Exploitation of the window-pane shell Placuna placenta in the Philippines
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The window-pane shell Placuna placenta or 'kapis' has great economic importance in the Philippines. The translucent shell is used in the manufacture of lampshades and other shellcraft items exported to Europe, USA and Japan. Due to its high demand, excessive and uncontrolled gathering of kapis has been noted over the past years. Its possible depletion has been a concern; thus, a nationwide survey on the status of the fishery was conducted in 1993. There are 27 kapis beds in the Philippines, six of which are considered the major sources of kapis shells. Kapis shells are gathered by (1) handpicking (in shallow areas); (2) compressor diving (in deeper areas); and (3) dredging. Because of open access to the fishery, anybody can exploit the resource. Kapis stocks are declining in most beds, while in others they are already low as a result of excessive gathering, pollution, siltation, and destructive methods of fishing such as trawling. To prevent further depletion, establishment of sanctuaries, bans on trawling and other destructive means of fishing, strict enforcement of existing regulations, community-based fishery management, and further research on seed production, restocking, and transplantation are recommended.
Gallardo, W. G., Siar, S. V., & Encena II, V. (1995). Exploitation of the window-pane shell Placuna placenta in the Philippines.
Biological Conservation, 73(1), 33-38. https://doi.org/10.1016/0006-3207(95)90057-8
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Broodstock transplantation: An approach for stock enhancement of the 'kapis' shell Placuna placenta along Panay Gulf, central Philippines Madrones-Ladja, Jocelyn A.; Aldon, Eva T.; Baliao, Dan D. (College of Agriculture, University of the Philippines Los Baños, 2012)The Panay Gulf in central Philippines once supported a substantial ‘kapis’ Placuna placenta (Linnaeus) population that was among the six major sources for this species. However, stock depletion began in the late 1980s ...
Larval and postlarval development of the window-pane shell, Placuna placenta L. (Bivalvia: Placunidae) Young, Adam (Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center, 1979)Stages of development of P. placenta from the straight-hinge veliger to the adult are described. Mature larvae metamorphose at lengths from 220-230 m. Larvae probably attach byssally to the water surface at metamorphosis ...