Recent Submissions

  • Book

    Philippine National Standard: Organic aquaculture 

    Bureau of Agriculture and Fisheries Standards - 2016 - Bureau of Agriculture and Fisheries Standards
    The Philippine National Standard (PNS) for Organic Aquaculture (PNS/BAFS 112:2016) was originally prepared and adopted in 2012. Organic aquaculture encourages polyculture production system, promotes the use of indigenous/endemic species under the extensive and semi-intensive culture systems, reduces/minimizes inputs of artificial ingredients, prohibits the use of genetically modified organisms (GMOs), and considers ecological conditions necessary for sustainable aquaculture production.

    The PNS for Organic Aquaculture was revised by the Technical Working Group (TWG) organized by the Bureau of Agriculture and Fisheries Standards (BAFS) through a Department of Agriculture (DA) Special Order No.476, Series of 2015. The TWG is composed of members representing the Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources (BFAR), Organic Certification Center of the Philippines (OCCP), Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center Aquaculture Department (SEAFDEC-AQD), Philippine Council for Agriculture, Aquatic and Natural Resources Research and Development (PCAARRD) and Central Luzon State University (CLSU). This PNS was presented and reviewed during the consultative meetings with the concerned stakeholders in Region I (Pangasinan) and Region XI (Davao City). Comments gathered during the consultations were carefully evaluated by the TWG and included accordingly in the final version of this standard. Drawn from the general principles of the Philippine National Standard on Organic Agriculture, this PNS on Organic Aquaculture attempts to cover the aquaculture production and postharvest operations in order to ensure the integrity of organic products. The requirements for the inclusion of Substances and Criteria for the development of the list of substances shall follow the Philippine National Standards for Organic Aquaculture and the Guidelines for the Production, Processing, Labelling and Marketing of Organically Produced Foods (GL 32-1999).

    The revision of this PNS was undertaken in order to achieve equivalence with the existing international standards and its future amendment, and takes into consideration the new developments and inclusion of the identified potential species for organic aquaculture. Thus, this PNS identifies minimum requirements on documentation, conversion to organic aquaculture, parallel production, selection of site, interaction with surrounding ecosystem, organic fertilization, aquatic plants, aquatic animal sources/origin, breeding and hatchery management, aquatic animal nutrition and feeding, aquatic animal health and welfare, harvesting, post-harvest handling, transport and processing, storage, and social aspects.
  • Book

    Philippine National Standard: Organic aquaculture feeds 

    Bureau of Agriculture and Fisheries Standards - 2016 - Bureau of Agriculture and Fisheries Standards
    The Bureau of Agriculture and Fisheries Standards (BAFS) in line with its mandate under Republic Act 10068 or the Organic Agriculture Act of 2010, initiated the development of Philippine National Standard (PNS) for Organic Aquaculture Feeds to address the needs of the organic aquaculture industry. It aims to provide minimum requirements for the production of organic feeds for organic aquaculture animals.

    The PNS for Organic Aquaculture Feeds was developed by the Technical Working Group (TWG) organized by the Bureau of Agriculture and Fisheries Standards (BAFS) through a Department of Agriculture (DA) Special Order No.183, Series of 2015. The TWG is composed of members representing the Bureau of Animal Industry (BAI), Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources (BFAR), Organic Certification Center of the Philippines (OCCP), Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center Aquaculture Department (SEAFDEC-AQD), Philippine Council for Agriculture, Aquatic and Natural Resources Research and Development (PCAARRD) and Central Luzon State University (CLSU). This PNS was presented and reviewed during the consultative meetings with the concerned stakeholders in Region I (Pangasinan), XI (Davao City) and NCR (Quezon City). Comments gathered during the consultations were carefully evaluated by the TWG and included accordingly in the final version of this standard. Drawn from the general principles of the PNS on Organic Aquaculture, this PNS on Organic Aquaculture Feeds attempts to cover the aquaculture feed formulation and preparation in order to ensure the integrity of organic products. The requirements for the inclusion of feed additives, processing aids and other ingredients and criteria for the development of the list of ingredients shall follow the PNS for Organic Aquaculture and Organic Agriculture.

    This PNS identifies the minimum requirements on the organic aquaculture feed products and forms, essential composition and quality factors (including raw materials, feed additives, processing aids and other ingredients), hygiene and handling, packaging and labeling, methods of sampling, examination and analysis and definition of defectives.
  • Book

    Philippine National Standard: Dried anchovies 

    Bureau of Agriculture and Fisheries Standards - 2016 - Bureau of Agriculture and Fisheries Standards
    This PNS for dried anchovies aims to provide a common understanding on the scope of the standard, product description, process description, essential composition and quality factors, food additives, contaminants, hygiene and handling, packaging and labeling, methods of sampling, examination and analysis, definition of defectives and lot acceptance.
  • Book

    Philippine National Standard: Pasteurized crab meat 

    Bureau of Agriculture and Fisheries Standards - 2016 - Bureau of Agriculture and Fisheries Standards
    This PNS for pasteurized crab meat aims to provide a common understanding on the scope of the standard, product description, process description, essential composition and quality factors, food additives, contaminants, hygiene and handling, packaging and labeling, methods of sampling, examination and analysis, definition of defectives and lot acceptance.
  • Book

    Philippine National Standard: Live mangrove crab 

    Bureau of Agriculture and Fisheries Standards - 2016 - Bureau of Agriculture and Fisheries Standards
    This PNS for live mangrove crab aims to provide a common understanding on the scope of the standard, product description, process description, essential composition and quality factors, food additives, contaminants, hygiene and handling, packaging and labeling, methods of sampling, examination and analysis, definition of defectives and lot acceptance.
  • Book | Conference publication

    Resource enhancement and sustainable aquaculture practices in Southeast Asia: challenges in responsible production of aquatic species : proceedings of the international workshop on resource enhancement and sustainable aquaculture practices in Southeast Asia 2014 (RESA) 

    MRR Romana-Eguia, FD Parado-Estepa, ND Salayo & MJH Lebata-Ramos (Eds.) - 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    The conference was held in order to promote and augment regional initiatives on resource enhancement and sustainable aquaculture practices, and to contribute to poverty alleviation, livelihood and food security in Southeast Asia. The contributions of the selected participants during the conference which are contained in this volume are cited individually.
  • Conference paper

    Social preparations towards community-based approach to stock enhancement in Sagay Marine Reserve, Philippines 

    ND Salayo, RJG Castel, DHM Tormon, RT Barrido, MFJ Nievales & T Azuma - In MRR Romana-Eguia, FD Parado-Estepa, ND Salayo & MJH Lebata-Ramos (Eds.), Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia: Challenges in Responsible Production … International Workshop on Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia 2014 (RESA), 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    Stock enhancement involves a set of management approaches which include the release of hatchery-produced aquatic organisms to enhance or restore fisheries. Stock enhancement of various species has a long history in developed countries and it showed that releases have the potential to yield substantial benefits for various fishery stakeholders. While the biological objectives of stock enhancement were often successfully achieved in most of these enhancement initiatives, some results showed that actual social gains in terms of yields, distribution of benefits and institutional sustainability are often inconclusive. The high cost of stocking accrues to the government which means these are supported by public funds. Meanwhile, benefits are dissipated across various stakeholders, some of them did not at all contribute and participate in the stocking program. In such government-initiated and publicly-funded stock enhancement programs, the lack of sense of stewardship among direct fishery stakeholders was observed to have contributed to a vicious cycle of excessive extraction of fishery resources for individual economic benefits.

    Developing countries such as the Philippines would be confronted by budgetary limitations if it has to adopt the stocking strategies applied in developed countries. Thus, with reference to the success of co-management approaches for managing fishery resources in the Philippines, a community-based strategy for enhancement of fishery stocks was explored. SEAFDEC/AQD, with support from the Government of Japan Trust Fund, initiated a community-based approach to stock enhancement in Molocaboc, an island barangay or village within the Sagay Marine Reserve (SMR). The initiative aims to ensure that its goals and strategies are within the social milieu of local stakeholders, i.e. fisherfolks are without financial assets to contribute or pay for the enhancement of the fishery and stock enhancement is often not a priority approach to address fishery resource depletion for most local governments. However, the social assets of fishing communities could be explored to implement stock enhancement. This paper describes the social preparation executed from 2007 to 2011 in order to orient a fishing community such as Molocaboc towards a successful enhancement of overfished species. Initially, the project focused on donkey s ear abalone Haliotis asinina to provide an example for other species. Abalone or kapinan in the vernacular is one of the over-extracted fishery resources in Sagay City. It is one of the high-priced catch among fishers in coastal communities in the Philippines. High buying prices compared with other fish catch motivated small-scale fishers to target abalones and caused its overfishing.
  • Conference paper

    SEAFDEC/AQD stock enhancement initiatives: release strategies 

    MJH Lebata-Ramos, EF Doyola-Solis, R Sibonga, J Sumbing, JB Abroguena, A Santillan & M Dimzon - In MRR Romana-Eguia, FD Parado-Estepa, ND Salayo & MJH Lebata-Ramos (Eds.), Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia: Challenges in Responsible Production … International Workshop on Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia 2014 (RESA), 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    The Aquaculture Department of the Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center (SEAFDEC/AQD) started its Stock Enhancement Program more than a decade ago with the first stock enhancement initiative on the mud crab Scylla spp. funded by the European Commission. This was followed by another stock enhancement program in 2005 supported by the Government of Japan Trust Fund. In preparation for its implementation, a Regional Technical Consultation on Stock Enhancement of Species Under International Concern was convened in Iloilo City, Philippines in July 2005 to identify species for stock enhancement. During the meeting, seahorses Hippocampus spp., giant clam Tridacna gigas, abalone Haliotis asinina, and sea cucumbers Holothuria spp. were among the priority species for stock enhancement work.

    Stock enhancement, restocking and ranching are management approaches involving the release of wild or hatchery-bred organisms to enhance, conserve or restore fisheries. This paper reports SEAFDEC/AQD release activities and some of the release strategies that have been established for mud crabs, giant clams and abalone.
  • Conference paper

    Milkish: new choice for aquaculture in Thailand 

    P Kosawatpat - In MRR Romana-Eguia, FD Parado-Estepa, ND Salayo & MJH Lebata-Ramos (Eds.), Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia: Challenges in Responsible Production … International Workshop on Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia 2014 (RESA), 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    Milkfish is an economically important fish cultured in many countries in Asia. In Thailand, milkfish culture has not been given much attention and has not as been developed as in the other Asian countries because in the past the farmers prefer to grow shrimps and other high value fishes. Nowadays, environmental changes and degradation can affect water resources as well as the important aquaculture species that thrive in them hence the Thai Department of Fisheries recognizes the importance of developing aquaculture that is environment-friendly. This includes milkfish in particular because milkfish meat tastes good, easy to manage on farm, grows rapidly and can be grown in sea water, brackish or even freshwater. Milkfish farming is a low cost operation because milkfish feed mainly on algae and organic matter and these are natural food produced from other types of aquaculture activities. Milkfish can therefore be co-cultured with other species and are capable of reducing the amount of organic material from the process of aquaculture before entering the environment. In 2002, milkfish was first bred successfully through hormone injection and later broodstock mated naturally in Thailand. At present, production of the 1-inch milkfish has reached 1,000,000 per year. The culture sites are in the southern and eastern parts of the country, in brackish and salty areas. Culture methods are either monoculture or polyculture with other species such as shrimp, mussel etc. Milkfish culture in reservoirs last from 6 to 12 months when fish size is about 500 g or two pieces to a kg. and the price is about 50 baht/ kg. On the other hand, milkfish that are 600-1,000 g can sell at 65-90 baht/kg. Apart from culture, processing as well as marketing promotion of milkfish has also started in Thailand. Milkfish processing training is being conducted at least 2 times a year. As for the marketing initiatives, there is a move for the milkfish to be declared the symbol of Prachuap Khiri Khan Province since it was here that the fish was first found naturally in Thailand. This, apart from the plan to promote milkfish in the festivals throughout the country. Although found promising, some problems in the Thai milkfish industry are also recognized. Such issues notwithstanding, the Thai Department of Fisheries is coming up with guidelines for milkfish aquaculture as it is optimistic that this commodity shall open the doors to a new alternative industry in Thailand.
  • Conference paper

    Growth performance of brackishwater enhanced selected tilapia (BEST) reared in brackishwater ponds 

    AV Labastida, CQ Jumawan, AA Abogado, RB Palma & JJ Sabillo - In MRR Romana-Eguia, FD Parado-Estepa, ND Salayo & MJH Lebata-Ramos (Eds.), Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia: Challenges in Responsible Production … International Workshop on Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia 2014 (RESA), 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    Tilapia culture contributes greatly to world aquaculture production. Several tilapia strains have been developed locally and one of these has been developed for brackishwater aquaculture. BEST or the Brackishwater Enhanced Selected Tilapia was developed by the Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources with the aim of promoting brackishwater culture of this commodity to further improve tilapia production in the Philippines. This study will determine the growth performance of BEST reared in organically fertilized brackishwater ponds at three different stocking densities.

    The study was conducted in nine (9) units of 200m2 ponds. Pond preparation was done following standard procedures that include drying, liming, teaseed application and fertilization. Stocking was done after twenty days when primary productivity in the ponds was noted. Three culture systems were used, namely: extensive (Treatment 1 or T1), semiintensive (Treatment 2 or T2) and intensive (Treatment 3 or T3) systems. The study was conducted for 120 days. Results showed that fish in ponds in treatment T1 had an average body weight (ABW) of 52.1g, T2 stocks with ABW of 223.1 g and T3 stocks with an ABW of 214.5 g. Meanwhile, T1 stocks had a survival rate of 91.9% while stocks under T2 and T3 had survival rates of 80 % and 84% respectively. T1 results showed losses amounting to P382 since total revenue of P958 is smaller than total cost of P1,340. T2 harvest on the other hand registered a total revenue of P 10,368 and total cost of P 4,375 hence net return of P 5,634. T3 also had total revenue of P 21,419 with a total cost of over P 8,498 giving a net return of P12, 471. T2 showed a return on investment (ROI) of 128% and a payback period of 0.77 year. T3 had an ROI of 139% and payback period of 0.71 year. Average feed conversion ratio (FCR) in two runs for two treatments are the same at 1.1 Water parameters like DO, salinity, temperature; water level and pH were also taken. Water level in the ponds ranged from 70 to 74 cm, salinity at 6.3-6.9 ppt, DO at 1.5-1.7ppm, temperature at a constant 29°C, monthly pH ranges were from 7.1 to 8.0 and transparency of 34-47 cm.
  • Conference paper

    Status of resource management and aquaculture in Malaysia 

    A Yusoff - In MRR Romana-Eguia, FD Parado-Estepa, ND Salayo & MJH Lebata-Ramos (Eds.), Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia: Challenges in Responsible Production … International Workshop on Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia 2014 (RESA), 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    Malaysia is a maritime nation and its fishing industry is a source of income for 134,000 fishermen. In 2012, the fisheries sector produced 1.7 million tons of fish valued at RM10.8 billion and generated trade worth RM6 billion. The landings from capture fisheries are expected to increase from 1.32 million tons in 2010 to 1.76 million tons in 2020 at an annual growth rate of 2.9%. In 2012, 65% of total catch was contributed by the coastal fisheries as compared to 35% from deep sea fishing. Landing from deep sea fishing is expected to rise from 381,000 tons in 2012 to 620,000 tons in 2020. Deep sea fishing has been identified for its potential to contribute to the increase in the country s fish production. With a growing population and an increasing preference for fish as a healthy source of animal protein, the National Agro-food Policy (2011-2020) estimated that the annual demand for fish will increase to 1.93 million tons by the year 2020. The Department of Fisheries (DOF) has developed the Capture Fisheries Strategic Management Plan (2011-2020) based on three main documents i.e.; National Agro-food Policy (NAP, 2011-2020), Department of Fisheries Strategic Management Plan (2011-2020), and Malaysia National Plan of Action on Sustainable Fisheries for Food Security towards 2020.

    Aquaculture is now being promoted in Malaysia as an important engine of growth and eventually to become the mainstay of the nation s economy. Situated in a region with abundant supply of land and water, two determinant factors for aquaculture activities, Malaysia has always strived to ensure that this sector is not sidelined in their development efforts. With a growing population and an increasing preference for fish as a healthy source of animal protein, it has been estimated that the annual demand for fish will increase to 1.7 million tons in 2011 and further to 1.93 million tons by 2020. From the present annual aquaculture production of about 525,000 tons, this output would need to be raised to 790,000 tons to meet the projected demand by 2020. In a move to develop the aquaculture industry, the DOF, has initiated the Aquaculture Industrial Zone (AIZ) Program involving the development of 49 zones, located across Malaysia, which will be used for culture of various types of high value aquatic species. The DOF has identified several strategic areas that would be developed for downstream activities such as fish seed production, feed mills, fish processing plants, and other supporting industries. Aquaculture is also currently listed amongst the 16 Agro-food s Entry Point Projects (EPP) of the National Key Economic Area (NKEA). The government aims to double the Agro-food sector s contribution to Gross National Income (GNI) from Malaysian Ringgit (RM) 20.2 billion in the year 2010 to RM49.1 billion by 2020, or an increase of RM28.9 billion.
  • Conference paper

    Inland fisheries resource enhancement and conservation practices in Myanmar 

    H Thein - In MRR Romana-Eguia, FD Parado-Estepa, ND Salayo & MJH Lebata-Ramos (Eds.), Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia: Challenges in Responsible Production … International Workshop on Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia 2014 (RESA), 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    Myanmar has impressive freshwater capture fisheries. Inland freshwater bodies cover 8.1 million ha of which 1.3 million ha are permanent while the rest are seasonally inundated floodplains. There are repeated references to the crucial importance of fish and fish products in the nutrition of the Myanmar people. Over the past few decades, inland fisheries resources have increased pressure from overfishing, use of destructive fishing gear/methods, pollution and environment changes. In order to make a sustainable inland capture fisheries and conservation of aquatic biodiversity as well as nutritional security and improved rural livelihoods, fisheries resource enhancement and conservation measures have long been adopted in Myanmar since 1967, initiated through a seed replenishment program in natural waters, such rivers, lake, dams, even rice fields, etc. However, the institutional, policy, legislative and financial environments under which enhancement and capture fisheries regimes exist are not conducive to the interests of the fishers. Strong tools for valuation of ecosystem goods and services, enabling governance arrangements and estimation of environmental flows are needed. Fishing communities need to be organized into strong co-management/participatory/community regimes in order to ensure that all stakeholders take part in decision-making process and the benefits accrued are shared equitably by all.
  • Conference paper

    Stock assessment of christian crabs (Charybdis feriatus, Linnaeus, 1758) in San Miguel bay 

    PM Nieves, NR Olfindo & AM Macale - In MRR Romana-Eguia, FD Parado-Estepa, ND Salayo & MJH Lebata-Ramos (Eds.), Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia: Challenges in Responsible Production … International Workshop on Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia 2014 (RESA), 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    Assessment of the status of swimming crab fisheries in San Miguel Bay with focus on Christian or Crucifix crab, Charybdis feriatus, was undertaken from November 2011 to January 2013. An analytical length-based fish stock assessment was employed using the FISAT (version 1.2.2). A total of 7,679 length frequencies (3,612 C. feriatus and 4,067 Portunus pelagicus) were used in the analysis. About 15 and 14 percent gravid females were harvested monthly for both species that may contribute to recruitment overfishing. Population parameters showed exploitation rate (E) for P. pelagicus and C. feriatus exceeded the optimum exploitation (E0.5) implying excessive fishing effort and heavily exploited stocks. Size at maturity of C. feriatus and P. pelagicus in San Miguel Bay is 8.3 cm and 8.5 cm, respectively. Doable options for resources conservation and management strategies are proposed and supported by local government units (LGUs) including the Integrated Fisheries and Aquatic Resource Management Council.
  • Conference paper

    Abalone aquaculture for stock enhancement and community livelihood project in northern Palawan, Philippines 

    BJ Gonzales - In MRR Romana-Eguia, FD Parado-Estepa, ND Salayo & MJH Lebata-Ramos (Eds.), Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia: Challenges in Responsible Production … International Workshop on Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia 2014 (RESA), 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    One of the interventions to feed the poorest of the poor fisheries sector in the country is the provision of livelihood in the form of mariculture of high value marine species. In the Philippines, livelihood in rural areas is largely linked to resource depletion, hence it is wise not only to provide livelihood to the community but also to encourage them to conserve and enhance the resources. As part of the revised R&D program, the Western Philippines University partnered with NGO and existing projects to embark on a community-based environment-concerned livelihood project, using hatchery bred abalone, although top shell was also considered for stock enhancement. This is in an on-going project thus, preliminary phases such as abalone production and cage-based grow-out as well as subsequent project plans will be discussed. The objectives of this study were to: (a) share the implementing experiences in this project, (b) identify success and failure drivers of the project, (c) explain the conceptual framework for the MPA-based stock enhancement to be used in this project, and (d) give recommendations to improve the implementation and ensure the success of the project.

    The following activities have thus far been conducted: (a) development of criteria for cage micro-site selection; (b) writing of proposal and provision of financial assistance for hatchery juvenile production through a partnership MOA; (c) presentation of site survey results to beneficiaries and stake holders; (d) conduct of trainings on abalone grow out culture to POs; (e) development and improvement of training module; (f) signing of conservation agreement; (g) giving of cage materials and juveniles to people s organizations; (h) on site coaching; and (i) partial monitoring. The next activities include improvement in juvenile production, conduct of researches on abalone nutrition, and development of market and value chain flow analysis. The conceptual framework for community-managed stock enhancement will follow that of the Department of Environment and Natural Resources-ICRMP, of which the stock enhancement project is anchored on the management of marine protected areas or MPAs.

    The steps in all the activities were documented and while the project was in progress, performance of the participants in training were measured, the training module was improved, the training approaches were revised according to needs, and the growth and survival of juvenile abalone were monitored. The problems identified were low production of juveniles, insufficient food for grow-out, political squabbles, social preparation, and delay in implementation schedule. Recommendations to improve or resolve the problems encountered were also presented in this paper.
  • Conference paper

    Current status of aquaculture in Singapore 

    NC Heng - In MRR Romana-Eguia, FD Parado-Estepa, ND Salayo & MJH Lebata-Ramos (Eds.), Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia: Challenges in Responsible Production … International Workshop on Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia 2014 (RESA), 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    Singapore is a small country state with a demographic profile of over 5 million in population. With limited land for agricultural purposes and sea space available for fish farming, Singapore depends heavily on importation of fresh seafood. Even so, Singapore has a small but thriving and increasingly important food fish farming industry which accounts for about 6% of local food fish consumption.

    The main bulk of local food fish production comes from coastal farming in floating netcages along the northern coast of Singapore. Popular species of marine food fish cultured include seabass, pompano, groupers, mullets and milkfish. There are also a few land-based fish farms culturing species like tilapia, marble goby and snakehead.

    The ornamental fish farming industry is concentrated mainly in Agrotechnology Parks and there are about 75 fish farms producing ornamental fishes with an approximate value of $76.7 million that is exported to over 80 countries.

    The Agri-Food and Veterinary Authority of Singapore (AVA) is the national authority for aquaculture development in Singapore and manages aquaculture farms through the issuance of fish farming licenses. For marine food fish farms, the farm licensee has to abide by good farm management guidelines to maintain the farm in good condition and ensure that the farm does not engage in activities that would impact the farming environment. For land-based farms, there are also guidelines that address infrastructure layout, farming system and water treatment facilities. The latter requires that sedimentation ponds, reservoir ponds/tanks, supply/drainage systems and trade effluent treatment plant are included in the farm set-up.

    There are several challenges and issues faced by the aquaculture industry in Singapore. One of these is the consistent supply of good quality fish fry as farmers have to source for fish fry from overseas sources that may not be consistent or readily available.

    Issues of fish health and farm management are other challenges faced by our fish farms. These factors affect farm productivity and the sustainability of farming operations.

    The AVA has established the Marine Aquaculture Centre (MAC) on St John's Island to address the needs of aquaculture development for Singapore through development of fish reproduction and seed production as well as large-scale fish farming technology. At present, the fish reproduction technology research work involves closing the reproductive cycles of key marine food fish species and also fry production at a commercial scale level. Closing the reproductive cycle will help to reduce the reliance on imported fry. Good quality brooders are selected, maintained and bred to produce quality fry, which would translate to better growth performance and shorter culture period. This, together with good farm management practices, will optimize the usage of fish feeds during the culture cycle.

    To fill the gap in production and supply of good quality fish seeds for local fish farms, AVA shares information on hatchery technology development with local commercial hatcheries.

    The AVA collaborates with research institutes and local fish farms in the development of vaccines to boost the survival rate of fish fry and fingerlings. This will improve survivability, thus increase the production of the farms and reduce the reliance on prophylactic drugs that may have negative consequences from prolonged use.

    The AVA also renders technical assistance to the farmers to formulate viable production plans to improve production. By leveraging on the use of technology and good farm practices, such as implementation of fish health, fish nutrition and feeding protocols, it is possible to reduce production costs and improve productivity. The introduction of the Good Aquaculture Practice scheme for food fish farming will help improve the standards of the local aquaculture industry and sustainability through responsible management practices.
  • Conference paper

    Sustainable aquaculture and resources enhancement in Indonesia 

    S Soetardjo & I Adhitya - In MRR Romana-Eguia, FD Parado-Estepa, ND Salayo & MJH Lebata-Ramos (Eds.), Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia: Challenges in Responsible Production … International Workshop on Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia 2014 (RESA), 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    With a human population of 230 million and a huge potential for marine and fisheries resources development, Indonesia promotes aquaculture as a major sector to accelerate economic growth for rural communities. There are recent initiatives to improve the country's legal framework to mitigate the adverse impacts of aquaculture and make the aquaculture more sustainable.

    The Directorate General of Aquaculture under the Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries (MMAF) has the mandate to develop the aquaculture sector of Indonesia. Aquaculture has an important role in the development of its national economy and play a key role in rural development. As aquaculture production expands, there is also a growing concern over the impacts on sustainability of aquaculture and resource enhancement as well as food quality and safety requirements of fish products.

    For this reason, there is a need to improve aquaculture technology and its management system in Indonesia to address the need for eco-friendly production process and food safety concerns while maintaining the sustainability of the country's aquaculture sector. The Indonesian Fisheries Act No. 31 (2004) Amendment No. 45 (2009) mentioned that, among others, the Indonesian fisheries management strategies should include the creation job opportunities, improvement of the welfare of fishers and their communities, and ensuring the sustainability of the country's fishery resources and aquatic environment.

    The most critical factors to achieve sustainable aquaculture in Indonesia are the availability of good quality seed, good practice in grow-out systems, healthy aquaculture environment, fish health management, good-quality products, strategic marketing, and improving marketing and stock enhancement. In addition, it is also a concern that the products from aquaculture should meet the quality standard and product safety. This paper presents a review of Indonesian aquaculture in relation to sustainable practices and management schemes to preserve the aquaculture environment, food safety requirements for aquaculture products, food security and to enhance the biodiversity of fishery resources. A policy that was recently established is the development of the marine and fisheries sector based on the principles of the Blue Economy program of the Indonesian government.
  • Conference paper

    Marker-aided genetic stock management: prospects in Philippine aquatic biodiversity conservation and aquaculture 

    MRR Romana-Eguia, M Ikeda & A Kijima - In MRR Romana-Eguia, FD Parado-Estepa, ND Salayo & MJH Lebata-Ramos (Eds.), Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia: Challenges in Responsible Production … International Workshop on Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia 2014 (RESA), 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    With the advent of DNA marker-based technologies and applications, genetic stock assessment incorporating molecular marker information has become an important tool in managing resources both for aquaculture and stock enhancement. Local initiatives toward this end have been undertaken by several research and academic agencies particularly those with access to advanced molecular genetic laboratory facilities both in the Philippines and in collaborating foreign institutions. Funds coming from the Philippine Department of Science and Technology and/or international research grants have supported work on commercially valuable species such as tilapia, shrimp, mud crabs, abalone, milkfish and some high value marine fishes with a view of utilizing and in the process, demonstrating the significance of more scientific microlevel assessment of stocks. Information drawn from marker-aided genetic stock evaluation can contribute to a better understanding of the impact of how proper stock management can be more effectively achieved and how this method can gradually translate to improved yields both from culture and fisheries. This paper covers a review of the status of this technology as applied to ongoing fish conservation and aquaculture production efforts in the Philippines.
  • Conference paper

    Induced breeding of giant trevally, maliputo (Caranx ignobilis) 

    MTM Mutia, FB Muyot & ML Magistrado - In MRR Romana-Eguia, FD Parado-Estepa, ND Salayo & MJH Lebata-Ramos (Eds.), Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia: Challenges in Responsible Production … International Workshop on Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia 2014 (RESA), 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    The giant trevally, maliputo (Caranx ignobilis), a highly prized and most popular indigenous migratory fish in Taal Lake, Batangas, Philippines, was induced to spawn using various hormones (to assess hormone efficacy on spawning performance). Different feeding regimes used in the larval rearing of this species were also evaluated. Sexually mature breeders, 5 to 7 years old with at least 0.5 mm oocyte diameter and 60% of ova at GVM stage were injected intramuscularly, in two doses, with: (a) 1,000 IU/kg BW human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG); (b) 100 µg/kg BW luteinizing hormone releasing hormone analogue (LHRHa); and (c) 5 mg/kg BW carp pituitary extract (CPE), at five breeders per hormone treatment. Uninjected fish served as the control. Treated fish were released and allowed to spawn spontaneously in 40-ton (5m diameter) circular tanks.

    Successful spawning was achieved during the months of March to July (28-30 ppt salinity; 27.6-29.25°C). Maliputo eggs are pelagic, clear and spherical, with a single oil globule and mean diameter of 0.8 mm. Ovulation period was 24-36.5 hours after 2nd injection in HCG-treated fish and 25-52 hours for LHRHa-injected fish. Only one of the CPE-treated fish spawned after 27 hours but eggs were not fertilized. Uninjected control fish did not spawn. Eggs were hatched in 11-13 hours in HCG treatment and 11-17 hours in LHRHa. Mean number of spawned eggs (3,500-4,000 eggs•gram-1) was higher in HCG treatment (223,068 eggs•kg-1 breeder at 58.27g•kg-1 breeder) than LHRHa (176,524 eggs•kg-1 breeder at 50.44 g•kg-1 breeder). Fertilization and hatching rates were both higher in LHRHa (60.88% and 71.07%, respectively), than HCG treatment (30.53% and 43.06%). Mean number of produced larvae was higher in LHRHa treatment (56,040 larvae•kg-1 breeder) compared to HCG-treated fish (41,547 larvae•kg-1 breeder).

    Hatched larvae (1.6 mm mean length) reared for 30 days in 3m x 3m concrete tanks using the standard protocol for marine finfish hatchery attained a maximum survival of 4.47%. Complete metamorphosis was observed after 26-28 days (8.1 mm mean length). Successful larval rearing was attained using greenwater (Nannochloropsis sp.) technology fed with live food (Brachionus sp. and Artemia salina). Critical periods were days 1-7 and days 19-22 when heavy mortalities were observed.

    Being the first recorded spawning in captivity of Caranx ignobilis in the Philippines, the results of this study provides an important baseline data and is a major step towards the development of a hatchery technology for maliputo in the country as well as for seed enhancement of its natural habitat. The project has provided 400,000 maliputo larvae to private hatcheries for larval rearing trials while 100,000 larvae were seeded in Balayan Bay and 5,000 fingerlings released in Taal Lake.
  • Conference paper

    Seed production of the blue swimming crab (Portunus pelagicus) 

    NS Cabacaba & JE Salamida - In MRR Romana-Eguia, FD Parado-Estepa, ND Salayo & MJH Lebata-Ramos (Eds.), Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia: Challenges in Responsible Production … International Workshop on Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia 2014 (RESA), 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    The blue swimming crab, Portunus pelagicus, is becoming a commercially important species in the Philippines. The expanding export market for crabs has led to intensified collection and has threatened the wild stocks. This decline has prompted the need for proper management of the remaining resources, and interest in the establishment of hatchery facilities to produce crablets for reseeding and aquaculture.

    This paper presents the production method for P. pelagicus seedstock at the Guiuan Marine Fisheries Development Center. Experiments to improve larval rearing were conducted as well. For seed production, larvae at the zoeal stage were taken from wild-caught berried crabs hatched in 100-L circular drums filled with sand-filtered seawater (32-34 ppt, 28-30°C). Zoeae were stocked at 100 zoea L-1 in rectangular tanks and fed rotifers at 30 ind ml-1 for the first 4 days. Newlyhatched Artemia were given at 1-2 ind ml-1 at zoea 3, and increased to 5 ind ml-1 at zoea 4 to the megalopa stage. Chlorella sp. was maintained in the rearing tanks at 50,000 cells ml-1 as food for rotifers and for water conditioning. Water exchange was done daily at 30-50%, except for the first 5 days of rearing. The development from zoea 1 to megalopa and megalopa to the first crab instar took 10-12 and 4-6 days, respectively. Longer larval development was observed at lower temperature (<26°C). Cannibalism and deteriorating water quality were identified as major causes of mortality. Survival of zoea 1 to megalopa was higher in chlorinated seawater (7.5+2.58%) compared to UV-treated (6.5+1.73%) and sand-filtered (4.0+2.58%) seawater. Trials involving the use of different tank background colors showed that the survival of larvae was highest in black tanks (9.0+1.00%) as compared to those white tanks (1.5+0.58%).

    In nursery rearing, megalopae were stocked at 1-2 ind ml-1 in wide tanks or concrete pond. Strategies to reduce cannibalism were done by providing shelters and sand substrate (>10 cm). As soon as the megalopa molted to crab instars, they were given minced fish, shell meat, Acetes and formulated crab feeds twice daily, ad libitum. After 21 days, crablets were collected manually after partially draining the water in concrete pond. The crablets produced were released in identified fish sanctuaries and marine protected areas region-wide for resource enhancement and for aquaculture research purposes.
  • Conference paper

    Post-larval rearing strategies in sandish (Holothuria scabra) culture 

    MF Nievales, R Sibonga & H Figurado - In MRR Romana-Eguia, FD Parado-Estepa, ND Salayo & MJH Lebata-Ramos (Eds.), Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia: Challenges in Responsible Production … International Workshop on Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia 2014 (RESA), 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    Various post-larval rearing methods were compared to determine which scheme would give the most yield of newly settled (visible) juvenile stage (> 1mm body length). Five types of postlarval rearing methods were tested: T1- planktonic diatom only (Chaetoceros calcitrans, Cc), T2-benthic diatom Navicula (Nsp) as biofilm and concentrate, T3- Navicula as biofilm + Cc, T4Spirulina as paste on settling plate + Cc, and T5- Spirulina (Sp) as paste on settling plates + Nsp concentrate. An experiment was conducted in small (3-li) aquaria using a cohort of Day 14 (postfertilization) sandfish larvae. Simultaneously, three of the 5 post-larval rearing methods (i.e. T2, T3 and T4) were done in medium scale (30-li) aquaria to determine how a conventional method (T2) employed in a pilot sea cucumber hatchery in Central Philippines compared with method observed in Viet Nam (T3) or with a hybrid method (T4). Visible post-settled juveniles were counted weekly for the next three weeks and expressed as percentage yield. After three days of rearing, transparent but visible early settled juveniles were observed. Mean percentage (%) juvenile yield in week 1 was highest in T1 (Cc only)(17% + 1.3) followed by T3 (Sp + Cc) (14% + 1.6) in a 3 li scale. Yield increased and peaked in week 2 especially for rearing methods with Nsp while those without (e.g T1 and T2) declined dramatically by week 3. In the 30-li scale, the highest mean yield was consistent with T5 (Nsp + Cc) until Week 3 (12% + 11.2). The mean juvenile yield on the 2nd and 3rd week were better than the 2% average for this stage or the 2.5% benchmark based on experiences in the Philippines and Viet Nam as indicated in published references.

View more