Effect of dietary protein to energy ratios on growth, survival, and body composition of juvenile Asian seabass, Lates calcarifer
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The optimum protein-to-energy (P/E) ratio for juvenile sea bass (body weight, 1.34 ± 0.01 g) was determined using practical diets in a 3 × 3 factorial experiment. Three protein levels (35, 42.5 or 50%) and three lipid levels (5, 10 or 15%) at a fixed carbohydrate level of 20% were tested. P/E ratios of the diets ranged from 104 to 157 mg protein/kcal. The fish were reared for 54 days in 60-liter flow-through tanks with seawater at 32 p.p.t. and 29 °C. Fish fed the diet containing 50% protein and 15% lipid (P/E ratio of 125 mg/kcal) showed the highest weight gain and specific growth rate. Those fed the diet with 42.5% protein and 10% lipid (P/E ratio of 128 mg/kcal) showed comparable growth rate and significantly better condition factor, protein efficiency ratio and apparent protein retention. Fish given diets containing 35% protein showed the poorest growth. Those fed diets with 5% lipid regardless of the protein content showed abnormal reddening of the fins, indicating essential fatty acid deficiency. Body fat increased with fat content of the diet and was inversely related to moisture. Fish given the diet containing 35% protein and 5% fat had the lowest body fat content and the highest ash and water content. The diet containing 42.5% protein and 10% lipid with P/E ratio of 128 mg protein/kcal was found to be optimum for juvenile seabass under the experimental conditions used in the study.
CitationCatacutan, M. R., & Coloso, R. M. (1995). Effect of dietary protein to energy ratios on growth, survival, and body composition of juvenile Asian seabass, Lates calcarifer.
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Effect of dietary protein and lipid levels and protein to energy ratios on growth, survival and body composition of the mangrove red snapper, Lutjanus argentimaculatus (Forsskal 1775) The approximate levels of dietary protein and energy that would sustain good growth and survival of the mangrove red snapper Lutjanus argentimaculatus (Forsskal) were determined in two feeding experiments. In the preliminary experiment, six fish meal-based diets were formulated to contain three protein levels (35%, 42.5% and 50%) and two lipid levels (6% and 12%) for each protein, with dietary energy ranging from 14.6 MJ kg−1 to 20.5 MJ kg−1. The protein to energy (P/E) ratios of diets ranged from 20.6 mg protein kJ−1 to 27.5 mg protein kJ−1. Diets were fed for 100 days to triplicate groups of snappers with an average initial weight of 24.8 ± 0.4 g. No significant interaction between different levels of protein and lipid was observed. Survival rates (93.8% to 100%), feed conversion ratios (FCR) (2.61–3.06) and condition factors (K) were not affected by different dietary treatments. Regardless of lipid level, fish fed 50% protein diets had a significantly higher specific growth rate (SGR) than fish fed the 35% protein diets, but not compared with the 42.5% diets (P < 0.05). Increasing lipid to 12% in all protein levels resulted in no improvement in growth over the 6% level. Fish body moisture did not vary while lipid levels based on dry matter were high (27.9% to 33.7%). Snapper appear to require more than 40% dietary protein and a high dietary energy level for good growth. In the second experiment, fish (21.1 ± 0.1 g) in four replicate groups were fed for 94 days with three diets (39%, 44% and 49% protein with P/E ratios of 21.1, 23.3 and 25.5 mg protein kJ−1 respectively) containing similar dietary energy levels of about 19 MJ kg−1. Average final weight, SGR and FCR were significantly higher in diets containing 44% and 49% protein diets (P > 0.05). There were no differences in survival rates, protein efficiency ratio (PER) and nutrient composition of snapper flesh. All fish had fatty livers. Results indicated that the diet containing 44% protein with a P/E ratio of 23.3 mg protein kJ−1 was optimum for snapper growth under the experimental conditions used in the study.
ArticleEB Coniza, MR Catacutan & JD Tan-Fermin -
The Israeli Journal of Aquaculture-Bamidgeh, 2003 - The Society of Israeli Aquaculture and Marine Biotechnology (SIAMB)Juveniles of the Asian catfish Clarias macrocephalus (3.6±0.17 g; 78.0±0.09 mm) were fed one of four diets: a laboratory-formulated diet of 18.9% (Diet 1) or 34.2% (Diet 2) protein, a com- mercial feed pellet of 28.9% protein (Diet 3) or a diet of 80% blanched chicken entrails and 20% rice bran (31.7% protein; Diet 4). After 120 days of culture, catfish fed Diet 2 grew significantly better (p<0.05) than the other groups, reaching 108.9 g and 232.8 mm (daily weight gain 0.88 g; specific growth rate 2.9%), with a condition factor of 0.86 and production of 18.2 kg per 25 m2 pen. Feed conversion with Diets 2 and 3 (2.5 and 2.3, respectively) was better than with Diets 1 and 4 (3.4 and 5.0). Survival (68-81%) did not differ significantly among treatments (p>0.05). Catfish fed Diet 2 had the highest apparent lipid retention (131.7%). The protein efficiency ratio was lowest (1.3) in Diet 2, but did not differ significantly from Diets 1 and 3. Catfish fed Diet 4 were fatty and had a lower crude protein content. Results suggest that C. macrocephalus fed 34.2% crude protein have a significantly higher weight and total yield. Further, a taste test showed that odor, flavor and appearance did not differ amongst the diets.
Potential of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) meal as an alternative protein source in diets for giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii, de Man 1879) FA Aya, ML Cuvin-Aralar & RM Coloso - In MRR Romana-Eguia, FD Parado-Estepa, ND Salayo & MJH Lebata-Ramos (Eds.), Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia: Challenges in Responsible Production … International Workshop on Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia 2014 (RESA), 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterGrowth trials were conducted to evaluate cowpea Vigna unguiculata (L.) meal as a potential protein source in diets for giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Man 1879), reared in tank and lake-based cages. Five isonitrogenous (approximately 37% crude protein) and isocaloric diets were formulated where fish meal (FM) protein was replaced with 0%, 15%, 30%, 45% and 60% cowpea meal protein (or CP0, CP15, CP30, CP45, and CP60, respectively). Results of an 8-week tank trial showed that the final body weight (FBW), percent weight gain, specific growth rate (SGR) and survival of prawns were not significantly influenced by dietary treatments (P > 0.05), although the highest values, except for survival, were observed with CP45. In a lakebased cage trial that lasted for 16 weeks, prawns fed CP30 and CP45 had significantly higher FBW (13.1 and 14.4 g, respectively) compared to other treatment groups (P < 0.05). SGR (4.52 5.00%/ day), survival rates (53-77%), yield (98.5-116.5 g m-2) and feed conversion ratio (FCR; 2.0-2.7) were not affected by increasing levels of cowpea meal in the diets. Based on these results, cowpea meal can be considered as an alternative protein source in diets for M. rosenbergii.