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  • Book

    Philippine National Standard: Pasteurized crab meat 

    Bureau of Agriculture and Fisheries Standards - 2016 - Bureau of Agriculture and Fisheries Standards
    This PNS for pasteurized crab meat aims to provide a common understanding on the scope of the standard, product description, process description, essential composition and quality factors, food additives, contaminants, hygiene and handling, packaging and labeling, methods of sampling, examination and analysis, definition of defectives and lot acceptance.
  • Book

    Philippine National Standard: Dried anchovies 

    Bureau of Agriculture and Fisheries Standards - 2016 - Bureau of Agriculture and Fisheries Standards
    This PNS for dried anchovies aims to provide a common understanding on the scope of the standard, product description, process description, essential composition and quality factors, food additives, contaminants, hygiene and handling, packaging and labeling, methods of sampling, examination and analysis, definition of defectives and lot acceptance.
  • Book

    Philippine National Standard: Live mangrove crab 

    Bureau of Agriculture and Fisheries Standards - 2016 - Bureau of Agriculture and Fisheries Standards
    This PNS for live mangrove crab aims to provide a common understanding on the scope of the standard, product description, process description, essential composition and quality factors, food additives, contaminants, hygiene and handling, packaging and labeling, methods of sampling, examination and analysis, definition of defectives and lot acceptance.
  • Book | Conference publication

    Resource enhancement and sustainable aquaculture practices in Southeast Asia: challenges in responsible production of aquatic species : proceedings of the international workshop on resource enhancement and sustainable aquaculture practices in Southeast Asia 2014 (RESA) 

    MRR Romana-Eguia, FD Parado-Estepa, ND Salayo & MJH Lebata-Ramos (Eds.) - 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    The conference was held in order to promote and augment regional initiatives on resource enhancement and sustainable aquaculture practices, and to contribute to poverty alleviation, livelihood and food security in Southeast Asia. The contributions of the selected participants during the conference which are contained in this volume are cited individually.
  • Conference paper

    Reaching the poor through aquaculture: The case of technology adoption in rural communities at west central Philippines 

    DB Baticados - In MRR Romana-Eguia, FD Parado-Estepa, ND Salayo & MJH Lebata-Ramos (Eds.), Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia: Challenges in Responsible Production … International Workshop on Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia 2014 (RESA), 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    Aquaculture is promoted for food security and poverty alleviation in developing countries. This study examines the socio-economic impact of aquaculture technologies extended to calamitystricken rural communities in Nueva Valencia, Guimaras, representing the marine water fishery and in Dumarao, Capiz, representing the inland freshwater fishery at west central Philippines. The adoption pathway employed in both sites was community-based and participatory. The survey was conducted among cooperators and non-cooperators, randomly selected in equal numbers in two sites with 60 respondents each per site using a pre-tested interview schedule.

    Results showed that aquaculture is an acceptable technology both for cooperators and noncooperators. The venture is a profitable business either done individually or collectively through an association, if managed properly. Milkfish cage culture, however, needs big capital that technology adoption among local fisherfolk (Guimaras) is limited. In contrast, tilapia cage culture enables small farmers/fishers in Dumarao to venture on their own. Dumarao growers were able to innovate using local materials like bamboo poles to make their cages afloat instead of drums or plastic containers as buoys. There were, however, environmental, technological and institutional issues deterring technology adoption in both sites. Climate change and institutional issues were the more prevalent concerns of Dumarao growers. The technological issues like fluctuating market price, cost of feeds, and fry supply were more enunciated in Guimaras.
  • Conference paper

    Social preparations towards community-based approach to stock enhancement in Sagay Marine Reserve, Philippines 

    ND Salayo, RJG Castel, DHM Tormon, RT Barrido, MFJ Nievales & T Azuma - In MRR Romana-Eguia, FD Parado-Estepa, ND Salayo & MJH Lebata-Ramos (Eds.), Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia: Challenges in Responsible Production … International Workshop on Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia 2014 (RESA), 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    Stock enhancement involves a set of management approaches which include the release of hatchery-produced aquatic organisms to enhance or restore fisheries. Stock enhancement of various species has a long history in developed countries and it showed that releases have the potential to yield substantial benefits for various fishery stakeholders. While the biological objectives of stock enhancement were often successfully achieved in most of these enhancement initiatives, some results showed that actual social gains in terms of yields, distribution of benefits and institutional sustainability are often inconclusive. The high cost of stocking accrues to the government which means these are supported by public funds. Meanwhile, benefits are dissipated across various stakeholders, some of them did not at all contribute and participate in the stocking program. In such government-initiated and publicly-funded stock enhancement programs, the lack of sense of stewardship among direct fishery stakeholders was observed to have contributed to a vicious cycle of excessive extraction of fishery resources for individual economic benefits.

    Developing countries such as the Philippines would be confronted by budgetary limitations if it has to adopt the stocking strategies applied in developed countries. Thus, with reference to the success of co-management approaches for managing fishery resources in the Philippines, a community-based strategy for enhancement of fishery stocks was explored. SEAFDEC/AQD, with support from the Government of Japan Trust Fund, initiated a community-based approach to stock enhancement in Molocaboc, an island barangay or village within the Sagay Marine Reserve (SMR). The initiative aims to ensure that its goals and strategies are within the social milieu of local stakeholders, i.e. fisherfolks are without financial assets to contribute or pay for the enhancement of the fishery and stock enhancement is often not a priority approach to address fishery resource depletion for most local governments. However, the social assets of fishing communities could be explored to implement stock enhancement. This paper describes the social preparation executed from 2007 to 2011 in order to orient a fishing community such as Molocaboc towards a successful enhancement of overfished species. Initially, the project focused on donkey s ear abalone Haliotis asinina to provide an example for other species. Abalone or kapinan in the vernacular is one of the over-extracted fishery resources in Sagay City. It is one of the high-priced catch among fishers in coastal communities in the Philippines. High buying prices compared with other fish catch motivated small-scale fishers to target abalones and caused its overfishing.
  • Conference paper

    Is small-hold tropical aquaculture in a genetic plunge towards extinction? 

    RW Doyle - In MRR Romana-Eguia, FD Parado-Estepa, ND Salayo & MJH Lebata-Ramos (Eds.), Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia: Challenges in Responsible Production … International Workshop on Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia 2014 (RESA), 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    Tropical shrimp aquaculture is in a disease-induced crisis of lost production. The response to this crisis currently focuses on microbiology and pathology, quarantine, and transboundary transfer of shrimp. The crisis also involves an interaction between shrimp genetics and various human interests including protection of intellectual property. Breeders of high-quality strains generally employ (and are encouraged to employ) some form of breeder lock that generates inbreeding when broodstocks are copied . Smaller hatcheries sell these copied, inbred shrimp to farmers, who thereby increase the likelihood of losing their crops to disease. The joint behavior of breeders, hatcheries and farmers causes inbreeding to accumulate in tropical regions.

    The depressive effect of inbreeding on disease resistance is exceptionally strong in shrimp, as shown in a re-analysis of published field and experimental data. Inbreeding increases the severity and frequency of disease through a variety of mechanisms. We have relatively few, marker-based estimates of accumulated inbreeding in any non-pedigreed shrimp aquaculture system. Simulation shows, however, that locked post larvae (PLs) can be distinguished from copies in broodstocks and farm ponds, given appropriate analysis of genetic markers.

    Culture of stocks certified to be free of specified pathogens (specific pathogen free or SPF stocks) is strongly recommended and only SPF stocks can now be legally imported into most jurisdictions. These recommendations are appropriate, beneficial and necessary. But insofar as they increase the commercial value of proprietary genetic strains, such regulations may also increase the likelihood of copying, and thus inbreeding at farm level and ever-increasing susceptibility to disease and climate stress (Doyle, 2014a).

    The intellectual property value of disease-resistant strains will be extremely high and intellectual property rights are fundamental to science-based economic innovation. Breeders will, and must, continue to protect their genetic improvement programs with genetic locks, especially in regions where judicial sanctions are ineffective. The regulatory objective should be to encourage biosecurity and genetic progress while discouraging copying and consequent inbreeding.

    The current consensus that inbreeding is unimportant may therefore be out of date. Inbreeding may be amplifying the severity of diseases (including the major current threats: white spot syndrome virus or WSSV, infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus or IHHNV and early mortality syndrome or EMS (acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease or AHPND). Continuing to ignore the interaction between inbreeding and disease may become a fatal error for tropical shrimp aquaculture.
  • Conference paper

    Assessment of humphead wrasse (Cheilinus undulatus), spawning aggregations and declaration of marine protected area as strategy for enhancement of wild stocks 

    FG Romero & AS Injaki - In MRR Romana-Eguia, FD Parado-Estepa, ND Salayo & MJH Lebata-Ramos (Eds.), Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia: Challenges in Responsible Production … International Workshop on Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia 2014 (RESA), 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    Humphead wrasse, known as the Napoleon fish (Cheilinus undulatus), is the largest living member of the family Labridae. It is slow growing but can grow to a maximum size exceeding 2 m and 190 kg. This species was the first commercially important coral reef food fish to be listed in the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) Appendix II in 2004 because of its vulnerable status and the ongoing threat to its conservation from international trade. Like many coral reef fishes, the humphead wrasse, Cheilinus undulatus, aggregate in reef areas when they spawn and this spawning behaviour makes them highly vulnerable to overfishing. Assessment of the spawning aggregations of this species was conducted in the municipalities of Sibutu and Sitangkai in the province of Tawi-Tawi, Philippines. Key informant interviews (KII) with fishermen, mariculturists, and other stakeholders and focus group discussions (FGD) with local government leaders, Fisheries and Aquatic Resources Management (FARMC) members, mariculturists, and exporters were conducted. Guided by the results of these KII and FGDs, underwater visual census of mameng (local common name for Napoleon wrasse) populations (juvenile and mature) were conducted to document spawning aggregation sites. Since there was no photo-documentation of actual spawning aggregations of mameng in the reef areas, indirect measures were used. Result of the KII and FGD indicated that the Baligtang Reef in Sipangkot and Tando Owak are major sources of spawners. Anecdotal accounts of Bajau fishermen showed that Dungun Dungon, Baligtang reef, Tando Owak and Tugalan are traditional fishing grounds for mameng spawning aggregations. From the length-frequency analysis of mameng caught by hook and line and fish pot in the Baligtang Reef in Sipangkot, the estimated length at maturity of this species was found to be 25-35 cm. There were 134 individuals caught within this size range so they are considered potential spawners. Another indirect proof used was the underwater documentation of juvenile humphead wrasse which were regularly observed and photographed in association with seagrass beds and branching coral reefs in Baligtang Reef in Sipangkot, Sitangkai. Gonadal study also indicated that the mameng caught in this area had mature and ripe gonads but the number of mature fish depends on the season. These were the basis of declaring Spawning Aggregation Sites in Tando Owak and Dungun Dungun in Sibutu and Baligtang Reef, Sipangkot and Tugalan in Sitangkai. These were declared as marine protected areas by ordinance of the municipal Sangguniang Bayan of the two municipalities. Management and enforcement plans have been developed and Bantay Dagat have been trained to protect the spawning aggregations and this strategy aims to protect the wild stocks of humphead wrasse. Protecting the spawners would ensure that there would be enough recruits, prevent recruitment overfishing and enhance the wild stocks.
  • Conference paper

    Status of resource management and aquaculture in Malaysia 

    A Yusoff - In MRR Romana-Eguia, FD Parado-Estepa, ND Salayo & MJH Lebata-Ramos (Eds.), Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia: Challenges in Responsible Production … International Workshop on Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia 2014 (RESA), 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    Malaysia is a maritime nation and its fishing industry is a source of income for 134,000 fishermen. In 2012, the fisheries sector produced 1.7 million tons of fish valued at RM10.8 billion and generated trade worth RM6 billion. The landings from capture fisheries are expected to increase from 1.32 million tons in 2010 to 1.76 million tons in 2020 at an annual growth rate of 2.9%. In 2012, 65% of total catch was contributed by the coastal fisheries as compared to 35% from deep sea fishing. Landing from deep sea fishing is expected to rise from 381,000 tons in 2012 to 620,000 tons in 2020. Deep sea fishing has been identified for its potential to contribute to the increase in the country s fish production. With a growing population and an increasing preference for fish as a healthy source of animal protein, the National Agro-food Policy (2011-2020) estimated that the annual demand for fish will increase to 1.93 million tons by the year 2020. The Department of Fisheries (DOF) has developed the Capture Fisheries Strategic Management Plan (2011-2020) based on three main documents i.e.; National Agro-food Policy (NAP, 2011-2020), Department of Fisheries Strategic Management Plan (2011-2020), and Malaysia National Plan of Action on Sustainable Fisheries for Food Security towards 2020.

    Aquaculture is now being promoted in Malaysia as an important engine of growth and eventually to become the mainstay of the nation s economy. Situated in a region with abundant supply of land and water, two determinant factors for aquaculture activities, Malaysia has always strived to ensure that this sector is not sidelined in their development efforts. With a growing population and an increasing preference for fish as a healthy source of animal protein, it has been estimated that the annual demand for fish will increase to 1.7 million tons in 2011 and further to 1.93 million tons by 2020. From the present annual aquaculture production of about 525,000 tons, this output would need to be raised to 790,000 tons to meet the projected demand by 2020. In a move to develop the aquaculture industry, the DOF, has initiated the Aquaculture Industrial Zone (AIZ) Program involving the development of 49 zones, located across Malaysia, which will be used for culture of various types of high value aquatic species. The DOF has identified several strategic areas that would be developed for downstream activities such as fish seed production, feed mills, fish processing plants, and other supporting industries. Aquaculture is also currently listed amongst the 16 Agro-food s Entry Point Projects (EPP) of the National Key Economic Area (NKEA). The government aims to double the Agro-food sector s contribution to Gross National Income (GNI) from Malaysian Ringgit (RM) 20.2 billion in the year 2010 to RM49.1 billion by 2020, or an increase of RM28.9 billion.
  • Conference paper

    Marine biodiversity at the SEAFDEC/AQD research stations in Iloilo and Guimaras, Philippines 

    TU Bagarinao - In MRR Romana-Eguia, FD Parado-Estepa, ND Salayo & MJH Lebata-Ramos (Eds.), Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia: Challenges in Responsible Production … International Workshop on Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia 2014 (RESA), 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    Species inventories were recently made in and around the research stations of the SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department to facilitate subsequent monitoring. AQD s Tigbauan Main Station (TMS, since 1973) faces the deep open waters of the Panay Gulf and Sulu Sea and is flanked by densely populated fishing villages operating nearshore fish corrals, gillnets, longlines, and beach seines. In 2013 2014, sampling at the sand-gravel intertidal and monitoring of the catch of the various gears showed at least 579 species from 213 families, including 252 species of fishes, 228 mollusks, 48 crustaceans, 12 cnidarians, 9 echinoderms, 16 seaweeds, sea turtles, and sea snakes inhabiting the nearshore areas off TMS. Any adverse effect of the TMS hatcheries and laboratories is difficult to discern on top of the continuous intense fishing and habitat disturbance. AQD s Igang Marine Station (IMS, since 1980) is in a cove under the rocky cliffs of southern Guimaras, behind several islands facing the Panay Gulf and Sulu Sea. IMS includes 40 ha of seagrass beds and sandflats around five rocky islets and two 6 12 m deep basins where broodstock and growout cages are moored. IMS is flanked by many fish corrals operated by fishers who live in villages in nearby coves. Fishers on outrigger boats also use gillnets and spears, and others glean for mollusks and echinoderms inside IMS. In 2011 2012, some 786 species in 261 families were collected or photographed at IMS, including 74 species of fishes, 40 crustaceans, 391 mollusks, 44 echinoderms, 87 cnidarians, 47 poriferans, 24 ascidians, and 12 bryozoans, and sea snakes living among 48 seaweeds and 4 seagrasses. Biodiversity at IMS seems high despite 35 years of operation of the fish cages and the continuous fishing, gleaning, and boating by the locals. Several species of filter-feeding invertebrates grew on the cage nets and platforms but were not found in the natural habitats. The cages provide additional attachment surfaces for many species; these biofoulants presumably reduce water flow into the cages but they also remove nutrients and particulate wastes and help maintain good water quality. Nevertheless, siltation is evident under the cliffs inside the cove, and the sandflats may be expanding over the seagrass beds. AQD s 16ha Dumangas Brackishwater Station (DBS, since 1998) is flanked by freshwater Talaugis River, by hundreds of hectares of mangrove-derived fish ponds, and by Pulao Creek and an extensive mudflat with fringing mangroves at the northeastern end of Iloilo Strait. In 2009 2010, 16 ponds with water areas from 0.5 to 0.9 ha were sampled during harvest of the experimental crops. At least 90 species of non-crop fishes lived in the DBS ponds, along with 35 crustaceans, 60 mollusks, three echinoderms, two cnidarians, and a water snake. The snails Cerithideopsilla spp., Cerithium coralium, and Batillaria spp. were very abundant in the ponds. Almost all the same species in the ponds, plus many others, were found in the adjoining fringing mangroves with ~10 species of trees. The ponds serve as proxy for mangrove lagoons that harbor the young of migratory fishes as well as all life stages of resident species. Several non-crop species inside the IMS cages and the DBS ponds are harvested by the pond workers and contribute to nutrition and income. Aquaculture farms should be managed for high biodiversity to ensure sustainability. Ways are suggested for SEAFDEC/AQD to do so at its aquaculture research stations.
  • Conference paper

    BFAR-CHED Philippine National Aquasilviculture Program (PNAP) in Bataan 

    RC Flores, FE Tungol, AS Antonio, ED Medairos & JM Salas - In MRR Romana-Eguia, FD Parado-Estepa, ND Salayo & MJH Lebata-Ramos (Eds.), Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia: Challenges in Responsible Production … International Workshop on Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia 2014 (RESA), 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    Under the Philippine Aquasilviculture Program, the Bataan Peninsula State University (BSPU) rehabilitated denuded mangrove resources, established aquasilviculture technology demonstration projects as a livelihood option for fisherfolks (while caring for the mangroves they had planted) and established community-based multi-species hatcheries to increase endemic fish species in the area.

    The BPSU was able to (a) plant 183, 300 mangrove seedlings where 85.96% survival was noted a year after, (b) establish 16 units aquasilviculture projects for the livelihood of the beneficiaries (planting that earned the beneficiaries P1,338, 731.90); and (c) establish community-based multispecies hatcheries that already produced an estimated 1,030,502,400 eggs of various fish species, thus increasing the wild fishery resource in the area.

    The program is expected to bear potential impacts on our environment and to the lives of the marginalized people of our community through the collaborative efforts of the Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources (BFAR), the Commission on Higher Education (CHED), BPSU, Local Government Units (LGUs) and the fisherfolks.
  • Conference paper

    Community-based shrimp stock enhancement for coastal socio-ecological restoration in the Philippines 

    J Altamirano, H Kurokura, ND Salayo, D Baticados, JG Suyo & S Ishikawa - In MRR Romana-Eguia, FD Parado-Estepa, ND Salayo & MJH Lebata-Ramos (Eds.), Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia: Challenges in Responsible Production … International Workshop on Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia 2014 (RESA), 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    The reality of declining quality of coastal areas has been evident for many developing countries, especially in Southeast Asia. In the Philippines, rural coastal zones and estuaries are now being characterized by declining wild fisheries resources and degrading environment. This paper presents, as an example, the typical rural coastal towns of New Washington and Batan in Aklan province, Philippines and showcases how the concept of shrimp stock enhancement can provide incentives to restore the environment and provide sustainable fishing livelihood in the area.

    The New Washington-Batan Estuary in northeast Panay Island, Philippines was a productive fishing ground that has been in a state of degenerating brackishwater fisheries and estuarine environment. Average daily catch composed of various species decreased from 24 kg in 1970s to 0.7 kg at present. Shrimp fisheries, the most important livelihood, declined in quality and quantity. The highly-priced and once very abundant tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon was replaced with smaller-sized and lower-priced species like the Metapenaeus ensis. These can be attributed to the conversion of 76% of mangroves to culture ponds in the past 50 years and more than 400% increase in fishing gears since the 1990s. The need to reduce fishing structures and rehabilitate mangroves is evident. However, these drastic changes directly affect fishers livelihood. This paper explores the prospects of P. monodon stock enhancement as positive reinforcement for the estuary s rehabilitation. Number of gears per fisher may have to be reduced but shrimp catches will be relatively high-priced. Simulations with additional tiger shrimp caught due to stock enhancement show that fishers can increase income by more than 4 times from their current PhP 34 gear-1 day-1. Campaigns on the importance of mangrove especially as shrimp habitat can encourage local communities to reforest the estuary especially in abandoned ponds. With effective management, law enforcement, and sustained support from different sectors, shrimp stock enhancement can be a positive strategy in estuarine rehabilitation and livelihood sustainability in the New Washington-Batan Estuary.
  • Conference paper

    The importance of mangroves to capture and culture fisheries 

    JH Primavera - In MRR Romana-Eguia, FD Parado-Estepa, ND Salayo & MJH Lebata-Ramos (Eds.), Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia: Challenges in Responsible Production … International Workshop on Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia 2014 (RESA), 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    Abstract only.
  • Conference paper

    Good aquaculture practices (VietGAP) and sustainable aquaculture development in Viet Nam 

    TBT Nguyen - In MRR Romana-Eguia, FD Parado-Estepa, ND Salayo & MJH Lebata-Ramos (Eds.), Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia: Challenges in Responsible Production … International Workshop on Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia 2014 (RESA), 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    The shrimp (black tiger and white leg shrimp) and catfish industries in Viet Nam continue to experience increasing growth due to rapid aquaculture development. However, disease outbreaks become a major issue. Moreover, seafood consumers at present are likely to be more concerned about how the products are produced and how to control/manage aquatic animal health instead of treatment. Hence, the main objective of this abstract is to focus on one of the solutions to address these problems/issues and ensure sustainable aquaculture development in Viet Nam.
  • Conference paper

    Preliminary trials on the optimization of hormone dosages for induced breeding of Philippine silver perch, Leiopotherapon plumbeus 

    MAO Javier, FA Aya & MRR Romana-Eguia - In MRR Romana-Eguia, FD Parado-Estepa, ND Salayo & MJH Lebata-Ramos (Eds.), Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia: Challenges in Responsible Production … International Workshop on Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia 2014 (RESA), 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    The silver perch Leiopotherapon plumbeus, locally known as ayungin, is an endemic freshwater fish that is commercially valuable as it commands a high price in the local market. Due to excessive fishing and other potential causes such as predation by invasive alien species, the local L. plumbeus stocks are observed to be depleting hence there is a need for an induced breeding protocol to propagate silver perch and conserve what remains of the resource. In this study, 30 females (total length or TL: 109.4 ± 12.2 mm; total body weight or TBW: 20.3 ± 6.1 g) and 60 males (TL: 97.1 ± 11.6 mm; TBW: 13.4 ± 5.5 g) were injected once intra-muscularly with different doses of hormones. Various dosages of human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG), luteinizing hormone releasing hormone analog (LHRHa) and salmon gonadotropin releasing hormone (sGnRH) were evaluated to identify the most effective dosage and hormone that resulted to high ovulation, fertilization and hatching rate. For the hormone sGnRH, 20, 30 and 40 µg/kg body weight (BW) and 1, 2 and 3 µg/kg BW for LHRHa were the dosages used in the experiment. The dosage used for HCG is 50 IU/g BW and served as the control. The findings of the experiment determined that the use of 20 µg/kg body weight of sGnRH resulted to high ovulation, fertilization and hatching rates. The result of the experiment would provide an efficient protocol for the local fishermen so they can produce, on demand, a large supply of this high quality fish species.
  • Conference paper

    The Philippine National Aquasilviculture Program 

    RE Dieta & FC Dieta - In MRR Romana-Eguia, FD Parado-Estepa, ND Salayo & MJH Lebata-Ramos (Eds.), Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia: Challenges in Responsible Production … International Workshop on Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia 2014 (RESA), 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    The Philippine National Aquasilviculture Program (PNAP) is a banner program of the Department of Agriculture (DA) being implemented by the Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources (BFAR). To implement the PNAP, a Memorandum of Agreement (MOA) was executed between BFAR and the Commission on Higher Education (CHED). The program concept is primarily mangrove resource rehabilitation and livelihood provision to help address climate change, food security and poverty among municipal/artisanal coastal fisherfolks. To achieve its goals and objectives, the BFAR identified three strategic interventions, such as: (1) replanting of destroyed mangrove resources; (2) establishment of community-based multi-species hatcheries (CBMSH), and (3) provision of aquasilviculture livelihood projects to fisherfolkbeneficiaries throughout the country. As envisioned, the BFAR shall provide support funds for the establishment, operation and management of the PNAP while CHED shall provide logistical support during program implementation. The program covers at least 71 state universities and colleges (SUCs) and 61 provinces throughout the country. Potential areas targeted by the PNAP are abandoned, undeveloped and underutilized (AUUs) fishpond lease agreements (FLAs) and the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR) identified areas (Key Biodiversity Areas, reforestation areas and co-management agreement areas) from BFAR coastal Regions 1 to 13 and the Autonomous Region of Muslim Mindanao (ARMM). Participating agencies are DA-BFAR Regional Fisheries Offices (RFOs) and Provincial Fisheries Offices (PFOs), CHED (SUCs), DENR Provincial Environment and Natural Resources Offices (PENRO) and Community Environment and Natural Resources Offices (CENRO), and the local government units (LGUs) in the provinces and municipalities. Target beneficiaries for the aquasilviculture livelihood projects are at least 1,000 coastal fisherfolks and for the community-based multi-species hatcheries are 64 SUCs who were signatories to the MOA. For mangrove rehabilitation, the PNAP will involve the coastal fisherfolks in the planting of 100 million propagules for the next 3-4 years. Funding support from BFAR are PhP 6.00 per surviving propagule, PhP 1.2 million per SUC for the establishment and operation of CBMSH and PhP 65,000 per aquasilviculture project. As part of the over-all management strategy, a National Steering Committee (NSC) was formed to formulate policy guidelines of the PNAP while Regional Steering Committees (RSCs) were created to oversee policy implementation in the regions. Program Management Offices (PMOs) were formed to implement and supervise program implementation in the provinces. Community Organizers (COs) were hired in each province to assist in the implementation of daily activities. The approved PNAP implementing guideline details the procedures to follow, both relating to the technical and administrative operations of the program.
  • Conference paper

    Feed formulation for sustainable aquaculture 

    RM Coloso - In MRR Romana-Eguia, FD Parado-Estepa, ND Salayo & MJH Lebata-Ramos (Eds.), Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia: Challenges in Responsible Production … International Workshop on Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia 2014 (RESA), 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    As aquaculture production of tropical fish and crustacean species becomes more intensified, practical diets need to be formulated to be cost effective and environment-friendly. Ingredients should be included to satisfy the nutrient requirements of the animal, promote optimal fish growth, and boost the income of small-scale farmers and commercial producers with minimal impacts to the surrounding environment. Feed formulation for sustainable aquaculture should aim at increasing aquaculture system performance and profitability, enhancing the animals disease resistance, increasing attractability, palatability, and digestibility of practical diets, and maintaining environmental quality through sound feeding management and good aquaculture practices. More vigorous research and development efforts need to be supported to generate feed technologies that will ensure a steady and reliable supply of safe and high quality aquaculture products to the public while preserving the environment.
  • Conference paper

    A preliminary study on the diagnosis of coral reef healthiness and establishment of coral replenishment technology 

    T Azuma, JJR Tan, J Zarate, J Altamirano, J Gatus & F Sotto - In MRR Romana-Eguia, FD Parado-Estepa, ND Salayo & MJH Lebata-Ramos (Eds.), Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia: Challenges in Responsible Production … International Workshop on Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia 2014 (RESA), 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    Field surveys for coral reef through line-intercept-transect (LIT) and temperature profiling using data-loggers were done at three layers of 5, 10, and 15 m depths in coral reef areas, Nogas Island, Anini-y, Antique, Philippines. Preliminary data based on the LIT survey showed that both coverages of substrates by any type of organism and by Scleractinia decreased in the deeper layers. For Scleractinia, Porites sp. occurred predominantly in all the depth layers with the occurrence decreasing with depth. Temperature fluctuation was largest in the 5 m depth layer, where effects of tidal level were also confirmed. While the average temperature decreased with depth, this did not differ beyond 1°C between 5 and 15 m layers during November 2012 to March 2013. Fragments of the Porites sp. and Acropora sp. were sampled and transferred to aquaria at the Tigbauan Main Station of SEAFDEC/AQD. Acropora sp. sampled from the deepest layer alone showed bleaching and thereafter, a part of the fragments regained the color. Experimental trials to clarify the effects of ocean acidification and warming on the health of the coral using the live fragments of Porites sp. showed decreasing trends in both photosynthetic rates and daily growth rates in acidic condition (pH = 7.6), while decrease of zooxanthellae density was observed under warmer conditions (31°C ) for one month. A new methodology for the determination of density of zooxanthellae was established using the fragments of Porites sp. In this study, the need for studies on several coral communities as well as further basic research on coral biology, particularly, responses to the changing environments are discussed for diagnosis of coral reef healthiness and establishment of effective coral replenishment technology.
  • Conference paper

    Preliminary trials on the effects of weaning and larval diets on survival and growth of silver therapon (Leiopotherapon plumbeus) larvae 

    FA Aya, VSN Nillasca & LMB Garcia - In MRR Romana-Eguia, FD Parado-Estepa, ND Salayo & MJH Lebata-Ramos (Eds.), Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia: Challenges in Responsible Production … International Workshop on Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia 2014 (RESA), 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    Success in larval rearing of silver therapon can be achieved through early weaning of fish larvae from live food to artificial diet. Two experiments were carried out to investigate the effects of (a) weaning age (abrupt and gradual) and (b) larval diets (artificial and live foods) on survival and growth of silver therapon (Leiopotherapon plumbeus). In the first experiment, larvae were randomly stocked in round 4-l plastic basins at 15 larvae per basin to provide triplicates of four weaning age treatments (8, 14, 20 and 26 days after hatching or DAH, respectively). Larvae were fed thrice daily for 21 days with commercial feed (CF) and with copepods (COP) which served as the control. Larvae weaned at 26 DAH had the highest survival, body weight and total length among the treatment groups, which were comparable with that of the control. In the co-feeding protocol, larvae were fed Artemia nauplii (ART) as the control group and co-fed with either zooplankton i.e. 50% COP + 50% CF or 50% ART + 50% CF for 8 (8-15 DAH), 6 (14-19 DAH) and 4 (20-23 DAH) days, and suddenly weaned to FM until 21 days. Survival ranged from 22.2 ± 16.8 to 40.0 ± 24.0% between treatments, but was still lower than the control (88.9 ± 3.8%). Body weight and total length were significantly higher in larvae with co-feeding for 4 days (70.1 ± 2.8 mg; 18.1 ± 0.8 mm), but were still lower than that of the control (142.8 ± 7.6 mg; 22.3 ± 0.3 mm).

    In the second experiment, 26-day old larvae were stocked in 20-l glass aquaria at 4 larvae l-1. Larval diets ((I) commercial prawn feed (38% crude protein); (II) Artemia nauplii; (III) copepods; and (IV) free-living nematode Panagrellus redivivus) were given twice daily for 28 days. Survival was highest in larvae fed Artemia nauplii and poor in copepod fed larvae. Final total length (TL) of larvae fed prawn diet was higher than those fed copepod or nematodes. However, best growth was noted in larvae fed Artemia nauplii (TL= 24.30 ± 0.81 mm; BW = 156 ± 8 mg; specific growth rate or SGR = 5.33 ± 0.19%/d).
  • Conference paper

    Preliminary assessment of the abundance and fishery of snapping shrimp (Alpheus sp.) in Calape, Bohol, Philippines 

    JG Baobao, MDS Rabia & EC Rulida - In MRR Romana-Eguia, FD Parado-Estepa, ND Salayo & MJH Lebata-Ramos (Eds.), Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia: Challenges in Responsible Production … International Workshop on Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia 2014 (RESA), 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    Snapping shrimp Alpheus sp. is abundant in Calape, Bohol, particularly in coastal areas with a wide intertidal zone, mangroves and rich mud banks. Locally known as takla , it is considered as one of the major seafood delicacies in the municipality. An initial assessment of the natural population and fishery of the snapping shrimp was conducted. Using quadrat sampling, mean density was noted at 7 individuals m-2, body weight ranging from 3.87-12.86 g and total length at 4.78-7.44 cm. The largest individual was identified as male having larger claws, the size being two times larger than that found in females. Apart from actual field sampling, a total of 80 shrimp gatherers were surveyed to obtain relevant fishery information for the snapping shrimp. The snapping shrimp is sold in the local public market and traded in hotels and seafood restaurants at PhP50.00 bundle-1 (a bundle averaging 20 pieces) and PhP180.00 a kilo. The current average catch per gatherer is at 75 pieces on a daily basis which is relatively lower compared to the average catch in the 1980s and 1990s ranging from 150-300 pieces day-1. Destruction of mangrove swamps due to fishpond conversion, unabated mangrove cutting for commercial firewood production and unrestricted gathering of snapping shrimps were identified as possible causes for the decline. These baseline data are essential for the local government and the community to come up with appropriate protection and conservation measures. An intensive and comprehensive study on the snapping shrimps ecology and biology also need to be conducted to provide basis for sound and holistic management of this valuable resource.

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