Recent Submissions

  • Book

    Philippine National Standard: Organic aquaculture 

    Bureau of Agriculture and Fisheries Standards - 2016 - Bureau of Agriculture and Fisheries Standards
    The Philippine National Standard (PNS) for Organic Aquaculture (PNS/BAFS 112:2016) was originally prepared and adopted in 2012. Organic aquaculture encourages polyculture production system, promotes the use of indigenous/endemic species under the extensive and semi-intensive culture systems, reduces/minimizes inputs of artificial ingredients, prohibits the use of genetically modified organisms (GMOs), and considers ecological conditions necessary for sustainable aquaculture production.

    The PNS for Organic Aquaculture was revised by the Technical Working Group (TWG) organized by the Bureau of Agriculture and Fisheries Standards (BAFS) through a Department of Agriculture (DA) Special Order No.476, Series of 2015. The TWG is composed of members representing the Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources (BFAR), Organic Certification Center of the Philippines (OCCP), Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center Aquaculture Department (SEAFDEC-AQD), Philippine Council for Agriculture, Aquatic and Natural Resources Research and Development (PCAARRD) and Central Luzon State University (CLSU). This PNS was presented and reviewed during the consultative meetings with the concerned stakeholders in Region I (Pangasinan) and Region XI (Davao City). Comments gathered during the consultations were carefully evaluated by the TWG and included accordingly in the final version of this standard. Drawn from the general principles of the Philippine National Standard on Organic Agriculture, this PNS on Organic Aquaculture attempts to cover the aquaculture production and postharvest operations in order to ensure the integrity of organic products. The requirements for the inclusion of Substances and Criteria for the development of the list of substances shall follow the Philippine National Standards for Organic Aquaculture and the Guidelines for the Production, Processing, Labelling and Marketing of Organically Produced Foods (GL 32-1999).

    The revision of this PNS was undertaken in order to achieve equivalence with the existing international standards and its future amendment, and takes into consideration the new developments and inclusion of the identified potential species for organic aquaculture. Thus, this PNS identifies minimum requirements on documentation, conversion to organic aquaculture, parallel production, selection of site, interaction with surrounding ecosystem, organic fertilization, aquatic plants, aquatic animal sources/origin, breeding and hatchery management, aquatic animal nutrition and feeding, aquatic animal health and welfare, harvesting, post-harvest handling, transport and processing, storage, and social aspects.
  • Book

    Philippine National Standard: Organic aquaculture feeds 

    Bureau of Agriculture and Fisheries Standards - 2016 - Bureau of Agriculture and Fisheries Standards
    The Bureau of Agriculture and Fisheries Standards (BAFS) in line with its mandate under Republic Act 10068 or the Organic Agriculture Act of 2010, initiated the development of Philippine National Standard (PNS) for Organic Aquaculture Feeds to address the needs of the organic aquaculture industry. It aims to provide minimum requirements for the production of organic feeds for organic aquaculture animals.

    The PNS for Organic Aquaculture Feeds was developed by the Technical Working Group (TWG) organized by the Bureau of Agriculture and Fisheries Standards (BAFS) through a Department of Agriculture (DA) Special Order No.183, Series of 2015. The TWG is composed of members representing the Bureau of Animal Industry (BAI), Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources (BFAR), Organic Certification Center of the Philippines (OCCP), Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center Aquaculture Department (SEAFDEC-AQD), Philippine Council for Agriculture, Aquatic and Natural Resources Research and Development (PCAARRD) and Central Luzon State University (CLSU). This PNS was presented and reviewed during the consultative meetings with the concerned stakeholders in Region I (Pangasinan), XI (Davao City) and NCR (Quezon City). Comments gathered during the consultations were carefully evaluated by the TWG and included accordingly in the final version of this standard. Drawn from the general principles of the PNS on Organic Aquaculture, this PNS on Organic Aquaculture Feeds attempts to cover the aquaculture feed formulation and preparation in order to ensure the integrity of organic products. The requirements for the inclusion of feed additives, processing aids and other ingredients and criteria for the development of the list of ingredients shall follow the PNS for Organic Aquaculture and Organic Agriculture.

    This PNS identifies the minimum requirements on the organic aquaculture feed products and forms, essential composition and quality factors (including raw materials, feed additives, processing aids and other ingredients), hygiene and handling, packaging and labeling, methods of sampling, examination and analysis and definition of defectives.
  • Book

    Philippine National Standard: Dried anchovies 

    Bureau of Agriculture and Fisheries Standards - 2016 - Bureau of Agriculture and Fisheries Standards
    This PNS for dried anchovies aims to provide a common understanding on the scope of the standard, product description, process description, essential composition and quality factors, food additives, contaminants, hygiene and handling, packaging and labeling, methods of sampling, examination and analysis, definition of defectives and lot acceptance.
  • Book

    Philippine National Standard: Pasteurized crab meat 

    Bureau of Agriculture and Fisheries Standards - 2016 - Bureau of Agriculture and Fisheries Standards
    This PNS for pasteurized crab meat aims to provide a common understanding on the scope of the standard, product description, process description, essential composition and quality factors, food additives, contaminants, hygiene and handling, packaging and labeling, methods of sampling, examination and analysis, definition of defectives and lot acceptance.
  • Book

    Philippine National Standard: Live mangrove crab 

    Bureau of Agriculture and Fisheries Standards - 2016 - Bureau of Agriculture and Fisheries Standards
    This PNS for live mangrove crab aims to provide a common understanding on the scope of the standard, product description, process description, essential composition and quality factors, food additives, contaminants, hygiene and handling, packaging and labeling, methods of sampling, examination and analysis, definition of defectives and lot acceptance.
  • Book | Conference publication

    Resource enhancement and sustainable aquaculture practices in Southeast Asia: challenges in responsible production of aquatic species : proceedings of the international workshop on resource enhancement and sustainable aquaculture practices in Southeast Asia 2014 (RESA) 

    MRR Romana-Eguia, FD Parado-Estepa, ND Salayo & MJH Lebata-Ramos (Eds.) - 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    The conference was held in order to promote and augment regional initiatives on resource enhancement and sustainable aquaculture practices, and to contribute to poverty alleviation, livelihood and food security in Southeast Asia. The contributions of the selected participants during the conference which are contained in this volume are cited individually.
  • Conference paper

    The importance of mangroves to capture and culture fisheries 

    JH Primavera - In MRR Romana-Eguia, FD Parado-Estepa, ND Salayo & MJH Lebata-Ramos (Eds.), Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia: Challenges in Responsible Production … International Workshop on Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia 2014 (RESA), 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    Abstract only.
  • Conference paper

    Stock enhancement? Why bother 

    J Ingles - In MRR Romana-Eguia, FD Parado-Estepa, ND Salayo & MJH Lebata-Ramos (Eds.), Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia: Challenges in Responsible Production … International Workshop on Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia 2014 (RESA), 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    There are two approaches to resource enhancement of depleted wild fish stocks: through stock enhancement where aquaculture science plays a central role, or through improved management of fish stocks. This paper presents an argument that despite major advances in stock enhancement technologies (tagging, genetic mapping, numerical modeling techniques), major hurdles in policy framework, science and information gaps, risk mitigation protocols and capacity gap remain. These factors are associated with high and recurring cost that requires medium to long-term solutions that ultimately, improving management and governance to recover depleted stocks will still be the best option available.
  • Conference paper

    Status of resource management and aquaculture in Malaysia 

    A Yusoff - In MRR Romana-Eguia, FD Parado-Estepa, ND Salayo & MJH Lebata-Ramos (Eds.), Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia: Challenges in Responsible Production … International Workshop on Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia 2014 (RESA), 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    Malaysia is a maritime nation and its fishing industry is a source of income for 134,000 fishermen. In 2012, the fisheries sector produced 1.7 million tons of fish valued at RM10.8 billion and generated trade worth RM6 billion. The landings from capture fisheries are expected to increase from 1.32 million tons in 2010 to 1.76 million tons in 2020 at an annual growth rate of 2.9%. In 2012, 65% of total catch was contributed by the coastal fisheries as compared to 35% from deep sea fishing. Landing from deep sea fishing is expected to rise from 381,000 tons in 2012 to 620,000 tons in 2020. Deep sea fishing has been identified for its potential to contribute to the increase in the country s fish production. With a growing population and an increasing preference for fish as a healthy source of animal protein, the National Agro-food Policy (2011-2020) estimated that the annual demand for fish will increase to 1.93 million tons by the year 2020. The Department of Fisheries (DOF) has developed the Capture Fisheries Strategic Management Plan (2011-2020) based on three main documents i.e.; National Agro-food Policy (NAP, 2011-2020), Department of Fisheries Strategic Management Plan (2011-2020), and Malaysia National Plan of Action on Sustainable Fisheries for Food Security towards 2020.

    Aquaculture is now being promoted in Malaysia as an important engine of growth and eventually to become the mainstay of the nation s economy. Situated in a region with abundant supply of land and water, two determinant factors for aquaculture activities, Malaysia has always strived to ensure that this sector is not sidelined in their development efforts. With a growing population and an increasing preference for fish as a healthy source of animal protein, it has been estimated that the annual demand for fish will increase to 1.7 million tons in 2011 and further to 1.93 million tons by 2020. From the present annual aquaculture production of about 525,000 tons, this output would need to be raised to 790,000 tons to meet the projected demand by 2020. In a move to develop the aquaculture industry, the DOF, has initiated the Aquaculture Industrial Zone (AIZ) Program involving the development of 49 zones, located across Malaysia, which will be used for culture of various types of high value aquatic species. The DOF has identified several strategic areas that would be developed for downstream activities such as fish seed production, feed mills, fish processing plants, and other supporting industries. Aquaculture is also currently listed amongst the 16 Agro-food s Entry Point Projects (EPP) of the National Key Economic Area (NKEA). The government aims to double the Agro-food sector s contribution to Gross National Income (GNI) from Malaysian Ringgit (RM) 20.2 billion in the year 2010 to RM49.1 billion by 2020, or an increase of RM28.9 billion.
  • Conference paper

    Is small-hold tropical aquaculture in a genetic plunge towards extinction? 

    RW Doyle - In MRR Romana-Eguia, FD Parado-Estepa, ND Salayo & MJH Lebata-Ramos (Eds.), Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia: Challenges in Responsible Production … International Workshop on Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia 2014 (RESA), 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    Tropical shrimp aquaculture is in a disease-induced crisis of lost production. The response to this crisis currently focuses on microbiology and pathology, quarantine, and transboundary transfer of shrimp. The crisis also involves an interaction between shrimp genetics and various human interests including protection of intellectual property. Breeders of high-quality strains generally employ (and are encouraged to employ) some form of breeder lock that generates inbreeding when broodstocks are copied . Smaller hatcheries sell these copied, inbred shrimp to farmers, who thereby increase the likelihood of losing their crops to disease. The joint behavior of breeders, hatcheries and farmers causes inbreeding to accumulate in tropical regions.

    The depressive effect of inbreeding on disease resistance is exceptionally strong in shrimp, as shown in a re-analysis of published field and experimental data. Inbreeding increases the severity and frequency of disease through a variety of mechanisms. We have relatively few, marker-based estimates of accumulated inbreeding in any non-pedigreed shrimp aquaculture system. Simulation shows, however, that locked post larvae (PLs) can be distinguished from copies in broodstocks and farm ponds, given appropriate analysis of genetic markers.

    Culture of stocks certified to be free of specified pathogens (specific pathogen free or SPF stocks) is strongly recommended and only SPF stocks can now be legally imported into most jurisdictions. These recommendations are appropriate, beneficial and necessary. But insofar as they increase the commercial value of proprietary genetic strains, such regulations may also increase the likelihood of copying, and thus inbreeding at farm level and ever-increasing susceptibility to disease and climate stress (Doyle, 2014a).

    The intellectual property value of disease-resistant strains will be extremely high and intellectual property rights are fundamental to science-based economic innovation. Breeders will, and must, continue to protect their genetic improvement programs with genetic locks, especially in regions where judicial sanctions are ineffective. The regulatory objective should be to encourage biosecurity and genetic progress while discouraging copying and consequent inbreeding.

    The current consensus that inbreeding is unimportant may therefore be out of date. Inbreeding may be amplifying the severity of diseases (including the major current threats: white spot syndrome virus or WSSV, infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus or IHHNV and early mortality syndrome or EMS (acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease or AHPND). Continuing to ignore the interaction between inbreeding and disease may become a fatal error for tropical shrimp aquaculture.
  • Conference paper

    Marine biodiversity at the SEAFDEC/AQD research stations in Iloilo and Guimaras, Philippines 

    TU Bagarinao - In MRR Romana-Eguia, FD Parado-Estepa, ND Salayo & MJH Lebata-Ramos (Eds.), Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia: Challenges in Responsible Production … International Workshop on Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia 2014 (RESA), 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    Species inventories were recently made in and around the research stations of the SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department to facilitate subsequent monitoring. AQD s Tigbauan Main Station (TMS, since 1973) faces the deep open waters of the Panay Gulf and Sulu Sea and is flanked by densely populated fishing villages operating nearshore fish corrals, gillnets, longlines, and beach seines. In 2013 2014, sampling at the sand-gravel intertidal and monitoring of the catch of the various gears showed at least 579 species from 213 families, including 252 species of fishes, 228 mollusks, 48 crustaceans, 12 cnidarians, 9 echinoderms, 16 seaweeds, sea turtles, and sea snakes inhabiting the nearshore areas off TMS. Any adverse effect of the TMS hatcheries and laboratories is difficult to discern on top of the continuous intense fishing and habitat disturbance. AQD s Igang Marine Station (IMS, since 1980) is in a cove under the rocky cliffs of southern Guimaras, behind several islands facing the Panay Gulf and Sulu Sea. IMS includes 40 ha of seagrass beds and sandflats around five rocky islets and two 6 12 m deep basins where broodstock and growout cages are moored. IMS is flanked by many fish corrals operated by fishers who live in villages in nearby coves. Fishers on outrigger boats also use gillnets and spears, and others glean for mollusks and echinoderms inside IMS. In 2011 2012, some 786 species in 261 families were collected or photographed at IMS, including 74 species of fishes, 40 crustaceans, 391 mollusks, 44 echinoderms, 87 cnidarians, 47 poriferans, 24 ascidians, and 12 bryozoans, and sea snakes living among 48 seaweeds and 4 seagrasses. Biodiversity at IMS seems high despite 35 years of operation of the fish cages and the continuous fishing, gleaning, and boating by the locals. Several species of filter-feeding invertebrates grew on the cage nets and platforms but were not found in the natural habitats. The cages provide additional attachment surfaces for many species; these biofoulants presumably reduce water flow into the cages but they also remove nutrients and particulate wastes and help maintain good water quality. Nevertheless, siltation is evident under the cliffs inside the cove, and the sandflats may be expanding over the seagrass beds. AQD s 16ha Dumangas Brackishwater Station (DBS, since 1998) is flanked by freshwater Talaugis River, by hundreds of hectares of mangrove-derived fish ponds, and by Pulao Creek and an extensive mudflat with fringing mangroves at the northeastern end of Iloilo Strait. In 2009 2010, 16 ponds with water areas from 0.5 to 0.9 ha were sampled during harvest of the experimental crops. At least 90 species of non-crop fishes lived in the DBS ponds, along with 35 crustaceans, 60 mollusks, three echinoderms, two cnidarians, and a water snake. The snails Cerithideopsilla spp., Cerithium coralium, and Batillaria spp. were very abundant in the ponds. Almost all the same species in the ponds, plus many others, were found in the adjoining fringing mangroves with ~10 species of trees. The ponds serve as proxy for mangrove lagoons that harbor the young of migratory fishes as well as all life stages of resident species. Several non-crop species inside the IMS cages and the DBS ponds are harvested by the pond workers and contribute to nutrition and income. Aquaculture farms should be managed for high biodiversity to ensure sustainability. Ways are suggested for SEAFDEC/AQD to do so at its aquaculture research stations.
  • Conference paper

    Reaching the poor through aquaculture: The case of technology adoption in rural communities at west central Philippines 

    DB Baticados - In MRR Romana-Eguia, FD Parado-Estepa, ND Salayo & MJH Lebata-Ramos (Eds.), Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia: Challenges in Responsible Production … International Workshop on Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia 2014 (RESA), 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    Aquaculture is promoted for food security and poverty alleviation in developing countries. This study examines the socio-economic impact of aquaculture technologies extended to calamitystricken rural communities in Nueva Valencia, Guimaras, representing the marine water fishery and in Dumarao, Capiz, representing the inland freshwater fishery at west central Philippines. The adoption pathway employed in both sites was community-based and participatory. The survey was conducted among cooperators and non-cooperators, randomly selected in equal numbers in two sites with 60 respondents each per site using a pre-tested interview schedule.

    Results showed that aquaculture is an acceptable technology both for cooperators and noncooperators. The venture is a profitable business either done individually or collectively through an association, if managed properly. Milkfish cage culture, however, needs big capital that technology adoption among local fisherfolk (Guimaras) is limited. In contrast, tilapia cage culture enables small farmers/fishers in Dumarao to venture on their own. Dumarao growers were able to innovate using local materials like bamboo poles to make their cages afloat instead of drums or plastic containers as buoys. There were, however, environmental, technological and institutional issues deterring technology adoption in both sites. Climate change and institutional issues were the more prevalent concerns of Dumarao growers. The technological issues like fluctuating market price, cost of feeds, and fry supply were more enunciated in Guimaras.
  • Conference paper

    Assessment of humphead wrasse (Cheilinus undulatus), spawning aggregations and declaration of marine protected area as strategy for enhancement of wild stocks 

    FG Romero & AS Injaki - In MRR Romana-Eguia, FD Parado-Estepa, ND Salayo & MJH Lebata-Ramos (Eds.), Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia: Challenges in Responsible Production … International Workshop on Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia 2014 (RESA), 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    Humphead wrasse, known as the Napoleon fish (Cheilinus undulatus), is the largest living member of the family Labridae. It is slow growing but can grow to a maximum size exceeding 2 m and 190 kg. This species was the first commercially important coral reef food fish to be listed in the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) Appendix II in 2004 because of its vulnerable status and the ongoing threat to its conservation from international trade. Like many coral reef fishes, the humphead wrasse, Cheilinus undulatus, aggregate in reef areas when they spawn and this spawning behaviour makes them highly vulnerable to overfishing. Assessment of the spawning aggregations of this species was conducted in the municipalities of Sibutu and Sitangkai in the province of Tawi-Tawi, Philippines. Key informant interviews (KII) with fishermen, mariculturists, and other stakeholders and focus group discussions (FGD) with local government leaders, Fisheries and Aquatic Resources Management (FARMC) members, mariculturists, and exporters were conducted. Guided by the results of these KII and FGDs, underwater visual census of mameng (local common name for Napoleon wrasse) populations (juvenile and mature) were conducted to document spawning aggregation sites. Since there was no photo-documentation of actual spawning aggregations of mameng in the reef areas, indirect measures were used. Result of the KII and FGD indicated that the Baligtang Reef in Sipangkot and Tando Owak are major sources of spawners. Anecdotal accounts of Bajau fishermen showed that Dungun Dungon, Baligtang reef, Tando Owak and Tugalan are traditional fishing grounds for mameng spawning aggregations. From the length-frequency analysis of mameng caught by hook and line and fish pot in the Baligtang Reef in Sipangkot, the estimated length at maturity of this species was found to be 25-35 cm. There were 134 individuals caught within this size range so they are considered potential spawners. Another indirect proof used was the underwater documentation of juvenile humphead wrasse which were regularly observed and photographed in association with seagrass beds and branching coral reefs in Baligtang Reef in Sipangkot, Sitangkai. Gonadal study also indicated that the mameng caught in this area had mature and ripe gonads but the number of mature fish depends on the season. These were the basis of declaring Spawning Aggregation Sites in Tando Owak and Dungun Dungun in Sibutu and Baligtang Reef, Sipangkot and Tugalan in Sitangkai. These were declared as marine protected areas by ordinance of the municipal Sangguniang Bayan of the two municipalities. Management and enforcement plans have been developed and Bantay Dagat have been trained to protect the spawning aggregations and this strategy aims to protect the wild stocks of humphead wrasse. Protecting the spawners would ensure that there would be enough recruits, prevent recruitment overfishing and enhance the wild stocks.
  • Conference paper

    Social preparations towards community-based approach to stock enhancement in Sagay Marine Reserve, Philippines 

    ND Salayo, RJG Castel, DHM Tormon, RT Barrido, MFJ Nievales & T Azuma - In MRR Romana-Eguia, FD Parado-Estepa, ND Salayo & MJH Lebata-Ramos (Eds.), Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia: Challenges in Responsible Production … International Workshop on Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia 2014 (RESA), 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    Stock enhancement involves a set of management approaches which include the release of hatchery-produced aquatic organisms to enhance or restore fisheries. Stock enhancement of various species has a long history in developed countries and it showed that releases have the potential to yield substantial benefits for various fishery stakeholders. While the biological objectives of stock enhancement were often successfully achieved in most of these enhancement initiatives, some results showed that actual social gains in terms of yields, distribution of benefits and institutional sustainability are often inconclusive. The high cost of stocking accrues to the government which means these are supported by public funds. Meanwhile, benefits are dissipated across various stakeholders, some of them did not at all contribute and participate in the stocking program. In such government-initiated and publicly-funded stock enhancement programs, the lack of sense of stewardship among direct fishery stakeholders was observed to have contributed to a vicious cycle of excessive extraction of fishery resources for individual economic benefits.

    Developing countries such as the Philippines would be confronted by budgetary limitations if it has to adopt the stocking strategies applied in developed countries. Thus, with reference to the success of co-management approaches for managing fishery resources in the Philippines, a community-based strategy for enhancement of fishery stocks was explored. SEAFDEC/AQD, with support from the Government of Japan Trust Fund, initiated a community-based approach to stock enhancement in Molocaboc, an island barangay or village within the Sagay Marine Reserve (SMR). The initiative aims to ensure that its goals and strategies are within the social milieu of local stakeholders, i.e. fisherfolks are without financial assets to contribute or pay for the enhancement of the fishery and stock enhancement is often not a priority approach to address fishery resource depletion for most local governments. However, the social assets of fishing communities could be explored to implement stock enhancement. This paper describes the social preparation executed from 2007 to 2011 in order to orient a fishing community such as Molocaboc towards a successful enhancement of overfished species. Initially, the project focused on donkey s ear abalone Haliotis asinina to provide an example for other species. Abalone or kapinan in the vernacular is one of the over-extracted fishery resources in Sagay City. It is one of the high-priced catch among fishers in coastal communities in the Philippines. High buying prices compared with other fish catch motivated small-scale fishers to target abalones and caused its overfishing.
  • Conference paper

    Growth and survival of nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) juveniles fed diets with varying levels of irradiated chitosan 

    K Gonzales, MN Corpuz & MRR Romana-Eguia - In MRR Romana-Eguia, FD Parado-Estepa, ND Salayo & MJH Lebata-Ramos (Eds.), Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia: Challenges in Responsible Production … International Workshop on Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia 2014 (RESA), 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    Chitin is a natural biopolymer and the second most abundant after cellulose. Chitosan, a derivative of chitin which is soluble in acidic aqueous media, is used in many applications like food, cosmetics, biomedical and pharmaceutical products. It is used in agriculture for enhancing growth in crops while in aquaculture, chitosan is believed to improve the immune response of fish to stress-inducing agents, thus enhancing survival and possibly growth. This preliminary study was conducted to investigate the effects of various concentrations of irradiated chitosan on the growth performance of Nile tilapia, O. niloticus. Fish was fed with a control diet and three formulated diets containing increasing levels of irradiated chitosan (10g, 20g and 50g kg-1). Juvenile O. niloticus was fed once daily for 21 days. The ration was based on 5% of the fish biomass. Tilapia fingerlings (n=30 per tank) of uniform size were randomly distributed in four experimental groups each with three replicates following a completely randomized design. Growth and food utilization parameters were measured. Specific growth rate (SGR), mean weight gain (MWG), mean length increment (MLI) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were computed and analyzed using ANCOVA. Results from the feeding trials showed no significant difference (P>0.05) in the different performance parameters under the different fish feed treatments. MWG, MLG, SGR and FCR varied in the stocks fed different fish feed treatments but with no significant differences. The results also showed 45-62% survival ratio. These suggest that although there is no significant difference between treatments and control, irradiated chitosan-supplemented diets do not retard the growth of O. niloticus. Chitosan should be studied further to determine how it can improve the growth performance, feed utilization and immune response of Nile tilapia.
  • Conference paper

    Modelling the impact of different stress agents on Holothurian immunity 

    LS Dolmatova - In MRR Romana-Eguia, FD Parado-Estepa, ND Salayo & MJH Lebata-Ramos (Eds.), Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia: Challenges in Responsible Production … International Workshop on Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia 2014 (RESA), 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    Due to dietetic and pharmacological values of many species of sea cucumbers (Holothuroidea, Echinodermata), and depletion of their natural resources, the species of little or no commercial value attract attention as new raw material resource, and methods of their aquaculture are developed. Both monitoring and supporting the health of animals in natural and artificial conditions demand the approaches providing reliable markers. This study compared the influence of two stress agents, namely lead and bacterial toxin Yersinia pseudotuberculosis (ТсТYp), on some of the markers of immune response of the Far Eastern holothurian Eupentacta fraudatrix. Phagocytes (P2 type) were isolated after 48h treatment of holothurians E. fraudatrix with Pb(NO3)2 (2 and 4 mg/L). In another experiment, coelomocyte were incubated with ТсТYp (0.2 and 0.5 µg/g) for 18h. Apoptosis level and FITC-conjugated concanavalin A (con A) and binding of lectins from Glycin Max and Dolichos biflorus to P2 surface receptors, and activity of antioxidant enzymes were measured.

    Lead induced an increase in catalase and decreases in superoxide dismutase and glutathione-S-transferase and glutathione reductase activities at dose of 2 but not 4 mg/L. 2 mg/L lead also increased apoptosis level. Noteworthy, receptors to lectins from G. Max and D. biflorus were poorly expressed in the control, and significantly expressed under lead treatment at a dose of 2 but not 4 mg/L (D. biflorus) or decreased at a dose of 2 but not 4 mg/L (G. Max). Binding con A was significant in the control and additionally increased under treatment with 2, but not 4 mg/L. Meanwhile, ТсТYp also induced reversed concentration-dependent effect on apoptosis: 48h incubation with 0.5 µg/g decreased apoptosis, and 0.2 µg/g-increased it. Additionally, 0.2 µg/g ТсТYp decreased binding con A and D. biflorus lectin. Commercially available catalase restored % lectin binding to the control level.

    Data obtained indicate that lead and ТсТYp differently influenced phagocyte activity, and complex definition of apoptosis level and activity of antioxidant enzymes. Finally, variations in expression of cell surface receptors may be useful for estimation of the level of stress damage to holothurians.
  • Conference paper

    Potential genetic impacts of hatchery-based resource enhancement 

    ZU Basiao - In MRR Romana-Eguia, FD Parado-Estepa, ND Salayo & MJH Lebata-Ramos (Eds.), Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia: Challenges in Responsible Production … International Workshop on Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia 2014 (RESA), 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    The global population according to the United States Census Bureau has reached 7 billion as of October 2013. The continuous growth in human population will continue to put tremendous pressure on food production. The demand for fish as source of good protein is no exception. In 2011 total capture fisheries supplied 90.4 million tons of food and total aquaculture provided 63.6 million tons. While aquaculture production has increased dramatically, more than 50% of fishery production still depends on capture fisheries. Overexploitation of wild fish stocks has become one of the biggest problems in global fisheries. Stock enhancement has become a potential viable strategy for marine fisheries in danger of collapse. With the tremendous progress made in the breeding and larval rearing techniques of marine species, hatchery-based stock enhancement is now operated in many stock enhancement programs. However, many questions are raised in the use of hatchery-reared fish in stock enhancement. This paper will discuss genetic considerations in stock enhancement in developing countries.
  • Conference paper

    Good aquaculture practices (GAqP): setting directions for harmonized regional standards - the Philippine experience 

    MF Matubang & NA Lopez - In MRR Romana-Eguia, FD Parado-Estepa, ND Salayo & MJH Lebata-Ramos (Eds.), Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia: Challenges in Responsible Production … International Workshop on Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia 2014 (RESA), 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    A milestone process on how Good Aquaculture Practices (GAqP) emanates in Philippine aquaculture and its integration to the ASEAN harmonized standardization efforts is discussed in the paper. The management model, value chain and draft Philippine National Standard of the GAqP code are presented and evaluated as to its impact to trade and marketing, socioeconomic considerations, food safety and technology.
  • Conference paper

    Perceptions on the effects of maritime activities on the Philippine aquatic ecosystem 

    E Java, T Cruz & IY Hernandez - In MRR Romana-Eguia, FD Parado-Estepa, ND Salayo & MJH Lebata-Ramos (Eds.), Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia: Challenges in Responsible Production … International Workshop on Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia 2014 (RESA), 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    Throughout history, humans create an impact on marine ecosystems. May it be positive or negative, such impact is long-term and shapes the overall image of the system. As humanity increases its number, so does the impact it creates. Humanity has relied on the oceans for food, recreation and for various economic opportunities. Overfishing and pollution affects the life in the seas. Advancements in fishing technology, such as tracking technologies and better transportation have reduced fish stocks significantly when matched with non-sustainable practices, such as dredging and trawling. Intentional dumping from sewages, industrial run-off and chemicals has brought about pollution in the seas. Though some pollution may be accidental, like oil spills, it still causes adverse effects to the sea. Excess nutrients coming from fertilizers and intensive farming practices have resulted to what is known as eutrophications. Lastly, changes in the marine environment have led to the introduction of invasive alien species and marine organisms, which are oftentimes difficult to eradicate. Such effects have made researchers rethink of various ways to maintain marine activities while sustaining its ecosystem.

    Through this study, the researchers determined the effects of maritime activities on the population of aquatic creatures directly from the seafarers, and found out their perspectives on how to remedy such effects and sustain the marine ecosystem.

    This research is descriptive in nature, conducted with 100 purposively selected seafarers from Manila. The participants were given a questionnaire that asked for demographics and their perceptions on the effects of maritime activities on the marine ecosystem and ways to provide solutions to minimize or avoid its negative impacts.

    Findings show equal distribution on gender, with majority at the low socioeconomic level (47%) and are Tagalog in ethnicity (56%). The seafarers believe that the maritime activities cause harm on aquatic creatures (43%), limits propagation of aquatic species (36%), makes them prone to mortality (11%) and cause pollution to the atmosphere (10%). Likewise, their perception of minimizing the consequences lies within the proper conditioning of ships and running them in good condition (57%), maintaining a clean place for the marine inhabitants (28%) and creating a good waste-renewal system (15%). The results of the paper is directed towards proper handling and maintenance of the shipping industry and strict supervision for waste management.
  • Conference paper

    Larval rearing of silver therapon (Leiopotherapon plumbeus) in outdoor tanks 

    FA Aya, VSN Nillasca, MNC Corpuz & LMB Garcia - In MRR Romana-Eguia, FD Parado-Estepa, ND Salayo & MJH Lebata-Ramos (Eds.), Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia: Challenges in Responsible Production … International Workshop on Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia 2014 (RESA), 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    Silver therapon (Leiopotherapon plumbeus, Kner 1864), locally known as ayungin, is an important freshwater food fish species found in Laguna de Bay, the largest lake in the Philippines. Its market price is twice that of other most sought after freshwater fishes such as tilapia and milkfish. However, intense fishing pressure on the species has significantly reduced the wild stock in Laguna de Bay. Studies to develop hatchery techniques for this indigenous freshwater fish species are therefore needed to produce seedstock for possible culture and wild stock rehabilitation.

    This study highlights the successful larval rearing of silver therapon in outdoor concrete tanks. Larvae reared in outdoor tanks with natural food (grown two weeks beforehand) reached the juvenile stage (40 days after hatching (DAH)), suggesting the presence of some suitable live food organisms in pre-conditioned rearing water. However, larval survival rates were low (11.58 ± 6.56% at stocking density of 0.9 larvae l-1), which is probably linked to the density of food items, particularly during the onset of exogenous feeding or due to high stocking density of larvae. To improve the availability of natural food for the larvae, fertilization of the rearing water in the outdoor tanks stocked with larvae at two densities (0.4 and 0.6 larvae l-1) was performed. Larval growth and survival were improved at stocking density of 0.4 larvae l-1 than at 0.6 larvae l-1. Diet composition of first-feeding silver therapon larvae in outdoor tanks inoculated with cultured microalgae (Chorella sorokiniana) and zooplankton was also determined. Larvae were able to consume rotifers and some phytoplankton beginning at 2 DAH and larger preys such as cladocerans and insect larvae starting at 12 DAH.

    The efficacy of raising silver therapon larvae in outdoor tanks using ambient lake water was also evaluated. Larvae reared in ambient lake water grew well but survival (48.44 ± 7.85%) was significantly improved in treatments where tropical almond or talisay Terminalia catappa leaves were added during the first two weeks of larval rearing.

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