Effect of dietary protein to energy ratios on growth, survival, and body composition of juvenile Asian seabass, Lates calcarifer
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The optimum protein-to-energy (P/E) ratio for juvenile sea bass (body weight, 1.34 ± 0.01 g) was determined using practical diets in a 3 × 3 factorial experiment. Three protein levels (35, 42.5 or 50%) and three lipid levels (5, 10 or 15%) at a fixed carbohydrate level of 20% were tested. P/E ratios of the diets ranged from 104 to 157 mg protein/kcal. The fish were reared for 54 days in 60-liter flow-through tanks with seawater at 32 p.p.t. and 29 °C. Fish fed the diet containing 50% protein and 15% lipid (P/E ratio of 125 mg/kcal) showed the highest weight gain and specific growth rate. Those fed the diet with 42.5% protein and 10% lipid (P/E ratio of 128 mg/kcal) showed comparable growth rate and significantly better condition factor, protein efficiency ratio and apparent protein retention. Fish given diets containing 35% protein showed the poorest growth. Those fed diets with 5% lipid regardless of the protein content showed abnormal reddening of the fins, indicating essential fatty acid deficiency. Body fat increased with fat content of the diet and was inversely related to moisture. Fish given the diet containing 35% protein and 5% fat had the lowest body fat content and the highest ash and water content. The diet containing 42.5% protein and 10% lipid with P/E ratio of 128 mg protein/kcal was found to be optimum for juvenile seabass under the experimental conditions used in the study.
CitationCatacutan, M. R., & Coloso, R. M. (1995). Effect of dietary protein to energy ratios on growth, survival, and body composition of juvenile Asian seabass, Lates calcarifer.
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Effect of dietary protein and lipid levels and protein to energy ratios on growth, survival and body composition of the mangrove red snapper, Lutjanus argentimaculatus (Forsskal 1775) The approximate levels of dietary protein and energy that would sustain good growth and survival of the mangrove red snapper Lutjanus argentimaculatus (Forsskal) were determined in two feeding experiments. In the preliminary experiment, six fish meal-based diets were formulated to contain three protein levels (35%, 42.5% and 50%) and two lipid levels (6% and 12%) for each protein, with dietary energy ranging from 14.6 MJ kg−1 to 20.5 MJ kg−1. The protein to energy (P/E) ratios of diets ranged from 20.6 mg protein kJ−1 to 27.5 mg protein kJ−1. Diets were fed for 100 days to triplicate groups of snappers with an average initial weight of 24.8 ± 0.4 g. No significant interaction between different levels of protein and lipid was observed. Survival rates (93.8% to 100%), feed conversion ratios (FCR) (2.61–3.06) and condition factors (K) were not affected by different dietary treatments. Regardless of lipid level, fish fed 50% protein diets had a significantly higher specific growth rate (SGR) than fish fed the 35% protein diets, but not compared with the 42.5% diets (P < 0.05). Increasing lipid to 12% in all protein levels resulted in no improvement in growth over the 6% level. Fish body moisture did not vary while lipid levels based on dry matter were high (27.9% to 33.7%). Snapper appear to require more than 40% dietary protein and a high dietary energy level for good growth. In the second experiment, fish (21.1 ± 0.1 g) in four replicate groups were fed for 94 days with three diets (39%, 44% and 49% protein with P/E ratios of 21.1, 23.3 and 25.5 mg protein kJ−1 respectively) containing similar dietary energy levels of about 19 MJ kg−1. Average final weight, SGR and FCR were significantly higher in diets containing 44% and 49% protein diets (P > 0.05). There were no differences in survival rates, protein efficiency ratio (PER) and nutrient composition of snapper flesh. All fish had fatty livers. Results indicated that the diet containing 44% protein with a P/E ratio of 23.3 mg protein kJ−1 was optimum for snapper growth under the experimental conditions used in the study.
ArticleEB Coniza, MR Catacutan & JD Tan-Fermin -
The Israeli Journal of Aquaculture-Bamidgeh, 2003 - The Society of Israeli Aquaculture and Marine Biotechnology (SIAMB)Juveniles of the Asian catfish Clarias macrocephalus (3.6±0.17 g; 78.0±0.09 mm) were fed one of four diets: a laboratory-formulated diet of 18.9% (Diet 1) or 34.2% (Diet 2) protein, a com- mercial feed pellet of 28.9% protein (Diet 3) or a diet of 80% blanched chicken entrails and 20% rice bran (31.7% protein; Diet 4). After 120 days of culture, catfish fed Diet 2 grew significantly better (p<0.05) than the other groups, reaching 108.9 g and 232.8 mm (daily weight gain 0.88 g; specific growth rate 2.9%), with a condition factor of 0.86 and production of 18.2 kg per 25 m2 pen. Feed conversion with Diets 2 and 3 (2.5 and 2.3, respectively) was better than with Diets 1 and 4 (3.4 and 5.0). Survival (68-81%) did not differ significantly among treatments (p>0.05). Catfish fed Diet 2 had the highest apparent lipid retention (131.7%). The protein efficiency ratio was lowest (1.3) in Diet 2, but did not differ significantly from Diets 1 and 3. Catfish fed Diet 4 were fatty and had a lower crude protein content. Results suggest that C. macrocephalus fed 34.2% crude protein have a significantly higher weight and total yield. Further, a taste test showed that odor, flavor and appearance did not differ amongst the diets.
Apparent digestibility of selected ingredients in diets for juvenile grouper, Epinephelus coioides (Hamilton) Apparent digestibility coefficients (ADCs) for dry matter (ADCdm) and crude protein (ADCcp) of selected feed ingredients were determined in vivo for grouper using passive faeces collection (Guelph System). A reference diet (RF) and test diets (consisted of 70% RF and 30% test ingredient) with 1% Cr2O3 as an inert indicator were used. An RF contained 45% protein, 10% fat and 15.7 kJ g−1 metabolizable energy. Three isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets, each contained a test ingredient (white fish meal, white cowpea meal and ipil-ipil leaf meal), were used in a growth study based on ADCcp of feed ingredients. An RF without Cr2O3 was a control. The ADC values of experimental diets were also determined. In grouper, the ADCdm of white cowpea meal, defatted soybean meal, wheat flour and shrimp meal (74–76%) were significantly lower than that of squid meal (99%), but comparable with those of the fish meals (84–89%). No significant difference was observed between the ADCdm of ipil-ipil leaf meal, rice bran and wheat flour (56–73%). The ADCcp of white cowpea meal and defatted soybean meal were similar to those of the fish meals, squid meal and shrimp meal (94–99%). The ADCcp of wheat flour was comparable with that of ipil-ipil leaf meal (79–83%). Rice bran had the lowest ADCcp value of 43%. Based on specific growth rate (SGR), the growth of fish fed white cowpea meal-based diets was similar to that of the control fish (3.2–3.3% day−1). Also, no significant difference was observed between the ADCdm (68–72%) and ADCcp (88–91%) of white cowpea meal-based diet and the control diet. The results suggest that ADC values can be used as indicators to determine the nutritional value of feed ingredients. White cowpea meal can be incorporated as a protein source in practical diet for grouper at 20.5% of the diet with no adverse effect on growth.