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  • Book

    Philippine National Standard: Dried anchovies 

    Bureau of Agriculture and Fisheries Standards - 2016 - Bureau of Agriculture and Fisheries Standards
    This PNS for dried anchovies aims to provide a common understanding on the scope of the standard, product description, process description, essential composition and quality factors, food additives, contaminants, hygiene and handling, packaging and labeling, methods of sampling, examination and analysis, definition of defectives and lot acceptance.
  • Book

    Philippine National Standard: Pasteurized crab meat 

    Bureau of Agriculture and Fisheries Standards - 2016 - Bureau of Agriculture and Fisheries Standards
    This PNS for pasteurized crab meat aims to provide a common understanding on the scope of the standard, product description, process description, essential composition and quality factors, food additives, contaminants, hygiene and handling, packaging and labeling, methods of sampling, examination and analysis, definition of defectives and lot acceptance.
  • Book

    Philippine National Standard: Live mangrove crab 

    Bureau of Agriculture and Fisheries Standards - 2016 - Bureau of Agriculture and Fisheries Standards
    This PNS for live mangrove crab aims to provide a common understanding on the scope of the standard, product description, process description, essential composition and quality factors, food additives, contaminants, hygiene and handling, packaging and labeling, methods of sampling, examination and analysis, definition of defectives and lot acceptance.
  • Book | Conference publication

    Resource enhancement and sustainable aquaculture practices in Southeast Asia: challenges in responsible production of aquatic species : proceedings of the international workshop on resource enhancement and sustainable aquaculture practices in Southeast Asia 2014 (RESA) 

    MRR Romana-Eguia, FD Parado-Estepa, ND Salayo & MJH Lebata-Ramos (Eds.) - 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    The conference was held in order to promote and augment regional initiatives on resource enhancement and sustainable aquaculture practices, and to contribute to poverty alleviation, livelihood and food security in Southeast Asia. The contributions of the selected participants during the conference which are contained in this volume are cited individually.
  • Conference paper

    The Philippine National Aquasilviculture Program 

    RE Dieta & FC Dieta - In MRR Romana-Eguia, FD Parado-Estepa, ND Salayo & MJH Lebata-Ramos (Eds.), Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia: Challenges in Responsible Production … International Workshop on Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia 2014 (RESA), 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    The Philippine National Aquasilviculture Program (PNAP) is a banner program of the Department of Agriculture (DA) being implemented by the Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources (BFAR). To implement the PNAP, a Memorandum of Agreement (MOA) was executed between BFAR and the Commission on Higher Education (CHED). The program concept is primarily mangrove resource rehabilitation and livelihood provision to help address climate change, food security and poverty among municipal/artisanal coastal fisherfolks. To achieve its goals and objectives, the BFAR identified three strategic interventions, such as: (1) replanting of destroyed mangrove resources; (2) establishment of community-based multi-species hatcheries (CBMSH), and (3) provision of aquasilviculture livelihood projects to fisherfolkbeneficiaries throughout the country. As envisioned, the BFAR shall provide support funds for the establishment, operation and management of the PNAP while CHED shall provide logistical support during program implementation. The program covers at least 71 state universities and colleges (SUCs) and 61 provinces throughout the country. Potential areas targeted by the PNAP are abandoned, undeveloped and underutilized (AUUs) fishpond lease agreements (FLAs) and the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR) identified areas (Key Biodiversity Areas, reforestation areas and co-management agreement areas) from BFAR coastal Regions 1 to 13 and the Autonomous Region of Muslim Mindanao (ARMM). Participating agencies are DA-BFAR Regional Fisheries Offices (RFOs) and Provincial Fisheries Offices (PFOs), CHED (SUCs), DENR Provincial Environment and Natural Resources Offices (PENRO) and Community Environment and Natural Resources Offices (CENRO), and the local government units (LGUs) in the provinces and municipalities. Target beneficiaries for the aquasilviculture livelihood projects are at least 1,000 coastal fisherfolks and for the community-based multi-species hatcheries are 64 SUCs who were signatories to the MOA. For mangrove rehabilitation, the PNAP will involve the coastal fisherfolks in the planting of 100 million propagules for the next 3-4 years. Funding support from BFAR are PhP 6.00 per surviving propagule, PhP 1.2 million per SUC for the establishment and operation of CBMSH and PhP 65,000 per aquasilviculture project. As part of the over-all management strategy, a National Steering Committee (NSC) was formed to formulate policy guidelines of the PNAP while Regional Steering Committees (RSCs) were created to oversee policy implementation in the regions. Program Management Offices (PMOs) were formed to implement and supervise program implementation in the provinces. Community Organizers (COs) were hired in each province to assist in the implementation of daily activities. The approved PNAP implementing guideline details the procedures to follow, both relating to the technical and administrative operations of the program.
  • Conference paper

    Updates on the seed production of mud crab 

    ET Quinitio, FD Parado-Estepa, JJ Huervana & MR Burlas - In MRR Romana-Eguia, FD Parado-Estepa, ND Salayo & MJH Lebata-Ramos (Eds.), Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia: Challenges in Responsible Production … International Workshop on Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia 2014 (RESA), 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    Widespread interest in mud crab species is increasing because these are highly prized both in domestic and export markets. Among the three mud crab species commonly found in the Philippines, Scylla serrata, S. olivacea, and S. tranquebarica, S. serrata is preferred by farmers because it is larger and less aggressive than the other species. Likewise, S. serrata is the most widely distributed species in the Indo-west Pacific region.

    Hatchery-produced seedstock are presently used by some crab farmers in their grow-out operations. In the hatchery phase, feeding mud crab larvae with shrimp formulated diets and natural food was found to reduce the occurrence of molt death syndrome, one of the major problems in seed production. Larvae given 25% formulated diet (FD) + 75% natural food (NF; rotifers and Artemia) and 50% FD + 50% NF showed better performance than those larvae fed 100% FD, 100% NF and 75% FD + 25% NF indicating that usage of natural food, especially the expensive Artemia, can be reduced. Since the early crab instar (C) produced in the hatchery need to be grown further before stocking in grow-out ponds, two phases of nursery culture have been developed. C1-2 are grown to 1.5-2.0 cm carapace width (CW) size in the first phase and further grown to 3.0-4.0 cm CW in the second phase. Nursery rearing is done in net cages installed in ponds for easy retrieval. A combination of mussel or trash fish and formulated diet is used as feed.

    Domestication of the mud crab S. serrata as a prerequisite to selective breeding has been done at SEAFDEC/AQD. Likewise, defining criteria for the determination of quality of newly hatched zoeae for stocking in the hatchery was initiated. Newly hatched zoeae were subjected to starvation and stress test using formalin. Starvation failed to elicit responses that were significantly different between the good and poor quality larvae hence it is not suitable for larval quality evaluation. Based on three-year data, the formalin stress test gave mean cumulative mortalities of 2.38±0.32, 8.24±0.88, 20±1.58 in good quality larvae, and 43.74±2.39 while 22.93±4.19, 63.68±7.17, 84.29±3.88 and 97.65±1.06 for poor quality larvae at 0 (control), 20, 30 and 40 ppm formalin, respectively. As formalin level increased, cumulative larval mortality also increased regardless of the quality of the larvae. Formalin stress test proved to be a reliable method to determine whether a batch of newly hatched zoeae was of good or poor quality.
  • Conference paper

    Status of resource enhancement and sustainable aquaculture practices in Japan 

    K Okuzawa, T Takebe, N Hirai & K Ikuta - In MRR Romana-Eguia, FD Parado-Estepa, ND Salayo & MJH Lebata-Ramos (Eds.), Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia: Challenges in Responsible Production … International Workshop on Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia 2014 (RESA), 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    Contrary to the rapid increase in the world aquaculture production, fish production in Japan has been decreasing slightly due to the decreasing trend in seafood consumption of Japanese. Aquaculture production is approximately 20% in terms of yield, and 30% in terms of market value, of the country s total fisheries production. In Japan, about 80 species are targeted for release for sea ranching and resource enhancement purposes. The local governments (prefectures) are the main driving force in resource enhancement programs. Chum salmon, Oncorhynchus keta, and scallop Mizuhopecten yessoensisis are examples of successful resource enhancement in Japan. Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus, and red seabream, Pagrus major, represent intensely released fish species in Japan, and around 10% of the total catch of those species are estimated as released fish. The low price of products and increasing costs of production, such as costs of fuel and fish meal, are the major pressing issues in coastal fisheries and aquaculture in Japan. For aquaculture, the guarantee of food safety, minimization of environmental impact, and management of natural stock populations are highly necessary in order to achieve the sustainability of the industry. For resource enhancement, budget constraint is the major issue, and possible impact on natural stocks caused by released fish should also be considered. The Government of Japan (GOJ) is implementing some measures to rectify unstable business practices of aquaculture and to improve production techniques in aquaculture. For resource enhancement, the GOJ encourages cooperation among local governments (prefectures) for seed production and release of certain targeted species in order to reduce the cost and improve the efficiency of stock enhancement. In Japan, traditionally, the purpose for release was mainly sea ranching, namely harvesting all released animals. Nowadays, actual resource enhancement, i.e. the integrated release program including resource management and development of suitable nursery for released fish, is encouraged by the government. The evaluation and counter measures for the negative impact of stocked fish on genetic diversity of the wild population are also implemented. Recently, marked progress was achieved in seed production technologies of two important tropical fish species, namely coral trout, Plectropomus leopardus, and humphead wrasse, Cheilinus undulatus. These technologies are expected to contribute to the advancement of the aquaculture industry in the South East Asian region.
  • Conference paper

    Inland fisheries resource enhancement and conservation practices in Myanmar 

    H Thein - In MRR Romana-Eguia, FD Parado-Estepa, ND Salayo & MJH Lebata-Ramos (Eds.), Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia: Challenges in Responsible Production … International Workshop on Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia 2014 (RESA), 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    Myanmar has impressive freshwater capture fisheries. Inland freshwater bodies cover 8.1 million ha of which 1.3 million ha are permanent while the rest are seasonally inundated floodplains. There are repeated references to the crucial importance of fish and fish products in the nutrition of the Myanmar people. Over the past few decades, inland fisheries resources have increased pressure from overfishing, use of destructive fishing gear/methods, pollution and environment changes. In order to make a sustainable inland capture fisheries and conservation of aquatic biodiversity as well as nutritional security and improved rural livelihoods, fisheries resource enhancement and conservation measures have long been adopted in Myanmar since 1967, initiated through a seed replenishment program in natural waters, such rivers, lake, dams, even rice fields, etc. However, the institutional, policy, legislative and financial environments under which enhancement and capture fisheries regimes exist are not conducive to the interests of the fishers. Strong tools for valuation of ecosystem goods and services, enabling governance arrangements and estimation of environmental flows are needed. Fishing communities need to be organized into strong co-management/participatory/community regimes in order to ensure that all stakeholders take part in decision-making process and the benefits accrued are shared equitably by all.
  • Conference paper

    Good aquaculture practices (VietGAP) and sustainable aquaculture development in Viet Nam 

    TBT Nguyen - In MRR Romana-Eguia, FD Parado-Estepa, ND Salayo & MJH Lebata-Ramos (Eds.), Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia: Challenges in Responsible Production … International Workshop on Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia 2014 (RESA), 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    The shrimp (black tiger and white leg shrimp) and catfish industries in Viet Nam continue to experience increasing growth due to rapid aquaculture development. However, disease outbreaks become a major issue. Moreover, seafood consumers at present are likely to be more concerned about how the products are produced and how to control/manage aquatic animal health instead of treatment. Hence, the main objective of this abstract is to focus on one of the solutions to address these problems/issues and ensure sustainable aquaculture development in Viet Nam.
  • Conference paper

    Reaching the poor through aquaculture: The case of technology adoption in rural communities at west central Philippines 

    DB Baticados - In MRR Romana-Eguia, FD Parado-Estepa, ND Salayo & MJH Lebata-Ramos (Eds.), Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia: Challenges in Responsible Production … International Workshop on Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia 2014 (RESA), 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    Aquaculture is promoted for food security and poverty alleviation in developing countries. This study examines the socio-economic impact of aquaculture technologies extended to calamitystricken rural communities in Nueva Valencia, Guimaras, representing the marine water fishery and in Dumarao, Capiz, representing the inland freshwater fishery at west central Philippines. The adoption pathway employed in both sites was community-based and participatory. The survey was conducted among cooperators and non-cooperators, randomly selected in equal numbers in two sites with 60 respondents each per site using a pre-tested interview schedule.

    Results showed that aquaculture is an acceptable technology both for cooperators and noncooperators. The venture is a profitable business either done individually or collectively through an association, if managed properly. Milkfish cage culture, however, needs big capital that technology adoption among local fisherfolk (Guimaras) is limited. In contrast, tilapia cage culture enables small farmers/fishers in Dumarao to venture on their own. Dumarao growers were able to innovate using local materials like bamboo poles to make their cages afloat instead of drums or plastic containers as buoys. There were, however, environmental, technological and institutional issues deterring technology adoption in both sites. Climate change and institutional issues were the more prevalent concerns of Dumarao growers. The technological issues like fluctuating market price, cost of feeds, and fry supply were more enunciated in Guimaras.
  • Conference paper

    Targeting essential gene utilizing RNA interference to protect the ailing shrimp/prawn industry against WSSV 

    JMS Lazarte & MBB Maningas - In MRR Romana-Eguia, FD Parado-Estepa, ND Salayo & MJH Lebata-Ramos (Eds.), Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia: Challenges in Responsible Production … International Workshop on Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia 2014 (RESA), 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    The white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) remains to be the most widespread and devastating infectious agent that has hit particularly the marine shrimp aquaculture industry worldwide. To date, there are no known effective strategies that can combat WSSV infection. This study aimed to elucidate host-pathogen interaction through the functional study of host - gene. Utilizing RNA Interference, the function of contig23 (c23) in the shrimp genome, identified to have high homology with WSSVORF-325, was determined. Three set-ups were prepared for treatment of c23-, GFP-dsRNA, and PBS using Macrobrachium rosenbergii freshwater prawns. Each treatment group was challenged with WSSV and survival rate was recorded. C23-, and GFP-dsRNA injected prawns showed a significant survival rate of 100%, in contrast to 20% of the PBS injected prawns at 10 days post-infection (dpi). Results showed that injection of c23- and GFP-dsRNA prior to challenge with WSSV, delayed and reduced mortality in contrast to PBS-treated prawns, which showed high mortality. Gene expression analysis showed silencing of both WSSV and c23 at day 3 post-WSSV challenge. This study proved that c23-dsRNA has a protective effect on WSSVchallenged prawns and highlights its involvement in the infectivity of WSSV in M. rosenbergii.
  • Conference paper

    Country status on sustainable aquaculture in Lao PDR 

    T Khonglaliane - In MRR Romana-Eguia, FD Parado-Estepa, ND Salayo & MJH Lebata-Ramos (Eds.), Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia: Challenges in Responsible Production … International Workshop on Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia 2014 (RESA), 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    Capture fisheries and aquaculture in Lao PDR are based on water resource ecosystems which consist mainly of rivers and streams, hydropower and irrigation reservoirs, diversion weirs, small water bodies, flood plains and wet-season rice-fields. The total area of water resources for capture fisheries is believed to be more than 1.2 million ha. The estimated consumption of inland fish in Lao PDR is approximately 167,922 tonnes per year while consumption of other aquatic animals is estimated at 40,581 tonnes per year. Most of the consumption is from internal production (i.e. imports are of minor importance), so these figures represent approximate catches or yield from fisheries. These estimated yields are conservatively valued at almost US$150 million per year.

    The people of Lao PDR, especially in the rural communities that account for more than 75 per cent of the population, still depend upon the country's fish and other aquatic animals as their most reliable sources of animal protein. The estimate of actual fish consumption per capita (kg/capita/ year) of inland fish is 24.5 kg, while other aquatic animals account for about 4.1 kg and marine products around 0.4 kg, to make a total of 29 kg of fish and aquatic products consumed per capita per year.

    As aquaculture in Lao PDR expands, many forms of production systems are being developed, for example pond culture, communal ponds, rice-cum-fish culture and cage culture. Most fish culture systems in Lao PDR are small-scale. Such forms of production systems are divided into sub-categories depending on the nature and main activity of the producers. According to the Department of Livestock and Fisheries, aquaculture production in 2007 accounted for 54,750 tonnes in an area of more than 42,000 ha, including cage culture in the Mekong and some tributaries.

    There has been a significant increase in intensive tilapia production in recent years in Lao PDR (MRC Technical Paper No. 5 April 2002) based on tilapia cage culture in the Mekong river and irrigation reservoirs. In last two years, an enterprising farmer has established about 360 cages.

    Constraints in the large-scale development of tilapia cage culture are the lack of technical support (e.g. extension services) to the farmers and insufficient supply of advanced fingerlings. Morever, tilapia cage culture in the Mekong river system is perceived to be difficult to sustain because of environmental factors such as river flooding and strong currents during the rainy season and the lack of water during the dry season.
  • Conference paper

    Stock assessment of christian crabs (Charybdis feriatus, Linnaeus, 1758) in San Miguel bay 

    PM Nieves, NR Olfindo & AM Macale - In MRR Romana-Eguia, FD Parado-Estepa, ND Salayo & MJH Lebata-Ramos (Eds.), Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia: Challenges in Responsible Production … International Workshop on Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia 2014 (RESA), 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    Assessment of the status of swimming crab fisheries in San Miguel Bay with focus on Christian or Crucifix crab, Charybdis feriatus, was undertaken from November 2011 to January 2013. An analytical length-based fish stock assessment was employed using the FISAT (version 1.2.2). A total of 7,679 length frequencies (3,612 C. feriatus and 4,067 Portunus pelagicus) were used in the analysis. About 15 and 14 percent gravid females were harvested monthly for both species that may contribute to recruitment overfishing. Population parameters showed exploitation rate (E) for P. pelagicus and C. feriatus exceeded the optimum exploitation (E0.5) implying excessive fishing effort and heavily exploited stocks. Size at maturity of C. feriatus and P. pelagicus in San Miguel Bay is 8.3 cm and 8.5 cm, respectively. Doable options for resources conservation and management strategies are proposed and supported by local government units (LGUs) including the Integrated Fisheries and Aquatic Resource Management Council.
  • Conference paper

    Marker-aided genetic stock management: prospects in Philippine aquatic biodiversity conservation and aquaculture 

    MRR Romana-Eguia, M Ikeda & A Kijima - In MRR Romana-Eguia, FD Parado-Estepa, ND Salayo & MJH Lebata-Ramos (Eds.), Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia: Challenges in Responsible Production … International Workshop on Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia 2014 (RESA), 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    With the advent of DNA marker-based technologies and applications, genetic stock assessment incorporating molecular marker information has become an important tool in managing resources both for aquaculture and stock enhancement. Local initiatives toward this end have been undertaken by several research and academic agencies particularly those with access to advanced molecular genetic laboratory facilities both in the Philippines and in collaborating foreign institutions. Funds coming from the Philippine Department of Science and Technology and/or international research grants have supported work on commercially valuable species such as tilapia, shrimp, mud crabs, abalone, milkfish and some high value marine fishes with a view of utilizing and in the process, demonstrating the significance of more scientific microlevel assessment of stocks. Information drawn from marker-aided genetic stock evaluation can contribute to a better understanding of the impact of how proper stock management can be more effectively achieved and how this method can gradually translate to improved yields both from culture and fisheries. This paper covers a review of the status of this technology as applied to ongoing fish conservation and aquaculture production efforts in the Philippines.
  • Conference paper

    Current status of sustainable aquaculture in Cambodia 

    O Lang - In MRR Romana-Eguia, FD Parado-Estepa, ND Salayo & MJH Lebata-Ramos (Eds.), Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia: Challenges in Responsible Production … International Workshop on Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia 2014 (RESA), 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    In Cambodia, the extension of technologies in fish aquaculture is a vital activity that contributes to improving the daily livelihood of the rural poor farmer communities. Technology extension was introduced since 1994 through a project of the Asian Institute of Technology (AIT) and other local non-government organizations (NGOs) or international organizations (IOs) in some fish production deficient provinces. Prior to the introduction of such activities, wild fish were still abundant. From then to date, aquaculture extension is being done under the Freshwater Aquaculture Improvement and Extension Project Phase II of Japan International Cooperation Agency (FAIEXII-JICA), and Department for International Development/Danish International Development Agency (DFID/DANIDA) Projects.

    Recently, aquaculture extension is one of the national policies under the National Rectangular Strategy Policies of the Government. There are several different freshwater aquaculture systems including floating cage/pen culture, earthen pond culture and rice-fish culture, and other fish culture in smallwater bodies or aquaculture-based fisheries in Cambodia as practiced in over 20 provinces and cities, with less development focused on coastal aquaculture.

    Freshwater aquaculture production continued to grow over the past two decades and increased from 1,610 tons in 1984 to 20,760 tons in 2004, representing 11.9 times increase or growth of 16.3% per year This further increased to 74,000 tons in 2012, representing 11.9 times increase or a growth rate of 15% per year. However, aquaculture development in Cambodia is in its infancy stage compared to other countries in the region. It has encountered some problems and constraints during its development, which include inadequate and unreliable supply of good quality seed; lack of capital, fund or credit for aquaculture investment; inadequate knowledge of aquaculture technology; inadequate manpower for aquaculture extension service; and climate change, which have adversely impacted aquaculture development in Cambodia.

    In order to achieve the goal of supplying the nation s future fishery requirements through aquaculture, the Cambodia Fisheries Administration (FiA) published the Strategic Planning Framework (SPF) for Fisheries (2010-2019). Within this framework, the scenarios for future fish demand-supply for 2019 suggest that aquaculture production will increase by 15% per year to 185,000 tons by the end of 2019.
  • Conference paper

    Abalone aquaculture for stock enhancement and community livelihood project in northern Palawan, Philippines 

    BJ Gonzales - In MRR Romana-Eguia, FD Parado-Estepa, ND Salayo & MJH Lebata-Ramos (Eds.), Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia: Challenges in Responsible Production … International Workshop on Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia 2014 (RESA), 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    One of the interventions to feed the poorest of the poor fisheries sector in the country is the provision of livelihood in the form of mariculture of high value marine species. In the Philippines, livelihood in rural areas is largely linked to resource depletion, hence it is wise not only to provide livelihood to the community but also to encourage them to conserve and enhance the resources. As part of the revised R&D program, the Western Philippines University partnered with NGO and existing projects to embark on a community-based environment-concerned livelihood project, using hatchery bred abalone, although top shell was also considered for stock enhancement. This is in an on-going project thus, preliminary phases such as abalone production and cage-based grow-out as well as subsequent project plans will be discussed. The objectives of this study were to: (a) share the implementing experiences in this project, (b) identify success and failure drivers of the project, (c) explain the conceptual framework for the MPA-based stock enhancement to be used in this project, and (d) give recommendations to improve the implementation and ensure the success of the project.

    The following activities have thus far been conducted: (a) development of criteria for cage micro-site selection; (b) writing of proposal and provision of financial assistance for hatchery juvenile production through a partnership MOA; (c) presentation of site survey results to beneficiaries and stake holders; (d) conduct of trainings on abalone grow out culture to POs; (e) development and improvement of training module; (f) signing of conservation agreement; (g) giving of cage materials and juveniles to people s organizations; (h) on site coaching; and (i) partial monitoring. The next activities include improvement in juvenile production, conduct of researches on abalone nutrition, and development of market and value chain flow analysis. The conceptual framework for community-managed stock enhancement will follow that of the Department of Environment and Natural Resources-ICRMP, of which the stock enhancement project is anchored on the management of marine protected areas or MPAs.

    The steps in all the activities were documented and while the project was in progress, performance of the participants in training were measured, the training module was improved, the training approaches were revised according to needs, and the growth and survival of juvenile abalone were monitored. The problems identified were low production of juveniles, insufficient food for grow-out, political squabbles, social preparation, and delay in implementation schedule. Recommendations to improve or resolve the problems encountered were also presented in this paper.
  • Conference paper

    Hatchery management techniques for tiger-tail seahorse (Hippocampus comes) 

    SMB Ursua & T Azuma - In MRR Romana-Eguia, FD Parado-Estepa, ND Salayo & MJH Lebata-Ramos (Eds.), Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia: Challenges in Responsible Production … International Workshop on Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia 2014 (RESA), 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    Seahorse culture has been practiced throughout the world to meet the demand for global trade and reduce the pressure on wild stocks through overexploitation. Development of culture techniques for seed production of seahorses is one of the most effective measures to avoid such anthropological repercussions on the wild stocks, and is currently being conducted at SEAFDEC/ AQD with the aim to produce seed for stock release to protect these internationally threatened and overexploited species in Southeast Asia. This paper describes the breakthroughs in seahorse breeding and nursery rearing. So far, we have developed water and feeding management schemes that resulted in improved reproductive performance of broodstock and higher survival and growth rates in newborn and juvenile seahorses.

    We highlight the concern of providing desirable food organisms and maintenance of suitable water quality in order to maintain maximum efficiency in the management of the seahorse hatchery. Newborn seahorses fed with formalin-treated food organisms and reared in UV-treated seawater had significantly higher survival and daily growth rate based on stretched height and body weight than those fed with untreated food organisms and reared in both chlorinated and sand-filtered seawater. Broodstocks fed with mysid shrimps showed higher brood size and shorter parturition interval. Thus, improved reproductive performance as well as survival and growth of newborn seahorses were largely influenced by refinement of hatchery management techniques.
  • Conference paper

    Preliminary trials on the optimization of hormone dosages for induced breeding of Philippine silver perch, Leiopotherapon plumbeus 

    MAO Javier, FA Aya & MRR Romana-Eguia - In MRR Romana-Eguia, FD Parado-Estepa, ND Salayo & MJH Lebata-Ramos (Eds.), Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia: Challenges in Responsible Production … International Workshop on Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia 2014 (RESA), 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    The silver perch Leiopotherapon plumbeus, locally known as ayungin, is an endemic freshwater fish that is commercially valuable as it commands a high price in the local market. Due to excessive fishing and other potential causes such as predation by invasive alien species, the local L. plumbeus stocks are observed to be depleting hence there is a need for an induced breeding protocol to propagate silver perch and conserve what remains of the resource. In this study, 30 females (total length or TL: 109.4 ± 12.2 mm; total body weight or TBW: 20.3 ± 6.1 g) and 60 males (TL: 97.1 ± 11.6 mm; TBW: 13.4 ± 5.5 g) were injected once intra-muscularly with different doses of hormones. Various dosages of human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG), luteinizing hormone releasing hormone analog (LHRHa) and salmon gonadotropin releasing hormone (sGnRH) were evaluated to identify the most effective dosage and hormone that resulted to high ovulation, fertilization and hatching rate. For the hormone sGnRH, 20, 30 and 40 µg/kg body weight (BW) and 1, 2 and 3 µg/kg BW for LHRHa were the dosages used in the experiment. The dosage used for HCG is 50 IU/g BW and served as the control. The findings of the experiment determined that the use of 20 µg/kg body weight of sGnRH resulted to high ovulation, fertilization and hatching rates. The result of the experiment would provide an efficient protocol for the local fishermen so they can produce, on demand, a large supply of this high quality fish species.
  • Conference paper

    Estimation of energy budget of sea cucumber, Holothuria scabra, in integrated multi-trophic aquaculture 

    S Watanabe, M Kodama, ZGA Orozco, JG Sumbing, SRM Novilla & MJH Lebata-Ramos - In MRR Romana-Eguia, FD Parado-Estepa, ND Salayo & MJH Lebata-Ramos (Eds.), Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia: Challenges in Responsible Production … International Workshop on Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia 2014 (RESA), 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    Continuous intensification of aquaculture production has brought about environmental issues associated with eutrophication worldwide. Environmental deterioration such as hypoxia and sulfide production due to water and sediment eutrophication originating from aquaculture effluents have been problematic, resulting to sporadic disease outbreaks and fish kills in the Philippines.

    Integrated multi-trophic aquaculture (IMTA) is one of the promising methods for sustainable aquaculture as it also provides a supplementary source of income to the fish farmers. IMTA is a polyculture system that integrates culturing of fed species (e.g. finfish) the main commodity, organic extractive species (e.g. deposit and filter feeding benthos) and inorganic extractive species (e.g. seaweed). In this study, IMTA techniques were established for small-scale coastal fish farmers in the Philippines, with sea cucumber (Holothuria scabra, commonly known as sandfish), as the key species. Sandfish commands the highest price in tropical sea cucumber species.

    Nitrogen (N) budget of sandfish in polyculture with milkfish (Chanos chanos) and Elkhorn sea moss (Kappaphycus alvarezii), both of which are commonly cultured in the Philippines, was estimated using a simple closed box model.

    Information on stocking density, stocking size, mortality, growth, feed ration, feed assimilation, NH4-N production and NH4-N absorption of these species was obtained from a series of experiments and existing literature. Culture conditions were as follows: 26 g milkfish were cultured in a 5 x 5 x 4 m cage at an average stocking density of 36.7 ind/m3 (i.e. usual practice in the Philippines) with an initial feeding ration of 10% of body weight which was gradually decreased to 4% over time; 10 g sandfish were cultured in a 5 x 5 x 0.3 m cage hung under the milkfish cage to trap particulate N waste (i.e. feces and leftover feed) from milkfish culture at a stocking density of 35 ind/m2; the stocking weight of Elkhorn sea moss line culture was 10 kg. The culture period was 200 days.

    It was estimated that milkfish culture under the above-mentioned schemes cumulatively produced 145 kg of particulate N, and milkfish and sandfish together excreted 60 kg of NH4-N in 200 days of culture. Daily assimilation rate of the particulate N by sandfish ranged from 3.4 to 12.4%, and 6.4% of the particulate N was estimated to be removed by sandfish during the entire 200 days of culture. Daily absorption rate of NH4-N by Elkhorn sea moss increased exponentially with time and reached 100% at 125 days of culture. Cumulative NH4-N from milkfish and sandfish excretion was estimated to be depleted by 162 days of culture.

    For complete utilization of particulate N by sandfish by the end of milkfish culture period (i.e. zero emission), sandfish stocking density should be 805 ind/m2, which is 200 times as high as that in existing sandfish aquaculture operations in countries such as Viet Nam and New Caledonia. The purpose of sandfish culture in IMTA should be emphasized in terms of its economic advantages and not very much on environmental integrity. Cages for sandfish culture should be designed in such a way where only a small fraction of organic matter from milkfish culture (i.e. about 6% in this culture scheme) enters it to avoid sediment quality deterioration and possible death of sandfish. Elkhorn sea moss on the other hand seems very efficient in bioremediation capability.
  • Conference paper

    Modelling the impact of different stress agents on Holothurian immunity 

    LS Dolmatova - In MRR Romana-Eguia, FD Parado-Estepa, ND Salayo & MJH Lebata-Ramos (Eds.), Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia: Challenges in Responsible Production … International Workshop on Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia 2014 (RESA), 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    Due to dietetic and pharmacological values of many species of sea cucumbers (Holothuroidea, Echinodermata), and depletion of their natural resources, the species of little or no commercial value attract attention as new raw material resource, and methods of their aquaculture are developed. Both monitoring and supporting the health of animals in natural and artificial conditions demand the approaches providing reliable markers. This study compared the influence of two stress agents, namely lead and bacterial toxin Yersinia pseudotuberculosis (ТсТYp), on some of the markers of immune response of the Far Eastern holothurian Eupentacta fraudatrix. Phagocytes (P2 type) were isolated after 48h treatment of holothurians E. fraudatrix with Pb(NO3)2 (2 and 4 mg/L). In another experiment, coelomocyte were incubated with ТсТYp (0.2 and 0.5 µg/g) for 18h. Apoptosis level and FITC-conjugated concanavalin A (con A) and binding of lectins from Glycin Max and Dolichos biflorus to P2 surface receptors, and activity of antioxidant enzymes were measured.

    Lead induced an increase in catalase and decreases in superoxide dismutase and glutathione-S-transferase and glutathione reductase activities at dose of 2 but not 4 mg/L. 2 mg/L lead also increased apoptosis level. Noteworthy, receptors to lectins from G. Max and D. biflorus were poorly expressed in the control, and significantly expressed under lead treatment at a dose of 2 but not 4 mg/L (D. biflorus) or decreased at a dose of 2 but not 4 mg/L (G. Max). Binding con A was significant in the control and additionally increased under treatment with 2, but not 4 mg/L. Meanwhile, ТсТYp also induced reversed concentration-dependent effect on apoptosis: 48h incubation with 0.5 µg/g decreased apoptosis, and 0.2 µg/g-increased it. Additionally, 0.2 µg/g ТсТYp decreased binding con A and D. biflorus lectin. Commercially available catalase restored % lectin binding to the control level.

    Data obtained indicate that lead and ТсТYp differently influenced phagocyte activity, and complex definition of apoptosis level and activity of antioxidant enzymes. Finally, variations in expression of cell surface receptors may be useful for estimation of the level of stress damage to holothurians.

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