This manual is one of the important outputs of a collection of studies related to antibiotic usage in order to come up with guidelines for its prudent usage. It offers a complete guide for testing bacterial susceptibility and resistance through the use of simple techniques for disk agar diffusion tests, and a guide to do a more thorough study to test therapeutic levels using microbial inhibitory concentration.

Recent Submissions

  • Book chapter

    Chapter 3. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) test and determination of antimicrobial resistant bacteria 

    L Ruangpan - In Laboratory manual of standardized methods for antimicrobial sensitivity tests for bacteria isolated from aquatic animals and environment, 2004 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    The agar dilution technique is used to measure qualitatively the in vitro activity of an antimicrobial agent against the test bacteria. In this method, graded amounts of antibiotics are incorporated in agar plates and inoculated in spots with the organisms under study. If the organism under study is susceptible to the incorporated antibiotic, no bacterial growth is expected in agar plates with higher amounts of the drugs. Bacterial growth is observed as the antibiotic concentration in the agar plate diminishes. Inhibition of growth at the minimum or lowest concentration of antibiotic is regarded as the end point.
  • Book chapter

    Chapter 1. Bacterial isolation, identification and storage 

    L Ruangpan & EA Tendencia - In Laboratory manual of standardized methods for antimicrobial sensitivity tests for bacteria isolated from aquatic animals and environment, 2004 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    Bacterial isolation, purification and identification are the first steps to bacteriological studies. Isolation is done to obtain pure bacterial cultures. Bacteria are usually isolated from fish kidney and spleen; and from the hepatopancreas, lymphoid organ and muscles of shrimp. These tissues are monitor organs that usually harbor the disease-causing bacteria during infection.
  • Book

    Laboratory manual of standardized methods for antimicrobial sensitivity tests for bacteria isolated from aquatic animals and environment 

    L Ruangpan & EA Tendencia - 2004 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center.
    The manual is one of the important outputs of a collection of studies related to antibiotic usage in order to come up with guidelines for its prudent usage. It offers a complete guide for testing bacterial susceptibility and resistance through the use of simple techniques for disk agar diffusion tests, and a guide to do a more thorough study to test therapeutic levels using microbial inhibitory concentration.
  • Book chapter

    Chapter 2. Disk diffusion method 

    EA Tendencia - In Laboratory manual of standardized methods for antimicrobial sensitivity tests for bacteria isolated from aquatic animals and environment, 2004 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    Disk diffusion method is based on the principle that antibiotic-impregnated disk, placed on agar previously inoculated with the test bacterium, pick-up moisture and the antibiotic diffuse radially outward through the agar medium producing an antibiotic concentration gradient. The concentration of the antibiotic at the edge of the disk is high and gradually diminishes as the distance from the disk increases to a point where it is no longer inhibitory for the organism, which then grows freely. A clear zone or ring is formed around an antibiotic disk after incubation if the agent inhibits bacterial growth.