Effect of rainfall and atmospheric temperature on the prevalence of the whitespot syndrome virus in pond-cultured Penaeus monodon
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CitationTendencia, E. A., Bosma, R. H., Usero, R. C., & Verreth, J. A. J. (2010). Effect of rainfall and atmospheric temperature on the prevalence of the whitespot syndrome virus in pond-cultured Penaeus monodon.
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Conference paperA Ishimatsu & H Kurihara - In BO Acosta, RM Coloso, EGT de Jesus-Ayson & JD Toledo (Eds.), Sustainable aquaculture development for food security in Southeast Asia towards 2020. Proceedings of the Regional Technical Consultation on Sustainable Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia Towards 2020, 2011 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterThe world's oceans are becoming warmer and acidic. The atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration has increased from 280 ppm at pre-industrial revolution to above 380 ppm today. The 4th IPCC report predicts that it will range from 540 to nearly 1,000 ppm by the end of the century. The increased CO2 not only warms surface seawater, but also acidifies it (usually termed as ocean acidification) by diffusing across the ocean surface and forming carbonic acid. Our knowledge is still scarce as to how these ocean environmental changes will affect marine life. The early studies on the impact of ocean acidification focused on corals aiming to clarify effects of high-CO2 seawater on their calcification processes. However, more recent studies have revealed that in fact ocean acidification, either alone or coupled with warming, could have detrimental impacts on a variety of biological processes in different taxa. We have shown that early development of marine bivalves (oysters and mussels) could be severely disrupted under elevated CO2 conditions (ca. 2,000 ppm). When a marine shrimp was exposed to seawater equilibrated with air containing 1,000 ppm CO2 for 30 weeks, survival was only 55% as compared with 90% in the control. Gonad maturation of a sea urchin was delayed by one month under the same CO2 conditions at ambient temperature, but when accompanied with increased temperature of 2 degree C above ambient, gonad maturation was not only delayed but also significantly suppressed; the number of eggs in the ovary was reduced to only 20% of the control. It has been shown that tropical animals already live near their thermal tolerant maxima, and therefore even small increases of environmental temperature could reduce their environmental fitness. These recent findings bear significant implication in aquaculture and fisheries production, in particular, in tropical countries. This paper will summarize recent data on these topics and discuss possible adaptation measures.
Technical ReportH Motoh, N Solis, E Caligdong, M Gelangre & F Boblo - 1981 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
Series: Technical report / SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department; no. 8The observations include: (1) air and sea water temperatures; (2) cloud cover; (3) rainfall; (4) wind direction and speed; (5) salinity; (6) sea wave condition.
Polyculture of milkfish Chanos chanos (Forsskal) and the red seaweed Gracilariopsis bailinae (Zhang et Xia) in brackish water earthen ponds Growth, net production, and survival rates of milkfish cultured with Gracilariopsis bailinae at two stocking density combinations (T1– 30 fingerlings 100-m−2 pond+1-kg G. bailinae 4-m−2 net cage, T2– 30 fingerlings 100-m−2 pond+2-kg G. bailinae 4-m−2 net cage) in brackish water earthen ponds over four culture periods were determined. The control (T3) was stocked at 30 fingerlings 100-m−2 pond. Specific growth and production rates of G. bailinae were also calculated. There were no significant differences in mean growth, survival, and net production rates of milkfish between the three treatments. Irrespective of stocking singly or in combination with G. bailinae, significantly higher mean growth and mean production rates for milkfish were obtained during the third culture period of year 1 than those obtained from the other culture periods. Survival rates were not significantly different among the four culture periods. There were no significant differences in mean specific growth and mean net production rates between the two stocking densities of G. bailinae. Significantly higher mean specific growth and mean net production rates of red seaweed were also obtained during the third culture period of year 1 than those obtained from other culture periods. The production of milkfish and red seaweed was higher during the dry season. Growth rates of milkfish was positively correlated with temperature and salinity, while net production rates were positively correlated with temperature and total rainfall, but was inversely correlated with dissolved oxygen. G. bailinae growth and net production rates were positively correlated with water temperature and salinity. Results show that milkfish can be polycultured with G. bailinae grown in net cages in brackish water ponds at stocking density combination of 30 fingerlings 100-m−2 pond+1-kg G. bailinae 4-m−2 net cage.