Evaluation of leguminous seed meals and leaf meals as plant protein sources in diets for juvenile Penaeus indicus
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The potential of locally available legumes (white cowpea, Vigna unguiculata, and green mung-bean, Vigna radiata) and leaf meals (papaya, Carica papaya, and cassava, Manihut esculenta) in combination with defatted soybean meal as protein sources was evaluated in juvenile Penaeus indicus. The feedstuffs were included in practical diets for P. indicus, replacing 9% of the protein in the basal diet. Juvenile P. indicus (mean initial weight 0.08±0.01 g) were fed the practical diets for 61 days. Shrimp fed the control diet had the highest weight gain and specific growth rate, which did not significantly differ (p>0.05) from those of shrimp fed white cowpea meal, papaya leaf meal and cassava leaf meal. Survival of the control shrimp was significantly higher (p<0,05) than that of shrimp fed cassava and papaya leaf meals but comparable to that of shrimp fed white cowpea meal. The growth of shrimp given green mungbean meal was comparable to that of shrimp fed papaya leaf meal, however the shrimp fed mungbean meal had the lowest survival. The apparent protein digestibility (APD) of white cowpea meal (87%) was significantly higher (p<0.05) than that of the control (82%) and cassava leaf meal (77%) based diets . However, the APD of the white cowpea meal based diet was comparable to those of the papaya leaf meal and green mungbean meal based diets. Results suggest that, besides digestibility, other factors such as the amino acid balance of the diet and the amount of anti-nutritional factors may influence the growth and survival of P. indicus.
CitationEusebio, P. S., & Coloso, R. M. (1998). Evaluation of leguminous seed meals and leaf meals as plant protein sources in diets for juvenile Penaeus indicus.
PublisherSociety of Israeli Aquaculture and Marine Biotechnology
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Supporting ASEAN good aquaculture practices: Utilization of alternative protein sources for aquafeed to minimize pressure on fishery resources REP Mamauag -
Fish for the People, 2016 - SEAFDEC SecretariatAquaculture industry of Southeast Asia has been expanding steadily as a result of an increasing demand of food fish in the region as well as in the global scale. Aside from its contribution to the world’s fisheries, the aquaculture industry creates employment opportunities and provides income for the region’s fish farmers, as well as produces fish which is a major component in the diets of peoples in Southeast Asia. However, the fast development of aquaculture had been viewed as threat to sustainable capture fisheries production as the widespread use of fish by-catch in aquaculture feeds results in overexploitation of the fishery resources and to certain extent degradation of the resources. Recognizing the importance and urgency of addressing such concern, the Senior Officials of the ASEAN Member States responsible for fisheries adopted in June 2011, the Plan of Action on Sustainable Fisheries for Food security for the ASEAN Region Towards 2020 which includes provision on the need to “improve the efficient use of aquatic feeds by strictly regulating the quality of manufactured feed and feed ingredients and support continued research for developing suitable alternative protein sources that will reduce dependence on fishmeal and other fish-based products.” Along with such declaration, the SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department has been enhancing its R&D activities aimed at finding alternatives to fishmeal as feed ingredients in aquaculture feed formulations.
Book | Conference publication
Development and use of alternative ingredients or fish meal substitutes in aquaculture feed formulation: Proceedings of the ASEAN Regional Technical Consultation on Development and Use of Alternative Dietary Ingredients or Fish Meal Substitutes in Aquaculture Feed Formulation MR Catacutan, RM Coloso & BO Acosta (Eds.) - 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterRecognizing the need for a concerted effort to follow-up on this priority issue of the ASEAN on aquaculture feed development and utilization. SEAFDEC (Aquaculture Department and Secretariat) and the Government of Myanmar organized the 'Regional Technical Consultation (RTC) on development and Use of Alternative Dietary Ingredients or Fish Meal Substitutes in Aquaculture Feed Formulation'. The meeting was convened with the main purpose of providing a forum for charting the regional priorities and future directions on feed development, particularly on the use of alternative feed ingredients or protein substitutes. The specific objectives were to: (i) review the ASEAN-SEAFDEC member country status, constraints associated with developing alternative dietary ingredients for aquaculture feed; (ii) identify specific advances being made in the region with respect to the development of alternative aquaculture feed ingredients; and (iii) define approaches or initiatives supporting catch reduction of low-value/trash fish; (iv) formulate relevant policy recommendations (regional and country-specific) for effective development and utilization of aquaculture feeds; and (v) enhance cooperation among member countries and relevant stakeholders on initiatives that support sustainable aquaculture practices, particularly on feeds. This publication presents the outputs of the RTC. The country reports and review papers presented during the conference which are contained in this volume are cited individually.
Conference paperMR Catacutan - In MR Catacutan, RM Coloso & BO Acosta (Eds.), Development and Use of Alternative Dietary Ingredients or Fish Meal Substitutes in Aquaculture Feed Formulation … Ingredients or Fish Meal Substitutes in Aquaculture Feed Formulation, 9-11 December 2014, Nay Pyi Taw, Myanmar, 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterCultured marine aquatic species are predominantly carnivorous. Major species in the region are seabass, grouper, snapper, tiger shrimp, mangrove crab and abalone. These species, except for abalone, require a high level of dietary protein mostly supplied by marine sources such as fish meal. Global production of marine fish and marine shrimps showed a 3-4 fold increase from 1995 to 2010. For the same period, the usage of commercial feed for production of marine fish and shrimps increased while the fish meal portion in the formulation decreased. This is indicative of fish meal being substituted with alternative sources in commercial feed production, and to some extent the substitution of marine oil which particularly improved the FCR for the marine fish production from 2.0 to 1.9 and for marine shrimps from 2.0 to 1.6. Plant products that include cereal grains, legumes and oilseeds have the most potential among the alternative ingredients for use in aquafeed. The use of these resources for high value marine species is limited due to a variety of anti-nutritional substances they contain. Removal of these substances by processing techniques has improved utilization but with added cost. Hence, fish meal is still the primary source of protein for marine carnivores and its substitution with higher amounts of alternative plant proteins may be difficult compared with lower levels of replacements. The Asian region has accounted for the more than 50% of the total global aquaculture production in 2012 with indications of increased utilization of alternative protein sources in commercial feed production. For the major marine species in the region the increasing trend of plant protein usage with the targeted levels of substitution of fish meal with plant protein sources should be sustainable.