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  • Book | Conference publication

    Resource enhancement and sustainable aquaculture practices in Southeast Asia: challenges in responsible production of aquatic species : proceedings of the international workshop on resource enhancement and sustainable aquaculture practices in Southeast Asia 2014 (RESA) 

    MRR Romana-Eguia, FD Parado-Estepa, ND Salayo & MJH Lebata-Ramos (Eds.) - 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    The conference was held in order to promote and augment regional initiatives on resource enhancement and sustainable aquaculture practices, and to contribute to poverty alleviation, livelihood and food security in Southeast Asia. The contributions of the selected participants during the conference which are contained in this volume are cited individually.
  • Conference paper

    Is small-hold tropical aquaculture in a genetic plunge towards extinction? 

    RW Doyle - In MRR Romana-Eguia, FD Parado-Estepa, ND Salayo & MJH Lebata-Ramos (Eds.), Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia: Challenges in Responsible Production … International Workshop on Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia 2014 (RESA), 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    Tropical shrimp aquaculture is in a disease-induced crisis of lost production. The response to this crisis currently focuses on microbiology and pathology, quarantine, and transboundary transfer of shrimp. The crisis also involves an interaction between shrimp genetics and various human interests including protection of intellectual property. Breeders of high-quality strains generally employ (and are encouraged to employ) some form of breeder lock that generates inbreeding when broodstocks are copied . Smaller hatcheries sell these copied, inbred shrimp to farmers, who thereby increase the likelihood of losing their crops to disease. The joint behavior of breeders, hatcheries and farmers causes inbreeding to accumulate in tropical regions.

    The depressive effect of inbreeding on disease resistance is exceptionally strong in shrimp, as shown in a re-analysis of published field and experimental data. Inbreeding increases the severity and frequency of disease through a variety of mechanisms. We have relatively few, marker-based estimates of accumulated inbreeding in any non-pedigreed shrimp aquaculture system. Simulation shows, however, that locked post larvae (PLs) can be distinguished from copies in broodstocks and farm ponds, given appropriate analysis of genetic markers.

    Culture of stocks certified to be free of specified pathogens (specific pathogen free or SPF stocks) is strongly recommended and only SPF stocks can now be legally imported into most jurisdictions. These recommendations are appropriate, beneficial and necessary. But insofar as they increase the commercial value of proprietary genetic strains, such regulations may also increase the likelihood of copying, and thus inbreeding at farm level and ever-increasing susceptibility to disease and climate stress (Doyle, 2014a).

    The intellectual property value of disease-resistant strains will be extremely high and intellectual property rights are fundamental to science-based economic innovation. Breeders will, and must, continue to protect their genetic improvement programs with genetic locks, especially in regions where judicial sanctions are ineffective. The regulatory objective should be to encourage biosecurity and genetic progress while discouraging copying and consequent inbreeding.

    The current consensus that inbreeding is unimportant may therefore be out of date. Inbreeding may be amplifying the severity of diseases (including the major current threats: white spot syndrome virus or WSSV, infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus or IHHNV and early mortality syndrome or EMS (acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease or AHPND). Continuing to ignore the interaction between inbreeding and disease may become a fatal error for tropical shrimp aquaculture.
  • Conference paper

    Feed formulation for sustainable aquaculture 

    RM Coloso - In MRR Romana-Eguia, FD Parado-Estepa, ND Salayo & MJH Lebata-Ramos (Eds.), Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia: Challenges in Responsible Production … International Workshop on Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia 2014 (RESA), 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    As aquaculture production of tropical fish and crustacean species becomes more intensified, practical diets need to be formulated to be cost effective and environment-friendly. Ingredients should be included to satisfy the nutrient requirements of the animal, promote optimal fish growth, and boost the income of small-scale farmers and commercial producers with minimal impacts to the surrounding environment. Feed formulation for sustainable aquaculture should aim at increasing aquaculture system performance and profitability, enhancing the animals disease resistance, increasing attractability, palatability, and digestibility of practical diets, and maintaining environmental quality through sound feeding management and good aquaculture practices. More vigorous research and development efforts need to be supported to generate feed technologies that will ensure a steady and reliable supply of safe and high quality aquaculture products to the public while preserving the environment.
  • Conference paper

    Estimation of energy budget of sea cucumber, Holothuria scabra, in integrated multi-trophic aquaculture 

    S Watanabe, M Kodama, ZGA Orozco, JG Sumbing, SRM Novilla & MJH Lebata-Ramos - In MRR Romana-Eguia, FD Parado-Estepa, ND Salayo & MJH Lebata-Ramos (Eds.), Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia: Challenges in Responsible Production … International Workshop on Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia 2014 (RESA), 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    Continuous intensification of aquaculture production has brought about environmental issues associated with eutrophication worldwide. Environmental deterioration such as hypoxia and sulfide production due to water and sediment eutrophication originating from aquaculture effluents have been problematic, resulting to sporadic disease outbreaks and fish kills in the Philippines.

    Integrated multi-trophic aquaculture (IMTA) is one of the promising methods for sustainable aquaculture as it also provides a supplementary source of income to the fish farmers. IMTA is a polyculture system that integrates culturing of fed species (e.g. finfish) the main commodity, organic extractive species (e.g. deposit and filter feeding benthos) and inorganic extractive species (e.g. seaweed). In this study, IMTA techniques were established for small-scale coastal fish farmers in the Philippines, with sea cucumber (Holothuria scabra, commonly known as sandfish), as the key species. Sandfish commands the highest price in tropical sea cucumber species.

    Nitrogen (N) budget of sandfish in polyculture with milkfish (Chanos chanos) and Elkhorn sea moss (Kappaphycus alvarezii), both of which are commonly cultured in the Philippines, was estimated using a simple closed box model.

    Information on stocking density, stocking size, mortality, growth, feed ration, feed assimilation, NH4-N production and NH4-N absorption of these species was obtained from a series of experiments and existing literature. Culture conditions were as follows: 26 g milkfish were cultured in a 5 x 5 x 4 m cage at an average stocking density of 36.7 ind/m3 (i.e. usual practice in the Philippines) with an initial feeding ration of 10% of body weight which was gradually decreased to 4% over time; 10 g sandfish were cultured in a 5 x 5 x 0.3 m cage hung under the milkfish cage to trap particulate N waste (i.e. feces and leftover feed) from milkfish culture at a stocking density of 35 ind/m2; the stocking weight of Elkhorn sea moss line culture was 10 kg. The culture period was 200 days.

    It was estimated that milkfish culture under the above-mentioned schemes cumulatively produced 145 kg of particulate N, and milkfish and sandfish together excreted 60 kg of NH4-N in 200 days of culture. Daily assimilation rate of the particulate N by sandfish ranged from 3.4 to 12.4%, and 6.4% of the particulate N was estimated to be removed by sandfish during the entire 200 days of culture. Daily absorption rate of NH4-N by Elkhorn sea moss increased exponentially with time and reached 100% at 125 days of culture. Cumulative NH4-N from milkfish and sandfish excretion was estimated to be depleted by 162 days of culture.

    For complete utilization of particulate N by sandfish by the end of milkfish culture period (i.e. zero emission), sandfish stocking density should be 805 ind/m2, which is 200 times as high as that in existing sandfish aquaculture operations in countries such as Viet Nam and New Caledonia. The purpose of sandfish culture in IMTA should be emphasized in terms of its economic advantages and not very much on environmental integrity. Cages for sandfish culture should be designed in such a way where only a small fraction of organic matter from milkfish culture (i.e. about 6% in this culture scheme) enters it to avoid sediment quality deterioration and possible death of sandfish. Elkhorn sea moss on the other hand seems very efficient in bioremediation capability.
  • Conference paper

    Modelling the impact of different stress agents on Holothurian immunity 

    LS Dolmatova - In MRR Romana-Eguia, FD Parado-Estepa, ND Salayo & MJH Lebata-Ramos (Eds.), Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia: Challenges in Responsible Production … International Workshop on Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia 2014 (RESA), 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    Due to dietetic and pharmacological values of many species of sea cucumbers (Holothuroidea, Echinodermata), and depletion of their natural resources, the species of little or no commercial value attract attention as new raw material resource, and methods of their aquaculture are developed. Both monitoring and supporting the health of animals in natural and artificial conditions demand the approaches providing reliable markers. This study compared the influence of two stress agents, namely lead and bacterial toxin Yersinia pseudotuberculosis (ТсТYp), on some of the markers of immune response of the Far Eastern holothurian Eupentacta fraudatrix. Phagocytes (P2 type) were isolated after 48h treatment of holothurians E. fraudatrix with Pb(NO3)2 (2 and 4 mg/L). In another experiment, coelomocyte were incubated with ТсТYp (0.2 and 0.5 µg/g) for 18h. Apoptosis level and FITC-conjugated concanavalin A (con A) and binding of lectins from Glycin Max and Dolichos biflorus to P2 surface receptors, and activity of antioxidant enzymes were measured.

    Lead induced an increase in catalase and decreases in superoxide dismutase and glutathione-S-transferase and glutathione reductase activities at dose of 2 but not 4 mg/L. 2 mg/L lead also increased apoptosis level. Noteworthy, receptors to lectins from G. Max and D. biflorus were poorly expressed in the control, and significantly expressed under lead treatment at a dose of 2 but not 4 mg/L (D. biflorus) or decreased at a dose of 2 but not 4 mg/L (G. Max). Binding con A was significant in the control and additionally increased under treatment with 2, but not 4 mg/L. Meanwhile, ТсТYp also induced reversed concentration-dependent effect on apoptosis: 48h incubation with 0.5 µg/g decreased apoptosis, and 0.2 µg/g-increased it. Additionally, 0.2 µg/g ТсТYp decreased binding con A and D. biflorus lectin. Commercially available catalase restored % lectin binding to the control level.

    Data obtained indicate that lead and ТсТYp differently influenced phagocyte activity, and complex definition of apoptosis level and activity of antioxidant enzymes. Finally, variations in expression of cell surface receptors may be useful for estimation of the level of stress damage to holothurians.
  • Conference paper

    Development of a simple, rapid, cost-effective diagnostic kit for WSSV 

    PMT Arabit, ADD Nicolasora, PEZ Go, CMA Caipang & MBB Maningas - In MRR Romana-Eguia, FD Parado-Estepa, ND Salayo & MJH Lebata-Ramos (Eds.), Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia: Challenges in Responsible Production … International Workshop on Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia 2014 (RESA), 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    Shrimp aquaculture is one of the most important sources of income and livelihood in the Philippines. For the past two decades, the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) has adversely affected the production of the Philippine shrimp industry resulting to losses in revenue. Shrimps infected by the virus experience up to 100% mortality, 3 to 10 days post-infection. One way of controlling the disease is early detection, which remains to be too complicated and inaccessible to shrimp farmers. Being a DNA virus, the first step to WSSV diagnosis is the isolation of high-quality DNA suitable for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP). Using readily available and affordable reagents, a DNA extraction protocol has been especially developed for rapid WSSV-detection; DNA has been successfully extracted from the pleopods of shrimps and the results were comparable with that of commercially available kits from Promega and Zymoresearch. LAMP has been optimized for WSSV detection in the temperature range of 55°C to 68°C and was shown to be faster and ten times more sensitive than conventional PCR. This study together with a locally fabricated machine, offers a more convenient, practical and efficient way of detecting WSSV, with the advantage of using non-invasive means of obtaining shrimp tissue therefore not losing any shrimp meat in the process.
  • Conference paper

    Distribution and abundance of hard clam shells Meretrix meretrix along the coastal areas of Panguil bay, Lanao del Norte, Philippines 

    CQ Jumawan, RB Palma & RO Sia - In MRR Romana-Eguia, FD Parado-Estepa, ND Salayo & MJH Lebata-Ramos (Eds.), Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia: Challenges in Responsible Production … International Workshop on Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia 2014 (RESA), 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    Meretrix meretrix is believed to be abundant in Panguil Bay and in the absence of relevant fishery statistics, it is useful to quantify their biomass with a view to determining their fishery potential. This study aims to monitor the gonadal development, identify the associated macrofauna and determine the distribution and abundance of hard clam shells M. meretrix along the coastline of four municipalities of Lanao del Norte at Panguil Bay. Four sampling sites were selected and established to achieve and relate some generalities using the transect-quadrat method. Clams were counted, measured and identified. Physicochemical parameters were also noted every sampling. M. meretrix was found to be most abundant in Raw-an Pt. Baroy (28-542 pcs./m2) followed by Mayao, Lala (0.3-26 pcs/m2). M. meretrix at Aloha Tubod occurred in low densities (0.1-4 pcs/m2). No hard clam shell was found in Taguitic, Kapatagan. Mean length differed significantly at the three locations. The coastal area of Mayao, Lala, had the highest diversity (H' = 4.236737) in terms of shell species identified and recorded during the twelve months sampling period. Most of the shells dissected were sexually immature with male shellfishes being more predominant than females. Differences in distribution, density and length size of hard clam shells were compared in this study at four locations. Anthropogenic causes e.g. exploitation as well as environmental parameters such as salinity levels and sediment quality are suggested to be the main cause of the variation. These results will be used as baseline information to properly manage hard clam shell resources in Panguil Bay.
  • Conference paper

    Sustainable aquaculture and resources enhancement in Indonesia 

    S Soetardjo & I Adhitya - In MRR Romana-Eguia, FD Parado-Estepa, ND Salayo & MJH Lebata-Ramos (Eds.), Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia: Challenges in Responsible Production … International Workshop on Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia 2014 (RESA), 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    With a human population of 230 million and a huge potential for marine and fisheries resources development, Indonesia promotes aquaculture as a major sector to accelerate economic growth for rural communities. There are recent initiatives to improve the country's legal framework to mitigate the adverse impacts of aquaculture and make the aquaculture more sustainable.

    The Directorate General of Aquaculture under the Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries (MMAF) has the mandate to develop the aquaculture sector of Indonesia. Aquaculture has an important role in the development of its national economy and play a key role in rural development. As aquaculture production expands, there is also a growing concern over the impacts on sustainability of aquaculture and resource enhancement as well as food quality and safety requirements of fish products.

    For this reason, there is a need to improve aquaculture technology and its management system in Indonesia to address the need for eco-friendly production process and food safety concerns while maintaining the sustainability of the country's aquaculture sector. The Indonesian Fisheries Act No. 31 (2004) Amendment No. 45 (2009) mentioned that, among others, the Indonesian fisheries management strategies should include the creation job opportunities, improvement of the welfare of fishers and their communities, and ensuring the sustainability of the country's fishery resources and aquatic environment.

    The most critical factors to achieve sustainable aquaculture in Indonesia are the availability of good quality seed, good practice in grow-out systems, healthy aquaculture environment, fish health management, good-quality products, strategic marketing, and improving marketing and stock enhancement. In addition, it is also a concern that the products from aquaculture should meet the quality standard and product safety. This paper presents a review of Indonesian aquaculture in relation to sustainable practices and management schemes to preserve the aquaculture environment, food safety requirements for aquaculture products, food security and to enhance the biodiversity of fishery resources. A policy that was recently established is the development of the marine and fisheries sector based on the principles of the Blue Economy program of the Indonesian government.
  • Conference paper

    Potential genetic impacts of hatchery-based resource enhancement 

    ZU Basiao - In MRR Romana-Eguia, FD Parado-Estepa, ND Salayo & MJH Lebata-Ramos (Eds.), Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia: Challenges in Responsible Production … International Workshop on Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia 2014 (RESA), 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    The global population according to the United States Census Bureau has reached 7 billion as of October 2013. The continuous growth in human population will continue to put tremendous pressure on food production. The demand for fish as source of good protein is no exception. In 2011 total capture fisheries supplied 90.4 million tons of food and total aquaculture provided 63.6 million tons. While aquaculture production has increased dramatically, more than 50% of fishery production still depends on capture fisheries. Overexploitation of wild fish stocks has become one of the biggest problems in global fisheries. Stock enhancement has become a potential viable strategy for marine fisheries in danger of collapse. With the tremendous progress made in the breeding and larval rearing techniques of marine species, hatchery-based stock enhancement is now operated in many stock enhancement programs. However, many questions are raised in the use of hatchery-reared fish in stock enhancement. This paper will discuss genetic considerations in stock enhancement in developing countries.
  • Conference paper

    Abalone aquaculture for stock enhancement and community livelihood project in northern Palawan, Philippines 

    BJ Gonzales - In MRR Romana-Eguia, FD Parado-Estepa, ND Salayo & MJH Lebata-Ramos (Eds.), Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia: Challenges in Responsible Production … International Workshop on Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia 2014 (RESA), 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    One of the interventions to feed the poorest of the poor fisheries sector in the country is the provision of livelihood in the form of mariculture of high value marine species. In the Philippines, livelihood in rural areas is largely linked to resource depletion, hence it is wise not only to provide livelihood to the community but also to encourage them to conserve and enhance the resources. As part of the revised R&D program, the Western Philippines University partnered with NGO and existing projects to embark on a community-based environment-concerned livelihood project, using hatchery bred abalone, although top shell was also considered for stock enhancement. This is in an on-going project thus, preliminary phases such as abalone production and cage-based grow-out as well as subsequent project plans will be discussed. The objectives of this study were to: (a) share the implementing experiences in this project, (b) identify success and failure drivers of the project, (c) explain the conceptual framework for the MPA-based stock enhancement to be used in this project, and (d) give recommendations to improve the implementation and ensure the success of the project.

    The following activities have thus far been conducted: (a) development of criteria for cage micro-site selection; (b) writing of proposal and provision of financial assistance for hatchery juvenile production through a partnership MOA; (c) presentation of site survey results to beneficiaries and stake holders; (d) conduct of trainings on abalone grow out culture to POs; (e) development and improvement of training module; (f) signing of conservation agreement; (g) giving of cage materials and juveniles to people s organizations; (h) on site coaching; and (i) partial monitoring. The next activities include improvement in juvenile production, conduct of researches on abalone nutrition, and development of market and value chain flow analysis. The conceptual framework for community-managed stock enhancement will follow that of the Department of Environment and Natural Resources-ICRMP, of which the stock enhancement project is anchored on the management of marine protected areas or MPAs.

    The steps in all the activities were documented and while the project was in progress, performance of the participants in training were measured, the training module was improved, the training approaches were revised according to needs, and the growth and survival of juvenile abalone were monitored. The problems identified were low production of juveniles, insufficient food for grow-out, political squabbles, social preparation, and delay in implementation schedule. Recommendations to improve or resolve the problems encountered were also presented in this paper.
  • Conference paper

    Hatchery management techniques for tiger-tail seahorse (Hippocampus comes) 

    SMB Ursua & T Azuma - In MRR Romana-Eguia, FD Parado-Estepa, ND Salayo & MJH Lebata-Ramos (Eds.), Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia: Challenges in Responsible Production … International Workshop on Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia 2014 (RESA), 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    Seahorse culture has been practiced throughout the world to meet the demand for global trade and reduce the pressure on wild stocks through overexploitation. Development of culture techniques for seed production of seahorses is one of the most effective measures to avoid such anthropological repercussions on the wild stocks, and is currently being conducted at SEAFDEC/ AQD with the aim to produce seed for stock release to protect these internationally threatened and overexploited species in Southeast Asia. This paper describes the breakthroughs in seahorse breeding and nursery rearing. So far, we have developed water and feeding management schemes that resulted in improved reproductive performance of broodstock and higher survival and growth rates in newborn and juvenile seahorses.

    We highlight the concern of providing desirable food organisms and maintenance of suitable water quality in order to maintain maximum efficiency in the management of the seahorse hatchery. Newborn seahorses fed with formalin-treated food organisms and reared in UV-treated seawater had significantly higher survival and daily growth rate based on stretched height and body weight than those fed with untreated food organisms and reared in both chlorinated and sand-filtered seawater. Broodstocks fed with mysid shrimps showed higher brood size and shorter parturition interval. Thus, improved reproductive performance as well as survival and growth of newborn seahorses were largely influenced by refinement of hatchery management techniques.
  • Conference paper

    A preliminary study on the diagnosis of coral reef healthiness and establishment of coral replenishment technology 

    T Azuma, JJR Tan, J Zarate, J Altamirano, J Gatus & F Sotto - In MRR Romana-Eguia, FD Parado-Estepa, ND Salayo & MJH Lebata-Ramos (Eds.), Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia: Challenges in Responsible Production … International Workshop on Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia 2014 (RESA), 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    Field surveys for coral reef through line-intercept-transect (LIT) and temperature profiling using data-loggers were done at three layers of 5, 10, and 15 m depths in coral reef areas, Nogas Island, Anini-y, Antique, Philippines. Preliminary data based on the LIT survey showed that both coverages of substrates by any type of organism and by Scleractinia decreased in the deeper layers. For Scleractinia, Porites sp. occurred predominantly in all the depth layers with the occurrence decreasing with depth. Temperature fluctuation was largest in the 5 m depth layer, where effects of tidal level were also confirmed. While the average temperature decreased with depth, this did not differ beyond 1°C between 5 and 15 m layers during November 2012 to March 2013. Fragments of the Porites sp. and Acropora sp. were sampled and transferred to aquaria at the Tigbauan Main Station of SEAFDEC/AQD. Acropora sp. sampled from the deepest layer alone showed bleaching and thereafter, a part of the fragments regained the color. Experimental trials to clarify the effects of ocean acidification and warming on the health of the coral using the live fragments of Porites sp. showed decreasing trends in both photosynthetic rates and daily growth rates in acidic condition (pH = 7.6), while decrease of zooxanthellae density was observed under warmer conditions (31°C ) for one month. A new methodology for the determination of density of zooxanthellae was established using the fragments of Porites sp. In this study, the need for studies on several coral communities as well as further basic research on coral biology, particularly, responses to the changing environments are discussed for diagnosis of coral reef healthiness and establishment of effective coral replenishment technology.
  • Conference paper

    Country status on sustainable aquaculture in Lao PDR 

    T Khonglaliane - In MRR Romana-Eguia, FD Parado-Estepa, ND Salayo & MJH Lebata-Ramos (Eds.), Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia: Challenges in Responsible Production … International Workshop on Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia 2014 (RESA), 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    Capture fisheries and aquaculture in Lao PDR are based on water resource ecosystems which consist mainly of rivers and streams, hydropower and irrigation reservoirs, diversion weirs, small water bodies, flood plains and wet-season rice-fields. The total area of water resources for capture fisheries is believed to be more than 1.2 million ha. The estimated consumption of inland fish in Lao PDR is approximately 167,922 tonnes per year while consumption of other aquatic animals is estimated at 40,581 tonnes per year. Most of the consumption is from internal production (i.e. imports are of minor importance), so these figures represent approximate catches or yield from fisheries. These estimated yields are conservatively valued at almost US$150 million per year.

    The people of Lao PDR, especially in the rural communities that account for more than 75 per cent of the population, still depend upon the country's fish and other aquatic animals as their most reliable sources of animal protein. The estimate of actual fish consumption per capita (kg/capita/ year) of inland fish is 24.5 kg, while other aquatic animals account for about 4.1 kg and marine products around 0.4 kg, to make a total of 29 kg of fish and aquatic products consumed per capita per year.

    As aquaculture in Lao PDR expands, many forms of production systems are being developed, for example pond culture, communal ponds, rice-cum-fish culture and cage culture. Most fish culture systems in Lao PDR are small-scale. Such forms of production systems are divided into sub-categories depending on the nature and main activity of the producers. According to the Department of Livestock and Fisheries, aquaculture production in 2007 accounted for 54,750 tonnes in an area of more than 42,000 ha, including cage culture in the Mekong and some tributaries.

    There has been a significant increase in intensive tilapia production in recent years in Lao PDR (MRC Technical Paper No. 5 April 2002) based on tilapia cage culture in the Mekong river and irrigation reservoirs. In last two years, an enterprising farmer has established about 360 cages.

    Constraints in the large-scale development of tilapia cage culture are the lack of technical support (e.g. extension services) to the farmers and insufficient supply of advanced fingerlings. Morever, tilapia cage culture in the Mekong river system is perceived to be difficult to sustain because of environmental factors such as river flooding and strong currents during the rainy season and the lack of water during the dry season.
  • Conference paper

    Good aquaculture practices (VietGAP) and sustainable aquaculture development in Viet Nam 

    TBT Nguyen - In MRR Romana-Eguia, FD Parado-Estepa, ND Salayo & MJH Lebata-Ramos (Eds.), Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia: Challenges in Responsible Production … International Workshop on Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia 2014 (RESA), 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    The shrimp (black tiger and white leg shrimp) and catfish industries in Viet Nam continue to experience increasing growth due to rapid aquaculture development. However, disease outbreaks become a major issue. Moreover, seafood consumers at present are likely to be more concerned about how the products are produced and how to control/manage aquatic animal health instead of treatment. Hence, the main objective of this abstract is to focus on one of the solutions to address these problems/issues and ensure sustainable aquaculture development in Viet Nam.
  • Conference paper

    The Philippine National Aquasilviculture Program 

    RE Dieta & FC Dieta - In MRR Romana-Eguia, FD Parado-Estepa, ND Salayo & MJH Lebata-Ramos (Eds.), Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia: Challenges in Responsible Production … International Workshop on Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia 2014 (RESA), 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    The Philippine National Aquasilviculture Program (PNAP) is a banner program of the Department of Agriculture (DA) being implemented by the Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources (BFAR). To implement the PNAP, a Memorandum of Agreement (MOA) was executed between BFAR and the Commission on Higher Education (CHED). The program concept is primarily mangrove resource rehabilitation and livelihood provision to help address climate change, food security and poverty among municipal/artisanal coastal fisherfolks. To achieve its goals and objectives, the BFAR identified three strategic interventions, such as: (1) replanting of destroyed mangrove resources; (2) establishment of community-based multi-species hatcheries (CBMSH), and (3) provision of aquasilviculture livelihood projects to fisherfolkbeneficiaries throughout the country. As envisioned, the BFAR shall provide support funds for the establishment, operation and management of the PNAP while CHED shall provide logistical support during program implementation. The program covers at least 71 state universities and colleges (SUCs) and 61 provinces throughout the country. Potential areas targeted by the PNAP are abandoned, undeveloped and underutilized (AUUs) fishpond lease agreements (FLAs) and the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR) identified areas (Key Biodiversity Areas, reforestation areas and co-management agreement areas) from BFAR coastal Regions 1 to 13 and the Autonomous Region of Muslim Mindanao (ARMM). Participating agencies are DA-BFAR Regional Fisheries Offices (RFOs) and Provincial Fisheries Offices (PFOs), CHED (SUCs), DENR Provincial Environment and Natural Resources Offices (PENRO) and Community Environment and Natural Resources Offices (CENRO), and the local government units (LGUs) in the provinces and municipalities. Target beneficiaries for the aquasilviculture livelihood projects are at least 1,000 coastal fisherfolks and for the community-based multi-species hatcheries are 64 SUCs who were signatories to the MOA. For mangrove rehabilitation, the PNAP will involve the coastal fisherfolks in the planting of 100 million propagules for the next 3-4 years. Funding support from BFAR are PhP 6.00 per surviving propagule, PhP 1.2 million per SUC for the establishment and operation of CBMSH and PhP 65,000 per aquasilviculture project. As part of the over-all management strategy, a National Steering Committee (NSC) was formed to formulate policy guidelines of the PNAP while Regional Steering Committees (RSCs) were created to oversee policy implementation in the regions. Program Management Offices (PMOs) were formed to implement and supervise program implementation in the provinces. Community Organizers (COs) were hired in each province to assist in the implementation of daily activities. The approved PNAP implementing guideline details the procedures to follow, both relating to the technical and administrative operations of the program.
  • Conference paper

    Marker-aided genetic stock management: prospects in Philippine aquatic biodiversity conservation and aquaculture 

    MRR Romana-Eguia, M Ikeda & A Kijima - In MRR Romana-Eguia, FD Parado-Estepa, ND Salayo & MJH Lebata-Ramos (Eds.), Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia: Challenges in Responsible Production … International Workshop on Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia 2014 (RESA), 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    With the advent of DNA marker-based technologies and applications, genetic stock assessment incorporating molecular marker information has become an important tool in managing resources both for aquaculture and stock enhancement. Local initiatives toward this end have been undertaken by several research and academic agencies particularly those with access to advanced molecular genetic laboratory facilities both in the Philippines and in collaborating foreign institutions. Funds coming from the Philippine Department of Science and Technology and/or international research grants have supported work on commercially valuable species such as tilapia, shrimp, mud crabs, abalone, milkfish and some high value marine fishes with a view of utilizing and in the process, demonstrating the significance of more scientific microlevel assessment of stocks. Information drawn from marker-aided genetic stock evaluation can contribute to a better understanding of the impact of how proper stock management can be more effectively achieved and how this method can gradually translate to improved yields both from culture and fisheries. This paper covers a review of the status of this technology as applied to ongoing fish conservation and aquaculture production efforts in the Philippines.
  • Conference paper

    Updates on the seed production of mud crab 

    ET Quinitio, FD Parado-Estepa, JJ Huervana & MR Burlas - In MRR Romana-Eguia, FD Parado-Estepa, ND Salayo & MJH Lebata-Ramos (Eds.), Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia: Challenges in Responsible Production … International Workshop on Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia 2014 (RESA), 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    Widespread interest in mud crab species is increasing because these are highly prized both in domestic and export markets. Among the three mud crab species commonly found in the Philippines, Scylla serrata, S. olivacea, and S. tranquebarica, S. serrata is preferred by farmers because it is larger and less aggressive than the other species. Likewise, S. serrata is the most widely distributed species in the Indo-west Pacific region.

    Hatchery-produced seedstock are presently used by some crab farmers in their grow-out operations. In the hatchery phase, feeding mud crab larvae with shrimp formulated diets and natural food was found to reduce the occurrence of molt death syndrome, one of the major problems in seed production. Larvae given 25% formulated diet (FD) + 75% natural food (NF; rotifers and Artemia) and 50% FD + 50% NF showed better performance than those larvae fed 100% FD, 100% NF and 75% FD + 25% NF indicating that usage of natural food, especially the expensive Artemia, can be reduced. Since the early crab instar (C) produced in the hatchery need to be grown further before stocking in grow-out ponds, two phases of nursery culture have been developed. C1-2 are grown to 1.5-2.0 cm carapace width (CW) size in the first phase and further grown to 3.0-4.0 cm CW in the second phase. Nursery rearing is done in net cages installed in ponds for easy retrieval. A combination of mussel or trash fish and formulated diet is used as feed.

    Domestication of the mud crab S. serrata as a prerequisite to selective breeding has been done at SEAFDEC/AQD. Likewise, defining criteria for the determination of quality of newly hatched zoeae for stocking in the hatchery was initiated. Newly hatched zoeae were subjected to starvation and stress test using formalin. Starvation failed to elicit responses that were significantly different between the good and poor quality larvae hence it is not suitable for larval quality evaluation. Based on three-year data, the formalin stress test gave mean cumulative mortalities of 2.38±0.32, 8.24±0.88, 20±1.58 in good quality larvae, and 43.74±2.39 while 22.93±4.19, 63.68±7.17, 84.29±3.88 and 97.65±1.06 for poor quality larvae at 0 (control), 20, 30 and 40 ppm formalin, respectively. As formalin level increased, cumulative larval mortality also increased regardless of the quality of the larvae. Formalin stress test proved to be a reliable method to determine whether a batch of newly hatched zoeae was of good or poor quality.
  • Conference paper

    Assessment of humphead wrasse (Cheilinus undulatus), spawning aggregations and declaration of marine protected area as strategy for enhancement of wild stocks 

    FG Romero & AS Injaki - In MRR Romana-Eguia, FD Parado-Estepa, ND Salayo & MJH Lebata-Ramos (Eds.), Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia: Challenges in Responsible Production … International Workshop on Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia 2014 (RESA), 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    Humphead wrasse, known as the Napoleon fish (Cheilinus undulatus), is the largest living member of the family Labridae. It is slow growing but can grow to a maximum size exceeding 2 m and 190 kg. This species was the first commercially important coral reef food fish to be listed in the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) Appendix II in 2004 because of its vulnerable status and the ongoing threat to its conservation from international trade. Like many coral reef fishes, the humphead wrasse, Cheilinus undulatus, aggregate in reef areas when they spawn and this spawning behaviour makes them highly vulnerable to overfishing. Assessment of the spawning aggregations of this species was conducted in the municipalities of Sibutu and Sitangkai in the province of Tawi-Tawi, Philippines. Key informant interviews (KII) with fishermen, mariculturists, and other stakeholders and focus group discussions (FGD) with local government leaders, Fisheries and Aquatic Resources Management (FARMC) members, mariculturists, and exporters were conducted. Guided by the results of these KII and FGDs, underwater visual census of mameng (local common name for Napoleon wrasse) populations (juvenile and mature) were conducted to document spawning aggregation sites. Since there was no photo-documentation of actual spawning aggregations of mameng in the reef areas, indirect measures were used. Result of the KII and FGD indicated that the Baligtang Reef in Sipangkot and Tando Owak are major sources of spawners. Anecdotal accounts of Bajau fishermen showed that Dungun Dungon, Baligtang reef, Tando Owak and Tugalan are traditional fishing grounds for mameng spawning aggregations. From the length-frequency analysis of mameng caught by hook and line and fish pot in the Baligtang Reef in Sipangkot, the estimated length at maturity of this species was found to be 25-35 cm. There were 134 individuals caught within this size range so they are considered potential spawners. Another indirect proof used was the underwater documentation of juvenile humphead wrasse which were regularly observed and photographed in association with seagrass beds and branching coral reefs in Baligtang Reef in Sipangkot, Sitangkai. Gonadal study also indicated that the mameng caught in this area had mature and ripe gonads but the number of mature fish depends on the season. These were the basis of declaring Spawning Aggregation Sites in Tando Owak and Dungun Dungun in Sibutu and Baligtang Reef, Sipangkot and Tugalan in Sitangkai. These were declared as marine protected areas by ordinance of the municipal Sangguniang Bayan of the two municipalities. Management and enforcement plans have been developed and Bantay Dagat have been trained to protect the spawning aggregations and this strategy aims to protect the wild stocks of humphead wrasse. Protecting the spawners would ensure that there would be enough recruits, prevent recruitment overfishing and enhance the wild stocks.
  • Conference paper

    BFAR-CHED Philippine National Aquasilviculture Program (PNAP) in Bataan 

    RC Flores, FE Tungol, AS Antonio, ED Medairos & JM Salas - In MRR Romana-Eguia, FD Parado-Estepa, ND Salayo & MJH Lebata-Ramos (Eds.), Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia: Challenges in Responsible Production … International Workshop on Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia 2014 (RESA), 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    Under the Philippine Aquasilviculture Program, the Bataan Peninsula State University (BSPU) rehabilitated denuded mangrove resources, established aquasilviculture technology demonstration projects as a livelihood option for fisherfolks (while caring for the mangroves they had planted) and established community-based multi-species hatcheries to increase endemic fish species in the area.

    The BPSU was able to (a) plant 183, 300 mangrove seedlings where 85.96% survival was noted a year after, (b) establish 16 units aquasilviculture projects for the livelihood of the beneficiaries (planting that earned the beneficiaries P1,338, 731.90); and (c) establish community-based multispecies hatcheries that already produced an estimated 1,030,502,400 eggs of various fish species, thus increasing the wild fishery resource in the area.

    The program is expected to bear potential impacts on our environment and to the lives of the marginalized people of our community through the collaborative efforts of the Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources (BFAR), the Commission on Higher Education (CHED), BPSU, Local Government Units (LGUs) and the fisherfolks.
  • Conference paper

    Inland fisheries resource enhancement and conservation practices in Myanmar 

    H Thein - In MRR Romana-Eguia, FD Parado-Estepa, ND Salayo & MJH Lebata-Ramos (Eds.), Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia: Challenges in Responsible Production … International Workshop on Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia 2014 (RESA), 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    Myanmar has impressive freshwater capture fisheries. Inland freshwater bodies cover 8.1 million ha of which 1.3 million ha are permanent while the rest are seasonally inundated floodplains. There are repeated references to the crucial importance of fish and fish products in the nutrition of the Myanmar people. Over the past few decades, inland fisheries resources have increased pressure from overfishing, use of destructive fishing gear/methods, pollution and environment changes. In order to make a sustainable inland capture fisheries and conservation of aquatic biodiversity as well as nutritional security and improved rural livelihoods, fisheries resource enhancement and conservation measures have long been adopted in Myanmar since 1967, initiated through a seed replenishment program in natural waters, such rivers, lake, dams, even rice fields, etc. However, the institutional, policy, legislative and financial environments under which enhancement and capture fisheries regimes exist are not conducive to the interests of the fishers. Strong tools for valuation of ecosystem goods and services, enabling governance arrangements and estimation of environmental flows are needed. Fishing communities need to be organized into strong co-management/participatory/community regimes in order to ensure that all stakeholders take part in decision-making process and the benefits accrued are shared equitably by all.

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