Growth and survival of juvenile tiger shrimp fed diet where fish meal is partially replaced with papaya (Carica papaya L.) or camote (Ipomea batatas Lam.) leaf meal
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Fish meal is the major protein source in shrimp and fish diets but its continuous use would make it scarce and expensive. There are, however, potential substitutes like soybean or leaf meals. Papaya or camote leaf meals have not been tested as partial replacement for fish meal in diets for tiger shrimp. Thus, two feeding trials were made to test diets with leaf meals against a control shrimp diet. Both experiments used 50 mg shrimp stocked at 10 per 40 liters of sea water following standard water management. Trial 1 had diets containing either 17% soaked or unsoaked camote leaf meal or 16% papaya leaf meal. Results indicated that weight gain, specific growth rate and feed conversion ratio of the unsoaked papaya were similar to the control, higher than the unsoaked camote, but not significantly different (α= 0.05) from the soaked camote and papaya groups. Survival was not significantly different among treatments. Trial 2 used the best diet from Trial 1 - unsoaked papaya leaf meal - at 16%, 19% or 22% of the diet. The weight gain (1846%) of the shrimp fed 16% papaya leaf meal was not significantly different (α= 0.05) from the control 2034% but higher than the 22% group (1535%). Therefore, papaya leaf meal can partially replace (10%) animal protein in shrimp diets and serve as a source of exogenous proteolytic enzyme. However, its efficacy in culturing shrimp in ponds must be tested.
CitationPeñaflorida, V. D. (1995). Growth and survival of juvenile tiger shrimp fed diet where fish meal is partially replaced with papaya (Carica papaya L.) or camote (Ipomea batatas Lam.) leaf meal.
PublisherSociety of Israeli Aquaculture and Marine Biotechnology
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Evaluation of leguminous seed meals and leaf meals as plant protein sources in diets for juvenile Penaeus indicus PS Eusebio & RM Coloso -
The Israeli Journal of Aquaculture-Bamidgeh, 1998 - Society of Israeli Aquaculture and Marine BiotechnologyThe potential of locally available legumes (white cowpea, Vigna unguiculata, and green mung-bean, Vigna radiata) and leaf meals (papaya, Carica papaya, and cassava, Manihut esculenta) in combination with defatted soybean meal as protein sources was evaluated in juvenile Penaeus indicus. The feedstuffs were included in practical diets for P. indicus, replacing 9% of the protein in the basal diet. Juvenile P. indicus (mean initial weight 0.08±0.01 g) were fed the practical diets for 61 days. Shrimp fed the control diet had the highest weight gain and specific growth rate, which did not significantly differ (p>0.05) from those of shrimp fed white cowpea meal, papaya leaf meal and cassava leaf meal. Survival of the control shrimp was significantly higher (p<0,05) than that of shrimp fed cassava and papaya leaf meals but comparable to that of shrimp fed white cowpea meal. The growth of shrimp given green mungbean meal was comparable to that of shrimp fed papaya leaf meal, however the shrimp fed mungbean meal had the lowest survival. The apparent protein digestibility (APD) of white cowpea meal (87%) was significantly higher (p<0.05) than that of the control (82%) and cassava leaf meal (77%) based diets . However, the APD of the white cowpea meal based diet was comparable to those of the papaya leaf meal and green mungbean meal based diets. Results suggest that, besides digestibility, other factors such as the amino acid balance of the diet and the amount of anti-nutritional factors may influence the growth and survival of P. indicus.
Nutritional evaluation of various plant protein sources in diets for Asian sea bass Lates calcarifer A biological assay was conducted to evaluate the suitability of various leguminous seed meals and leaf meals as dietary protein sources for Asian sea bass, Lates calcarifer. In the growth experiment, fish (initial mean weight ± standard error (SE) of 3.8 ± 0.5 g) were fed isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets containing test ingredients to replace 13–18% of the diet. The same diet formulations were used in a digestibility experiment, except that 1% Cr2O3 was added as an external indicator. The growth of the control fish was comparable to fish fed leguminous seed meal-based diets, and better than those given leaf meal-based diets. The control diet had the highest apparent protein digestibility (APD) value. No significant differences were observed between the APD of white cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), green mungbean (V. radiata) and papaya (Carica papaya) leaf meal-based diets. However, the cassava (Manihot esculenta) leaf meal-based diet had the lowest APD value. The present findings suggest that white cowpea and green mungbean meals can be used as protein sources in practical diets to replace 18% of the sea bass diet without affecting their growth.
Terrestrial leaf meals or freshwater aquatic fern as potential feed ingredients for farmed abalone Haliotis asinina (Linnaeus 1758) Three terrestrial leaf meals, Carica papaya, Leucaena leucocephala, Moringa oliefera and a freshwater aquatic fern, Azolla pinnata were evaluated as potential ingredients for farmed abalone diet. All diets were formulated to contain 27% crude protein, 13% of which was contributed by the various leaf meals. Fresh seaweed Gracilariopsis bailinae served as the control feed. Juvenile Haliotis asinina (mean body weight=13.4±1.6 g, mean shell length= 38.8±1.4 mm) were fed the diets at 2–3% of the body weight day–1. Seaweed was given at 30% of body weight day–1. After 120 days of feeding, abalone fed M. oliefera, A. pinnata-based diets, and fresh G. bailinae had significantly higher (P<0.01) specific growth rates (SGR%) than abalone fed the L. leucocephala-based diet. Abalone fed the M. oliefera-based diet had a better growth rate in terms of shell length (P<0.05) compared with those fed the L. leucocephala-based diet but not with those in other treatments. Furthermore, protein productive value (PPV) of H. asinina was significantly higher when fed the M. oliefera-based diet compared with all other treatments (P<0.002). Survival was generally high (80–100%) with no significant differences among treatments. Abalone fed the M. oliefera-based diet showed significantly higher carcass protein (70% dry weight) and lipid (5%) than the other treatments. Moringa oliefera leaf meal and freshwater aquatic fern (A. pinnata) are promising alternative feed ingredients for practical diet for farmed abalone as these are locally available year-round in the Philippines.