segments of the river near the sugar mills and households had the poorest water quality. Sugar mill effluents had high water temperature (average 33oC but as high as 50oC), low dissolved oxygen, high total solids, the highest settleable solids (average 2.5 and as high as 17 m/l), and the highest biochemical oxygen demand (average 259 ppm but as high as 14,800 ppm BOD). Domestic effluents had low pH, high ammonia, very high BOD, plus detergents or surfactants and high levels of fecal coliform bacteria. Agricultural runoff had high nitrate, high total solids, and the highest total suspended solids (average 296 ppm but as high as 5,095 ppm TSS). Shrimp ponds used saline water of average 23 ppt, and had the highest total solids (average 23,456 ppm and as high as 57,400 ppm). By far the major contributor of pollutant loads into Imbang River was agriculture, due to its huge areal extent and huge volume of water use and run-off. Agricultural run-off carried the highest annual loads of 7,858 kg phosphate; 6,495 kg ammonia; 794 kg nitrite; 67,212 kg nitrate; 16,987 metric tons settleable solids; 16,800,000 mt total solids, and 11,890,000 mt total suspended solids; but only 297 mt BOD. Sugar mill effluents had the highest BOD load (1,583 mt/yr) and also had high nutrient loads. Household effluents contributed the second largest loads of solids next to agriculture, and also added surfactants (966 kg/yr) and fecal coliforms into the river. The six shrimp farms at the lower reaches of Imbang River were a minor contributor of pollutants into the river, annually adding about 891 kg ammonia; 1,077 kg phosphate; and 181,325 mt total solids.
Conference paperDP Weston - In JR Arthur, CR Lavilla-Pitogo & RP Subasinghe (Eds.), Use of Chemicals in Aquaculture in Asia : Proceedings of the Meeting on the Use of Chemicals in Aquaculture in Asia 20-22 May 1996, Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines, 2000 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterMany aquaculture chemicals are, by their very nature, biocidal, and may be released to the surrounding environment at toxic concentrations either through misuse, or in some cases, even by following generally accepted procedures for use. Thus, there is a potential for mortality of nontarget organisms. Illustrations are provided of three classes of aquaculture chemicals and their effects on non-target biota: 1) use of a carbaryl pesticide and mortality of non-target invertebrates; 2) use of an organophosphate parasiticide and suspected effects on nearby biota; and 3) effects of antibacterial residues in aquatic sediments on the associated microbial community. Efforts to assess the risks posed by aquaculture chemicals are often frustrated by a lack of information on environmental fate and effects, and data needs to resolve this situation are identified.