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  • Book

    Philippine National Standard: Dried anchovies 

    Bureau of Agriculture and Fisheries Standards - 2016 - Bureau of Agriculture and Fisheries Standards
    This PNS for dried anchovies aims to provide a common understanding on the scope of the standard, product description, process description, essential composition and quality factors, food additives, contaminants, hygiene and handling, packaging and labeling, methods of sampling, examination and analysis, definition of defectives and lot acceptance.
  • Book

    Philippine National Standard: Live mangrove crab 

    Bureau of Agriculture and Fisheries Standards - 2016 - Bureau of Agriculture and Fisheries Standards
    This PNS for live mangrove crab aims to provide a common understanding on the scope of the standard, product description, process description, essential composition and quality factors, food additives, contaminants, hygiene and handling, packaging and labeling, methods of sampling, examination and analysis, definition of defectives and lot acceptance.
  • Book

    Philippine National Standard: Pasteurized crab meat 

    Bureau of Agriculture and Fisheries Standards - 2016 - Bureau of Agriculture and Fisheries Standards
    This PNS for pasteurized crab meat aims to provide a common understanding on the scope of the standard, product description, process description, essential composition and quality factors, food additives, contaminants, hygiene and handling, packaging and labeling, methods of sampling, examination and analysis, definition of defectives and lot acceptance.
  • Book | Conference publication

    Resource enhancement and sustainable aquaculture practices in Southeast Asia: challenges in responsible production of aquatic species : proceedings of the international workshop on resource enhancement and sustainable aquaculture practices in Southeast Asia 2014 (RESA) 

    MRR Romana-Eguia, FD Parado-Estepa, ND Salayo & MJH Lebata-Ramos (Eds.) - 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    The conference was held in order to promote and augment regional initiatives on resource enhancement and sustainable aquaculture practices, and to contribute to poverty alleviation, livelihood and food security in Southeast Asia. The contributions of the selected participants during the conference which are contained in this volume are cited individually.
  • Conference paper

    Social preparations towards community-based approach to stock enhancement in Sagay Marine Reserve, Philippines 

    ND Salayo, RJG Castel, DHM Tormon, RT Barrido, MFJ Nievales & T Azuma - In MRR Romana-Eguia, FD Parado-Estepa, ND Salayo & MJH Lebata-Ramos (Eds.), Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia: Challenges in Responsible Production … International Workshop on Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia 2014 (RESA), 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    Stock enhancement involves a set of management approaches which include the release of hatchery-produced aquatic organisms to enhance or restore fisheries. Stock enhancement of various species has a long history in developed countries and it showed that releases have the potential to yield substantial benefits for various fishery stakeholders. While the biological objectives of stock enhancement were often successfully achieved in most of these enhancement initiatives, some results showed that actual social gains in terms of yields, distribution of benefits and institutional sustainability are often inconclusive. The high cost of stocking accrues to the government which means these are supported by public funds. Meanwhile, benefits are dissipated across various stakeholders, some of them did not at all contribute and participate in the stocking program. In such government-initiated and publicly-funded stock enhancement programs, the lack of sense of stewardship among direct fishery stakeholders was observed to have contributed to a vicious cycle of excessive extraction of fishery resources for individual economic benefits.

    Developing countries such as the Philippines would be confronted by budgetary limitations if it has to adopt the stocking strategies applied in developed countries. Thus, with reference to the success of co-management approaches for managing fishery resources in the Philippines, a community-based strategy for enhancement of fishery stocks was explored. SEAFDEC/AQD, with support from the Government of Japan Trust Fund, initiated a community-based approach to stock enhancement in Molocaboc, an island barangay or village within the Sagay Marine Reserve (SMR). The initiative aims to ensure that its goals and strategies are within the social milieu of local stakeholders, i.e. fisherfolks are without financial assets to contribute or pay for the enhancement of the fishery and stock enhancement is often not a priority approach to address fishery resource depletion for most local governments. However, the social assets of fishing communities could be explored to implement stock enhancement. This paper describes the social preparation executed from 2007 to 2011 in order to orient a fishing community such as Molocaboc towards a successful enhancement of overfished species. Initially, the project focused on donkey s ear abalone Haliotis asinina to provide an example for other species. Abalone or kapinan in the vernacular is one of the over-extracted fishery resources in Sagay City. It is one of the high-priced catch among fishers in coastal communities in the Philippines. High buying prices compared with other fish catch motivated small-scale fishers to target abalones and caused its overfishing.
  • Conference paper

    Is small-hold tropical aquaculture in a genetic plunge towards extinction? 

    RW Doyle - In MRR Romana-Eguia, FD Parado-Estepa, ND Salayo & MJH Lebata-Ramos (Eds.), Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia: Challenges in Responsible Production … International Workshop on Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia 2014 (RESA), 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    Tropical shrimp aquaculture is in a disease-induced crisis of lost production. The response to this crisis currently focuses on microbiology and pathology, quarantine, and transboundary transfer of shrimp. The crisis also involves an interaction between shrimp genetics and various human interests including protection of intellectual property. Breeders of high-quality strains generally employ (and are encouraged to employ) some form of breeder lock that generates inbreeding when broodstocks are copied . Smaller hatcheries sell these copied, inbred shrimp to farmers, who thereby increase the likelihood of losing their crops to disease. The joint behavior of breeders, hatcheries and farmers causes inbreeding to accumulate in tropical regions.

    The depressive effect of inbreeding on disease resistance is exceptionally strong in shrimp, as shown in a re-analysis of published field and experimental data. Inbreeding increases the severity and frequency of disease through a variety of mechanisms. We have relatively few, marker-based estimates of accumulated inbreeding in any non-pedigreed shrimp aquaculture system. Simulation shows, however, that locked post larvae (PLs) can be distinguished from copies in broodstocks and farm ponds, given appropriate analysis of genetic markers.

    Culture of stocks certified to be free of specified pathogens (specific pathogen free or SPF stocks) is strongly recommended and only SPF stocks can now be legally imported into most jurisdictions. These recommendations are appropriate, beneficial and necessary. But insofar as they increase the commercial value of proprietary genetic strains, such regulations may also increase the likelihood of copying, and thus inbreeding at farm level and ever-increasing susceptibility to disease and climate stress (Doyle, 2014a).

    The intellectual property value of disease-resistant strains will be extremely high and intellectual property rights are fundamental to science-based economic innovation. Breeders will, and must, continue to protect their genetic improvement programs with genetic locks, especially in regions where judicial sanctions are ineffective. The regulatory objective should be to encourage biosecurity and genetic progress while discouraging copying and consequent inbreeding.

    The current consensus that inbreeding is unimportant may therefore be out of date. Inbreeding may be amplifying the severity of diseases (including the major current threats: white spot syndrome virus or WSSV, infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus or IHHNV and early mortality syndrome or EMS (acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease or AHPND). Continuing to ignore the interaction between inbreeding and disease may become a fatal error for tropical shrimp aquaculture.
  • Conference paper

    Assessment of humphead wrasse (Cheilinus undulatus), spawning aggregations and declaration of marine protected area as strategy for enhancement of wild stocks 

    FG Romero & AS Injaki - In MRR Romana-Eguia, FD Parado-Estepa, ND Salayo & MJH Lebata-Ramos (Eds.), Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia: Challenges in Responsible Production … International Workshop on Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia 2014 (RESA), 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    Humphead wrasse, known as the Napoleon fish (Cheilinus undulatus), is the largest living member of the family Labridae. It is slow growing but can grow to a maximum size exceeding 2 m and 190 kg. This species was the first commercially important coral reef food fish to be listed in the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) Appendix II in 2004 because of its vulnerable status and the ongoing threat to its conservation from international trade. Like many coral reef fishes, the humphead wrasse, Cheilinus undulatus, aggregate in reef areas when they spawn and this spawning behaviour makes them highly vulnerable to overfishing. Assessment of the spawning aggregations of this species was conducted in the municipalities of Sibutu and Sitangkai in the province of Tawi-Tawi, Philippines. Key informant interviews (KII) with fishermen, mariculturists, and other stakeholders and focus group discussions (FGD) with local government leaders, Fisheries and Aquatic Resources Management (FARMC) members, mariculturists, and exporters were conducted. Guided by the results of these KII and FGDs, underwater visual census of mameng (local common name for Napoleon wrasse) populations (juvenile and mature) were conducted to document spawning aggregation sites. Since there was no photo-documentation of actual spawning aggregations of mameng in the reef areas, indirect measures were used. Result of the KII and FGD indicated that the Baligtang Reef in Sipangkot and Tando Owak are major sources of spawners. Anecdotal accounts of Bajau fishermen showed that Dungun Dungon, Baligtang reef, Tando Owak and Tugalan are traditional fishing grounds for mameng spawning aggregations. From the length-frequency analysis of mameng caught by hook and line and fish pot in the Baligtang Reef in Sipangkot, the estimated length at maturity of this species was found to be 25-35 cm. There were 134 individuals caught within this size range so they are considered potential spawners. Another indirect proof used was the underwater documentation of juvenile humphead wrasse which were regularly observed and photographed in association with seagrass beds and branching coral reefs in Baligtang Reef in Sipangkot, Sitangkai. Gonadal study also indicated that the mameng caught in this area had mature and ripe gonads but the number of mature fish depends on the season. These were the basis of declaring Spawning Aggregation Sites in Tando Owak and Dungun Dungun in Sibutu and Baligtang Reef, Sipangkot and Tugalan in Sitangkai. These were declared as marine protected areas by ordinance of the municipal Sangguniang Bayan of the two municipalities. Management and enforcement plans have been developed and Bantay Dagat have been trained to protect the spawning aggregations and this strategy aims to protect the wild stocks of humphead wrasse. Protecting the spawners would ensure that there would be enough recruits, prevent recruitment overfishing and enhance the wild stocks.
  • Conference paper

    Targeting essential gene utilizing RNA interference to protect the ailing shrimp/prawn industry against WSSV 

    JMS Lazarte & MBB Maningas - In MRR Romana-Eguia, FD Parado-Estepa, ND Salayo & MJH Lebata-Ramos (Eds.), Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia: Challenges in Responsible Production … International Workshop on Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia 2014 (RESA), 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    The white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) remains to be the most widespread and devastating infectious agent that has hit particularly the marine shrimp aquaculture industry worldwide. To date, there are no known effective strategies that can combat WSSV infection. This study aimed to elucidate host-pathogen interaction through the functional study of host - gene. Utilizing RNA Interference, the function of contig23 (c23) in the shrimp genome, identified to have high homology with WSSVORF-325, was determined. Three set-ups were prepared for treatment of c23-, GFP-dsRNA, and PBS using Macrobrachium rosenbergii freshwater prawns. Each treatment group was challenged with WSSV and survival rate was recorded. C23-, and GFP-dsRNA injected prawns showed a significant survival rate of 100%, in contrast to 20% of the PBS injected prawns at 10 days post-infection (dpi). Results showed that injection of c23- and GFP-dsRNA prior to challenge with WSSV, delayed and reduced mortality in contrast to PBS-treated prawns, which showed high mortality. Gene expression analysis showed silencing of both WSSV and c23 at day 3 post-WSSV challenge. This study proved that c23-dsRNA has a protective effect on WSSVchallenged prawns and highlights its involvement in the infectivity of WSSV in M. rosenbergii.
  • Conference paper

    Marine fish hatchery: developments and future trends 

    CL Marte & JD Toledo - In MRR Romana-Eguia, FD Parado-Estepa, ND Salayo & MJH Lebata-Ramos (Eds.), Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia: Challenges in Responsible Production … International Workshop on Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia 2014 (RESA), 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    The basic procedures for producing marine fish fry in hatcheries developed for milkfish fry production nearly 3 decades ago are the basis of fry production systems for all other marine fish species that are now reared in hatcheries in the Philippines and other Southeast Asian countries. These include large-scale microalgae production in outdoor tanks, feeding of appropriate sized rotifer grown on microalgae such as Nannochlorum during the first feeding phase, and shifting to larger prey such as Artemia towards the latter stages of production.

    In recent years, the increasing demand for high-value species such as groupers, sea bass, red snapper, and pompano in both local and export markets has encouraged a number of hatcheries to produce fry to supply the requirements of fish cage farmers. Techniques are modified using information from research institutions and multi-national firms active in developing products and equipment to improve commercial production of these species. Larval feeds of appropriate sizes, forms and presentation for various larval stages incorporating essential nutrients, micronutrients, and feed stimulants are now available in the market. Diseases in marine fish hatcheries have become common occurrences such that various chemotherapeutants, vaccines, and immunostimulants are now available and increasingly being applied in fish hatcheries. Technological developments in hatchery systems, such as the use of recirculating systems, water pretreatment protocols (ozonation, mircrofiltration, UV light treatment) are also increasingly being adopted by commercial establishments.

    A critical link between fry production and production of marketable fish is fingerling/ juvenile production in nurseries. Fry are commonly grown in brackishwater fishponds to appropriate size for stocking in fish cages. Methods to improve growth through proper feeding and nutrition, eliminate or reduce disease occurrence and parasite infestation, reduce cannibalism in cannibalistic species such as sea bass, grouper and snappers are active areas of research. Nursery production is integrated with fry production in large commercial facilities but is also done by small-scale fish farmers who have access to fry either from the wild or hatcheries. Commercial hatcheries adopt fingerling production from well-studied species in developed countries. Smallscale farmers however still rely on zooplanktons collected from the wild such as copepods, Moina, mysids, and trash fish as feed. Production is dependent on availability of feed sources and susceptibility to pathogens and parasites that come with the feed. It can also be erratic since smallscale farms are vulnerable to changes in climate and weather conditions.

    Further technological advancement in marine fish hatcheries will increasingly be led by commercial establishments and industries developing equipment like photobioreactor for microalgae to produce algal paste, or methods to develop intensive systems for rotifer culture. Research institutions will however need to support the needs of the small-scale farmers and hatchery operators who may not be able to apply costly products from these companies by developing innovative simple techniques that can improve culture systems such as producing fry and fingerlings in mesocosm pond system, appropriate use of probiotics as water stabilizer, and production of zooplankton in ponds.
  • Conference paper

    Perceptions on the effects of maritime activities on the Philippine aquatic ecosystem 

    E Java, T Cruz & IY Hernandez - In MRR Romana-Eguia, FD Parado-Estepa, ND Salayo & MJH Lebata-Ramos (Eds.), Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia: Challenges in Responsible Production … International Workshop on Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia 2014 (RESA), 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    Throughout history, humans create an impact on marine ecosystems. May it be positive or negative, such impact is long-term and shapes the overall image of the system. As humanity increases its number, so does the impact it creates. Humanity has relied on the oceans for food, recreation and for various economic opportunities. Overfishing and pollution affects the life in the seas. Advancements in fishing technology, such as tracking technologies and better transportation have reduced fish stocks significantly when matched with non-sustainable practices, such as dredging and trawling. Intentional dumping from sewages, industrial run-off and chemicals has brought about pollution in the seas. Though some pollution may be accidental, like oil spills, it still causes adverse effects to the sea. Excess nutrients coming from fertilizers and intensive farming practices have resulted to what is known as eutrophications. Lastly, changes in the marine environment have led to the introduction of invasive alien species and marine organisms, which are oftentimes difficult to eradicate. Such effects have made researchers rethink of various ways to maintain marine activities while sustaining its ecosystem.

    Through this study, the researchers determined the effects of maritime activities on the population of aquatic creatures directly from the seafarers, and found out their perspectives on how to remedy such effects and sustain the marine ecosystem.

    This research is descriptive in nature, conducted with 100 purposively selected seafarers from Manila. The participants were given a questionnaire that asked for demographics and their perceptions on the effects of maritime activities on the marine ecosystem and ways to provide solutions to minimize or avoid its negative impacts.

    Findings show equal distribution on gender, with majority at the low socioeconomic level (47%) and are Tagalog in ethnicity (56%). The seafarers believe that the maritime activities cause harm on aquatic creatures (43%), limits propagation of aquatic species (36%), makes them prone to mortality (11%) and cause pollution to the atmosphere (10%). Likewise, their perception of minimizing the consequences lies within the proper conditioning of ships and running them in good condition (57%), maintaining a clean place for the marine inhabitants (28%) and creating a good waste-renewal system (15%). The results of the paper is directed towards proper handling and maintenance of the shipping industry and strict supervision for waste management.
  • Conference paper

    Shrimp metabolism: The roles of lactate dehydrogenase (c31), glycogen phosphorylase (c34) and protein kinase (PK) as revealed by RNA interference 

    MVR Tare, H Kondo, I Hirono & MBB Maningas - In MRR Romana-Eguia, FD Parado-Estepa, ND Salayo & MJH Lebata-Ramos (Eds.), Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia: Challenges in Responsible Production … International Workshop on Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia 2014 (RESA), 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    Energy metabolism is well-studied in vertebrate systems, providing insights on the genes and mechanisms involved in different pathways necessary for the survival of an organism. Yet, such studies are still lacking in invertebrate systems much more in shrimp. An earlier study has showed several contigs from the black tiger shrimp to be homologous to white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), a devastating pathogen in shrimp, including contig 31-WSSVORF82 (c31) and contig 34-WSSVORF21 (c34). This study aims to unveil the roles of three genes: c31, c34 and protein kinase (PK) in the shrimp system and its possible role in WSSV-infection. Rapid amplification of cDNA ends-polymerase chain reaction or RACE-PCR was used to obtain the full-length sequence of c31 and c34, followed by in vivo gene silencing using RNAi technology, and intramuscularly injecting dsRNA to WSSVchallenged Macrobrachium rosenbergii and Penaeus (Marsupenaeus) japonicus. Gene expression followed for healthy shrimps and dsRNA-treated shrimps.

    Mrc31 was revealed to be the enzyme lactase dehydrogenase (LDH), commonly released during tissue damage and is a marker for disease. The most parsimonious tree pictured Mrc31 to be sister clades to LDH of other shrimp species, Penaeus monodon and P. vannamei, supported with 100% and 72% bootstrap values, respectively. Mrc34 was highly homologous to the glycogen phosphorylase (GP) enzymes of other organisms including that of another shrimp, M. japonicus, bearing a bootstrap value of 99%. For PK, phylogenetic analysis revealed that the three open reading frames (ORFs) from P. monodon, M. rosenbergii and P. japonicus have 30% homology to WSSV-PK supported by a 98% bootstrap value. Mortality data from dsRNA-treated and WSSV-infected shrimps showed that treatment with dsRNA-LDH, GP and PK had significantly higher survival rates compared to that of the controls, Phosphate Buffered Saline (PBS) and Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP). Silencing the three genes in the shrimp has rendered some protective effect against the virus. Gene expression showed that all three genes are present in immune-related organs such as the gills, hepatopancreas and hemocyte. This study is the first to report the possible identities and functions of contigs 31, 34 and PK providing valuable data on the shrimp's genome.
  • Conference paper

    Inland fisheries resource enhancement and conservation practices in Myanmar 

    H Thein - In MRR Romana-Eguia, FD Parado-Estepa, ND Salayo & MJH Lebata-Ramos (Eds.), Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia: Challenges in Responsible Production … International Workshop on Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia 2014 (RESA), 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    Myanmar has impressive freshwater capture fisheries. Inland freshwater bodies cover 8.1 million ha of which 1.3 million ha are permanent while the rest are seasonally inundated floodplains. There are repeated references to the crucial importance of fish and fish products in the nutrition of the Myanmar people. Over the past few decades, inland fisheries resources have increased pressure from overfishing, use of destructive fishing gear/methods, pollution and environment changes. In order to make a sustainable inland capture fisheries and conservation of aquatic biodiversity as well as nutritional security and improved rural livelihoods, fisheries resource enhancement and conservation measures have long been adopted in Myanmar since 1967, initiated through a seed replenishment program in natural waters, such rivers, lake, dams, even rice fields, etc. However, the institutional, policy, legislative and financial environments under which enhancement and capture fisheries regimes exist are not conducive to the interests of the fishers. Strong tools for valuation of ecosystem goods and services, enabling governance arrangements and estimation of environmental flows are needed. Fishing communities need to be organized into strong co-management/participatory/community regimes in order to ensure that all stakeholders take part in decision-making process and the benefits accrued are shared equitably by all.
  • Conference paper

    Country status on sustainable aquaculture in Lao PDR 

    T Khonglaliane - In MRR Romana-Eguia, FD Parado-Estepa, ND Salayo & MJH Lebata-Ramos (Eds.), Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia: Challenges in Responsible Production … International Workshop on Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia 2014 (RESA), 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    Capture fisheries and aquaculture in Lao PDR are based on water resource ecosystems which consist mainly of rivers and streams, hydropower and irrigation reservoirs, diversion weirs, small water bodies, flood plains and wet-season rice-fields. The total area of water resources for capture fisheries is believed to be more than 1.2 million ha. The estimated consumption of inland fish in Lao PDR is approximately 167,922 tonnes per year while consumption of other aquatic animals is estimated at 40,581 tonnes per year. Most of the consumption is from internal production (i.e. imports are of minor importance), so these figures represent approximate catches or yield from fisheries. These estimated yields are conservatively valued at almost US$150 million per year.

    The people of Lao PDR, especially in the rural communities that account for more than 75 per cent of the population, still depend upon the country's fish and other aquatic animals as their most reliable sources of animal protein. The estimate of actual fish consumption per capita (kg/capita/ year) of inland fish is 24.5 kg, while other aquatic animals account for about 4.1 kg and marine products around 0.4 kg, to make a total of 29 kg of fish and aquatic products consumed per capita per year.

    As aquaculture in Lao PDR expands, many forms of production systems are being developed, for example pond culture, communal ponds, rice-cum-fish culture and cage culture. Most fish culture systems in Lao PDR are small-scale. Such forms of production systems are divided into sub-categories depending on the nature and main activity of the producers. According to the Department of Livestock and Fisheries, aquaculture production in 2007 accounted for 54,750 tonnes in an area of more than 42,000 ha, including cage culture in the Mekong and some tributaries.

    There has been a significant increase in intensive tilapia production in recent years in Lao PDR (MRC Technical Paper No. 5 April 2002) based on tilapia cage culture in the Mekong river and irrigation reservoirs. In last two years, an enterprising farmer has established about 360 cages.

    Constraints in the large-scale development of tilapia cage culture are the lack of technical support (e.g. extension services) to the farmers and insufficient supply of advanced fingerlings. Morever, tilapia cage culture in the Mekong river system is perceived to be difficult to sustain because of environmental factors such as river flooding and strong currents during the rainy season and the lack of water during the dry season.
  • Conference paper

    Hatchery management techniques for tiger-tail seahorse (Hippocampus comes) 

    SMB Ursua & T Azuma - In MRR Romana-Eguia, FD Parado-Estepa, ND Salayo & MJH Lebata-Ramos (Eds.), Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia: Challenges in Responsible Production … International Workshop on Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia 2014 (RESA), 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    Seahorse culture has been practiced throughout the world to meet the demand for global trade and reduce the pressure on wild stocks through overexploitation. Development of culture techniques for seed production of seahorses is one of the most effective measures to avoid such anthropological repercussions on the wild stocks, and is currently being conducted at SEAFDEC/ AQD with the aim to produce seed for stock release to protect these internationally threatened and overexploited species in Southeast Asia. This paper describes the breakthroughs in seahorse breeding and nursery rearing. So far, we have developed water and feeding management schemes that resulted in improved reproductive performance of broodstock and higher survival and growth rates in newborn and juvenile seahorses.

    We highlight the concern of providing desirable food organisms and maintenance of suitable water quality in order to maintain maximum efficiency in the management of the seahorse hatchery. Newborn seahorses fed with formalin-treated food organisms and reared in UV-treated seawater had significantly higher survival and daily growth rate based on stretched height and body weight than those fed with untreated food organisms and reared in both chlorinated and sand-filtered seawater. Broodstocks fed with mysid shrimps showed higher brood size and shorter parturition interval. Thus, improved reproductive performance as well as survival and growth of newborn seahorses were largely influenced by refinement of hatchery management techniques.
  • Conference paper

    Preliminary trials on the optimization of hormone dosages for induced breeding of Philippine silver perch, Leiopotherapon plumbeus 

    MAO Javier, FA Aya & MRR Romana-Eguia - In MRR Romana-Eguia, FD Parado-Estepa, ND Salayo & MJH Lebata-Ramos (Eds.), Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia: Challenges in Responsible Production … International Workshop on Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia 2014 (RESA), 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    The silver perch Leiopotherapon plumbeus, locally known as ayungin, is an endemic freshwater fish that is commercially valuable as it commands a high price in the local market. Due to excessive fishing and other potential causes such as predation by invasive alien species, the local L. plumbeus stocks are observed to be depleting hence there is a need for an induced breeding protocol to propagate silver perch and conserve what remains of the resource. In this study, 30 females (total length or TL: 109.4 ± 12.2 mm; total body weight or TBW: 20.3 ± 6.1 g) and 60 males (TL: 97.1 ± 11.6 mm; TBW: 13.4 ± 5.5 g) were injected once intra-muscularly with different doses of hormones. Various dosages of human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG), luteinizing hormone releasing hormone analog (LHRHa) and salmon gonadotropin releasing hormone (sGnRH) were evaluated to identify the most effective dosage and hormone that resulted to high ovulation, fertilization and hatching rate. For the hormone sGnRH, 20, 30 and 40 µg/kg body weight (BW) and 1, 2 and 3 µg/kg BW for LHRHa were the dosages used in the experiment. The dosage used for HCG is 50 IU/g BW and served as the control. The findings of the experiment determined that the use of 20 µg/kg body weight of sGnRH resulted to high ovulation, fertilization and hatching rates. The result of the experiment would provide an efficient protocol for the local fishermen so they can produce, on demand, a large supply of this high quality fish species.
  • Conference paper

    Good aquaculture practices (VietGAP) and sustainable aquaculture development in Viet Nam 

    TBT Nguyen - In MRR Romana-Eguia, FD Parado-Estepa, ND Salayo & MJH Lebata-Ramos (Eds.), Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia: Challenges in Responsible Production … International Workshop on Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia 2014 (RESA), 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    The shrimp (black tiger and white leg shrimp) and catfish industries in Viet Nam continue to experience increasing growth due to rapid aquaculture development. However, disease outbreaks become a major issue. Moreover, seafood consumers at present are likely to be more concerned about how the products are produced and how to control/manage aquatic animal health instead of treatment. Hence, the main objective of this abstract is to focus on one of the solutions to address these problems/issues and ensure sustainable aquaculture development in Viet Nam.
  • Conference paper

    Rapid adaptation to a new environment: is it reversible? 

    H Araki - In MRR Romana-Eguia, FD Parado-Estepa, ND Salayo & MJH Lebata-Ramos (Eds.), Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia: Challenges in Responsible Production … International Workshop on Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia 2014 (RESA), 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    Accumulating evidence suggests rapid adaptation of fish populations when they are exposed to artificial hatchery environments. However, little is known if rapidly-adapted populations can readapt to their original, natural environment at the same rate. Here, I review recent studies on salmonid fish that address this issue. They indeed suggest rapid adaptation of hatchery populations, in which reproductive fitness under a natural environment became much lower than that in the wild population after only 1-2 generations of captive breeding. However, the reproductive fitness did not recover after one generation of natural rearing, implying that rapid adaptation to a new environment was not reversible at the same rate. I discuss potential consequences of the irreversible fitness reduction in extensively stocked fish species. Understanding the mechanism behind the irreversible rapid adaptation in fish populations will help us figure out a better, nature-friendly, and hence sustainable means of hatchery operations for human welfare.
  • Conference paper

    Abalone aquaculture for stock enhancement and community livelihood project in northern Palawan, Philippines 

    BJ Gonzales - In MRR Romana-Eguia, FD Parado-Estepa, ND Salayo & MJH Lebata-Ramos (Eds.), Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia: Challenges in Responsible Production … International Workshop on Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia 2014 (RESA), 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    One of the interventions to feed the poorest of the poor fisheries sector in the country is the provision of livelihood in the form of mariculture of high value marine species. In the Philippines, livelihood in rural areas is largely linked to resource depletion, hence it is wise not only to provide livelihood to the community but also to encourage them to conserve and enhance the resources. As part of the revised R&D program, the Western Philippines University partnered with NGO and existing projects to embark on a community-based environment-concerned livelihood project, using hatchery bred abalone, although top shell was also considered for stock enhancement. This is in an on-going project thus, preliminary phases such as abalone production and cage-based grow-out as well as subsequent project plans will be discussed. The objectives of this study were to: (a) share the implementing experiences in this project, (b) identify success and failure drivers of the project, (c) explain the conceptual framework for the MPA-based stock enhancement to be used in this project, and (d) give recommendations to improve the implementation and ensure the success of the project.

    The following activities have thus far been conducted: (a) development of criteria for cage micro-site selection; (b) writing of proposal and provision of financial assistance for hatchery juvenile production through a partnership MOA; (c) presentation of site survey results to beneficiaries and stake holders; (d) conduct of trainings on abalone grow out culture to POs; (e) development and improvement of training module; (f) signing of conservation agreement; (g) giving of cage materials and juveniles to people s organizations; (h) on site coaching; and (i) partial monitoring. The next activities include improvement in juvenile production, conduct of researches on abalone nutrition, and development of market and value chain flow analysis. The conceptual framework for community-managed stock enhancement will follow that of the Department of Environment and Natural Resources-ICRMP, of which the stock enhancement project is anchored on the management of marine protected areas or MPAs.

    The steps in all the activities were documented and while the project was in progress, performance of the participants in training were measured, the training module was improved, the training approaches were revised according to needs, and the growth and survival of juvenile abalone were monitored. The problems identified were low production of juveniles, insufficient food for grow-out, political squabbles, social preparation, and delay in implementation schedule. Recommendations to improve or resolve the problems encountered were also presented in this paper.
  • Conference paper

    Updates on the seed production of mud crab 

    ET Quinitio, FD Parado-Estepa, JJ Huervana & MR Burlas - In MRR Romana-Eguia, FD Parado-Estepa, ND Salayo & MJH Lebata-Ramos (Eds.), Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia: Challenges in Responsible Production … International Workshop on Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia 2014 (RESA), 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    Widespread interest in mud crab species is increasing because these are highly prized both in domestic and export markets. Among the three mud crab species commonly found in the Philippines, Scylla serrata, S. olivacea, and S. tranquebarica, S. serrata is preferred by farmers because it is larger and less aggressive than the other species. Likewise, S. serrata is the most widely distributed species in the Indo-west Pacific region.

    Hatchery-produced seedstock are presently used by some crab farmers in their grow-out operations. In the hatchery phase, feeding mud crab larvae with shrimp formulated diets and natural food was found to reduce the occurrence of molt death syndrome, one of the major problems in seed production. Larvae given 25% formulated diet (FD) + 75% natural food (NF; rotifers and Artemia) and 50% FD + 50% NF showed better performance than those larvae fed 100% FD, 100% NF and 75% FD + 25% NF indicating that usage of natural food, especially the expensive Artemia, can be reduced. Since the early crab instar (C) produced in the hatchery need to be grown further before stocking in grow-out ponds, two phases of nursery culture have been developed. C1-2 are grown to 1.5-2.0 cm carapace width (CW) size in the first phase and further grown to 3.0-4.0 cm CW in the second phase. Nursery rearing is done in net cages installed in ponds for easy retrieval. A combination of mussel or trash fish and formulated diet is used as feed.

    Domestication of the mud crab S. serrata as a prerequisite to selective breeding has been done at SEAFDEC/AQD. Likewise, defining criteria for the determination of quality of newly hatched zoeae for stocking in the hatchery was initiated. Newly hatched zoeae were subjected to starvation and stress test using formalin. Starvation failed to elicit responses that were significantly different between the good and poor quality larvae hence it is not suitable for larval quality evaluation. Based on three-year data, the formalin stress test gave mean cumulative mortalities of 2.38±0.32, 8.24±0.88, 20±1.58 in good quality larvae, and 43.74±2.39 while 22.93±4.19, 63.68±7.17, 84.29±3.88 and 97.65±1.06 for poor quality larvae at 0 (control), 20, 30 and 40 ppm formalin, respectively. As formalin level increased, cumulative larval mortality also increased regardless of the quality of the larvae. Formalin stress test proved to be a reliable method to determine whether a batch of newly hatched zoeae was of good or poor quality.
  • Conference paper

    BFAR-CHED Philippine National Aquasilviculture Program (PNAP) in Bataan 

    RC Flores, FE Tungol, AS Antonio, ED Medairos & JM Salas - In MRR Romana-Eguia, FD Parado-Estepa, ND Salayo & MJH Lebata-Ramos (Eds.), Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia: Challenges in Responsible Production … International Workshop on Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia 2014 (RESA), 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    Under the Philippine Aquasilviculture Program, the Bataan Peninsula State University (BSPU) rehabilitated denuded mangrove resources, established aquasilviculture technology demonstration projects as a livelihood option for fisherfolks (while caring for the mangroves they had planted) and established community-based multi-species hatcheries to increase endemic fish species in the area.

    The BPSU was able to (a) plant 183, 300 mangrove seedlings where 85.96% survival was noted a year after, (b) establish 16 units aquasilviculture projects for the livelihood of the beneficiaries (planting that earned the beneficiaries P1,338, 731.90); and (c) establish community-based multispecies hatcheries that already produced an estimated 1,030,502,400 eggs of various fish species, thus increasing the wild fishery resource in the area.

    The program is expected to bear potential impacts on our environment and to the lives of the marginalized people of our community through the collaborative efforts of the Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources (BFAR), the Commission on Higher Education (CHED), BPSU, Local Government Units (LGUs) and the fisherfolks.

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