Effect of temperature and salinity on the hatching of eggs and larval development of sugpo, Penaeus monodon.
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Incubation of Penaeus monodon eggs and rearing of different larval stages were undertaken at nine temperature-salinity combinations. The eggs, nauplii, zoea and mysis from one spawner kept as stock culture at ambient temperatures of 26-30°C and salinity of 32-33 ppt were exposed to temperature levels of 23, 28 and 33°C and salinity levels of 23, 28 and 33 ppt. Eggs and nauplii survived the sudden change of temperature and salinity (from ambient to experimental) but the zoea and mysis did not. However, salinities of 23 and 28 ppt in combination with any of the temperature levels produced weak larvae. Highest mean hatching rate was obtained at the temperature-salinity combination of 23°C-33 ppt, followed by 28°C-33 ppt and 33°C-33 ppt. Incubation periods for these treatments were 22, 16 and 14 hr, respectively. Survival rate of nauplius (taken from stock cultures) to first zoeal stage was highest at 28°C-33 ppt, followed by 33°C-33 ppt and 23°C-33 ppt with molting time of 50, 45 and 75 hr, respectively. The nauplii exposed to 33°C-33 ppt molted to zoea stage within 38 to 40 hr but later died. Those exposed to 23°C-33 ppt and 28°C-33 ppt reached zoea stage within 57 to 60 hr and 48 to 50 hr, respectively. Similarly, the nauplii taken from the stock cultures and reared until postlarval stage (P1) under experimental conditions completed the zoea and mysis stages in 9 to 11 days at 28°C C-33 ppt, 7 to 9 days at 33°C-33 ppt, and 13 to 15 days at 23°C-33 ppt. Statistical analysis showed that salinity had highly significant effect on rates of hatching of eggs and survival from nauplius to first zoeal stage but not temperature although the latter had an apparent effect. However, both factors affected time of hatching of eggs and time of molting from nauplius to zoea. Interaction effect was significant only on rate and time of hatching. Different sources (spawners) of eggs and nauplii did not have significant effect on time of hatching and molting from nauplius to zoea, but significantly affected the hatching rate of eggs and survival rate of nauplii to zoea stage.
Reyes, E.P. (1985). Effect of temperature and salinity on the hatching of eggs and larval development of sugpo, Penaeus monodon. (Abstract only). In Taki Y., Primavera J.H. and Llobrera J.A. (Eds.). Proceedings of the First International Conference on the Culture of Penaeid Prawns/Shrimps, 4-7 December 1984, Iloilo City, Philippines (pp. 177-178). Iloilo City, Philippines: Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center.
PublisherAquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
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Sustainable milkfish production in marine fish cages through strong government support and effective public-private partnerships: a case study from Panabo City Mariculture Park in Davao del Norte, Philippines FG Ayson, AM Ventura & EG de Jesus-Ayson - In W Miao & KK Lal (Eds.), Sustainable intensification of aquaculture in the Asia-Pacific region. Documentation of successful practices, 2016 - FAO Regional Office for Asia and the PacificThis case study presents the successful practice of sustainable intensification of milkfish aquaculture in marine fish cages under semi-intensive grow-out conditions in the Panabo City Mariculture Park (PCMP) in Davao del Norte, Philippines. Established in 2006, PCMP became operational through the promulgation of a City Ordinance declaring 1 075 hectares of municipal waters in Panabo City as a Mariculture Development Zone/Park. The operations of PCMP were so successful that in just five years it became the third largest among the 63 operational MPs in the Philippines during 2011, with 86 private investors-locators operating a total of 322 units of cages. At present, a total of 372 units of fish cages are operating in the mariculture park (MP). A combination of factors contributed to the successful operation of PCMP, but the success is usually attributed to the effective partnership between the government (both local and national) and the private sector. The Comprehensive MP City Ordinance that governs the PCMP is strictly implemented and includes, among others, the tenurial rights and access to locators. Regulations on distances between cages are strictly enforced and security measures in the total area are jointly undertaken by the government and the locators. The national government, through the Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources-National Mariculture Center (BFAR-NMC), provides technical support in all aspects from stocking to harvest during the production cycle. BFAR-NMC staff conduct regular periodic sampling of the stocks and compute feeding rates for the stocks which are implemented by the technicians/caretakers. Likewise, BFAR-NMC staff regularly monitor the water quality of the MP and the health status of the stocks. Since it became operational in 2006, the PCMP did not report a single incident of mass fish kill, which indicates that the technical guidelines of MP operations are strictly followed. Workers are trained and organized into groups by BFAR-NMC such as caretakers, cage framers, netters, harvesters, fish processors, and others, and actively participate in discussions related to MP operations to ensure protocols are properly followed. Harvests of stocks are done by skilled workers trained by BFAR-NMC, all done in the “Bagsakan Center” or fish landing area and are well-coordinated. The support facilities in the fish landing area are provided by both the local and national government and the PCMP Producers Association. The operators provide complete data for their operations to BFAR-NMC for record keeping. The strong partnership between the national government through BFAR-NMC, the local government unit, the investors, as well as the acceptance and support from the community for the PCMP is the hallmark of its success.
Effects of arachidonic acid supplementation on larval and survival and reproductive performance in rabbitfish, Siganus guttatus DR Chavez, HY Ogata, ES Garibay, HT Sollesta, KR Tibubos, H Furuita & A Suloma - In K Nakamura (Ed.), Sustainable Production Systems of Aquatic Animals in Brackish Mangrove Areas, 2007 - Japan International Research Center for Agricultural Sciences
Series: JIRCAS Working Report No. 56Fry of tropical marine fish needed for aquaculture still comes mostly from the wild. Thus, fry availability is a major constraint in the development and extension of aquaculture, especially in rural areas of developing regions. Although the mission of hatcheries is to provide a stable fry production and supply for farmers, fry production remains variable due to poor fecundity and low survival. For the last four years (2002-2005), SEAFDEC/AQD and JIRCAS have conducted the collaborative project that was aimed at developing advanced diets for improving egg production/quality (2002-2005) and larvae/fry quality (2004-2005) through dietary manipulation. Larval rearing tests: In 2005, larval rearing tests (4 trials with rotifers) were conducted to investigate the effects of enriched-live food (4treatments: low (CS) and high (DHAPS) HUFA with or without arachidonic acid supplementation) on survival and growth in rabbitfish Sigunus guttatus fry. Fry fed the rotifers enriched with a combination of DHAPS+5% ArA showed the best survival (44.4±4.5% for D17 fry in the 4th trial).Growth was not different among the treatments (CS, CS+5% ArA, DHAPS, DHPS+5% ArA). Broodstock tests: From March, 2005 to January,2006, a feeding test has been conducted to investigate the effects of dietary ArA supplementation (0% for diet 1, 0.3% for diet 2 and 0.6% for diet 3) on egg production and quality of wild-caught and hatchery-bled rabbitfish broodstock. The broodstock spawned 13 times for diet1 (six pairs), 14 times for diet 2 (five pairs) and 17 times for diet 3 (six pairs) during the period of May 2005 to January, 2006. The total numbers ofhatched-larvae were 3,818 x 103 for diet 1, 4,391 x 103 for diet 2 and 4,597 x 103 for diet 3. The % of normal larvae did not differ among the dietary treatments. Considering together with the results of mangrove red snapper (2003) and rabbitfish (2004), the optimum level of ArA incorporation appears to be between 0.5% and 0.7%. Judging from the results of fatty acid analysis, DHA and arachidonic acid should be supplemented to diets at the same time as to make DHA/arachidonic acid ratio appropriate. Thus, the present study clearly shows that dietary arachidonic acid supplementation is very promising for the development of fry production technologies in tropical areas.
Effects of UV-treated sea water, chlorinated sea water, and formalin-treated copepods on survival and growth of newborn seahorses, Hippocampus comes SMA Buen-Ursua, T Azuma, CP Recente & RE Batatin -
The Israeli Journal of Aquaculture-Bamidgeh, 2011 - Society of Israeli Aquaculture and Marine Biotechnology (SIAMB)Seed production of the seahorse Hippocampus comes was examined using different types of sea water (UV-treated, chlorinated, sand-filtered), and formalin-treated copepod Pseudodiaptomous sp. as a food organism. Growth and survival of newborn seahorses (8.9±0.0 mm stretched height, 0.004 g) were monitored until day 30 after birth. Growth (stretched height and weight) was significantly higher (p<0.05) in UV-treated sea water (41.4±0.5 mm, 0.23±0.00 g) than in chlorinated (33.8±1.4 mm, 0.16±0.00 g) or sand-filtered (32.8±0.1 mm, 0.16±0.00 g) sea water. Survival was significantly higher in UV-treated (65.6±1.1%) and chlorinated (62.2±4.0%) sea water than in sand-filtered sea water (41.1±1.1%). Survival of seahorses fed 30 ppm formalin-treated copepods (95.3±1.8%) was significantly higher (p<0.05) than of seahorses fed untreated copepods (78.7±5.5%) on day 8. On day 15 survival was 78.7±9.68% in seahorses fed formalin-treated copepods and 0% in those fed untreated copepods. By day 30, survival of seahorses fed formalin-treated copepods was 64.7±9.82%. On the day of the final comparison (day 10), there was no difference in size between groups. Thus, the present study demonstrates that survival and growth of newborn seahorses is significantly improved in UV-treated water, and survival is markedly maintained by treating food organisms in formalin.