Recent Submissions

  • Book

    Philippine National Standard: Organic aquaculture 

    Bureau of Agriculture and Fisheries Standards - 2016 - Bureau of Agriculture and Fisheries Standards
    The Philippine National Standard (PNS) for Organic Aquaculture (PNS/BAFS 112:2016) was originally prepared and adopted in 2012. Organic aquaculture encourages polyculture production system, promotes the use of indigenous/endemic species under the extensive and semi-intensive culture systems, reduces/minimizes inputs of artificial ingredients, prohibits the use of genetically modified organisms (GMOs), and considers ecological conditions necessary for sustainable aquaculture production.

    The PNS for Organic Aquaculture was revised by the Technical Working Group (TWG) organized by the Bureau of Agriculture and Fisheries Standards (BAFS) through a Department of Agriculture (DA) Special Order No.476, Series of 2015. The TWG is composed of members representing the Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources (BFAR), Organic Certification Center of the Philippines (OCCP), Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center Aquaculture Department (SEAFDEC-AQD), Philippine Council for Agriculture, Aquatic and Natural Resources Research and Development (PCAARRD) and Central Luzon State University (CLSU). This PNS was presented and reviewed during the consultative meetings with the concerned stakeholders in Region I (Pangasinan) and Region XI (Davao City). Comments gathered during the consultations were carefully evaluated by the TWG and included accordingly in the final version of this standard. Drawn from the general principles of the Philippine National Standard on Organic Agriculture, this PNS on Organic Aquaculture attempts to cover the aquaculture production and postharvest operations in order to ensure the integrity of organic products. The requirements for the inclusion of Substances and Criteria for the development of the list of substances shall follow the Philippine National Standards for Organic Aquaculture and the Guidelines for the Production, Processing, Labelling and Marketing of Organically Produced Foods (GL 32-1999).

    The revision of this PNS was undertaken in order to achieve equivalence with the existing international standards and its future amendment, and takes into consideration the new developments and inclusion of the identified potential species for organic aquaculture. Thus, this PNS identifies minimum requirements on documentation, conversion to organic aquaculture, parallel production, selection of site, interaction with surrounding ecosystem, organic fertilization, aquatic plants, aquatic animal sources/origin, breeding and hatchery management, aquatic animal nutrition and feeding, aquatic animal health and welfare, harvesting, post-harvest handling, transport and processing, storage, and social aspects.
  • Book

    Philippine National Standard: Organic aquaculture feeds 

    Bureau of Agriculture and Fisheries Standards - 2016 - Bureau of Agriculture and Fisheries Standards
    The Bureau of Agriculture and Fisheries Standards (BAFS) in line with its mandate under Republic Act 10068 or the Organic Agriculture Act of 2010, initiated the development of Philippine National Standard (PNS) for Organic Aquaculture Feeds to address the needs of the organic aquaculture industry. It aims to provide minimum requirements for the production of organic feeds for organic aquaculture animals.

    The PNS for Organic Aquaculture Feeds was developed by the Technical Working Group (TWG) organized by the Bureau of Agriculture and Fisheries Standards (BAFS) through a Department of Agriculture (DA) Special Order No.183, Series of 2015. The TWG is composed of members representing the Bureau of Animal Industry (BAI), Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources (BFAR), Organic Certification Center of the Philippines (OCCP), Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center Aquaculture Department (SEAFDEC-AQD), Philippine Council for Agriculture, Aquatic and Natural Resources Research and Development (PCAARRD) and Central Luzon State University (CLSU). This PNS was presented and reviewed during the consultative meetings with the concerned stakeholders in Region I (Pangasinan), XI (Davao City) and NCR (Quezon City). Comments gathered during the consultations were carefully evaluated by the TWG and included accordingly in the final version of this standard. Drawn from the general principles of the PNS on Organic Aquaculture, this PNS on Organic Aquaculture Feeds attempts to cover the aquaculture feed formulation and preparation in order to ensure the integrity of organic products. The requirements for the inclusion of feed additives, processing aids and other ingredients and criteria for the development of the list of ingredients shall follow the PNS for Organic Aquaculture and Organic Agriculture.

    This PNS identifies the minimum requirements on the organic aquaculture feed products and forms, essential composition and quality factors (including raw materials, feed additives, processing aids and other ingredients), hygiene and handling, packaging and labeling, methods of sampling, examination and analysis and definition of defectives.
  • Book

    Philippine National Standard: Dried anchovies 

    Bureau of Agriculture and Fisheries Standards - 2016 - Bureau of Agriculture and Fisheries Standards
    This PNS for dried anchovies aims to provide a common understanding on the scope of the standard, product description, process description, essential composition and quality factors, food additives, contaminants, hygiene and handling, packaging and labeling, methods of sampling, examination and analysis, definition of defectives and lot acceptance.
  • Book

    Philippine National Standard: Pasteurized crab meat 

    Bureau of Agriculture and Fisheries Standards - 2016 - Bureau of Agriculture and Fisheries Standards
    This PNS for pasteurized crab meat aims to provide a common understanding on the scope of the standard, product description, process description, essential composition and quality factors, food additives, contaminants, hygiene and handling, packaging and labeling, methods of sampling, examination and analysis, definition of defectives and lot acceptance.
  • Book

    Philippine National Standard: Live mangrove crab 

    Bureau of Agriculture and Fisheries Standards - 2016 - Bureau of Agriculture and Fisheries Standards
    This PNS for live mangrove crab aims to provide a common understanding on the scope of the standard, product description, process description, essential composition and quality factors, food additives, contaminants, hygiene and handling, packaging and labeling, methods of sampling, examination and analysis, definition of defectives and lot acceptance.
  • Book | Conference publication

    Resource enhancement and sustainable aquaculture practices in Southeast Asia: challenges in responsible production of aquatic species : proceedings of the international workshop on resource enhancement and sustainable aquaculture practices in Southeast Asia 2014 (RESA) 

    MRR Romana-Eguia, FD Parado-Estepa, ND Salayo & MJH Lebata-Ramos (Eds.) - 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    The conference was held in order to promote and augment regional initiatives on resource enhancement and sustainable aquaculture practices, and to contribute to poverty alleviation, livelihood and food security in Southeast Asia. The contributions of the selected participants during the conference which are contained in this volume are cited individually.
  • Conference paper

    Current status of sustainable aquaculture in Cambodia 

    O Lang - In MRR Romana-Eguia, FD Parado-Estepa, ND Salayo & MJH Lebata-Ramos (Eds.), Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia: Challenges in Responsible Production … International Workshop on Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia 2014 (RESA), 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    In Cambodia, the extension of technologies in fish aquaculture is a vital activity that contributes to improving the daily livelihood of the rural poor farmer communities. Technology extension was introduced since 1994 through a project of the Asian Institute of Technology (AIT) and other local non-government organizations (NGOs) or international organizations (IOs) in some fish production deficient provinces. Prior to the introduction of such activities, wild fish were still abundant. From then to date, aquaculture extension is being done under the Freshwater Aquaculture Improvement and Extension Project Phase II of Japan International Cooperation Agency (FAIEXII-JICA), and Department for International Development/Danish International Development Agency (DFID/DANIDA) Projects.

    Recently, aquaculture extension is one of the national policies under the National Rectangular Strategy Policies of the Government. There are several different freshwater aquaculture systems including floating cage/pen culture, earthen pond culture and rice-fish culture, and other fish culture in smallwater bodies or aquaculture-based fisheries in Cambodia as practiced in over 20 provinces and cities, with less development focused on coastal aquaculture.

    Freshwater aquaculture production continued to grow over the past two decades and increased from 1,610 tons in 1984 to 20,760 tons in 2004, representing 11.9 times increase or growth of 16.3% per year This further increased to 74,000 tons in 2012, representing 11.9 times increase or a growth rate of 15% per year. However, aquaculture development in Cambodia is in its infancy stage compared to other countries in the region. It has encountered some problems and constraints during its development, which include inadequate and unreliable supply of good quality seed; lack of capital, fund or credit for aquaculture investment; inadequate knowledge of aquaculture technology; inadequate manpower for aquaculture extension service; and climate change, which have adversely impacted aquaculture development in Cambodia.

    In order to achieve the goal of supplying the nation s future fishery requirements through aquaculture, the Cambodia Fisheries Administration (FiA) published the Strategic Planning Framework (SPF) for Fisheries (2010-2019). Within this framework, the scenarios for future fish demand-supply for 2019 suggest that aquaculture production will increase by 15% per year to 185,000 tons by the end of 2019.
  • Conference paper

    Rapid adaptation to a new environment: is it reversible? 

    H Araki - In MRR Romana-Eguia, FD Parado-Estepa, ND Salayo & MJH Lebata-Ramos (Eds.), Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia: Challenges in Responsible Production … International Workshop on Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia 2014 (RESA), 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    Accumulating evidence suggests rapid adaptation of fish populations when they are exposed to artificial hatchery environments. However, little is known if rapidly-adapted populations can readapt to their original, natural environment at the same rate. Here, I review recent studies on salmonid fish that address this issue. They indeed suggest rapid adaptation of hatchery populations, in which reproductive fitness under a natural environment became much lower than that in the wild population after only 1-2 generations of captive breeding. However, the reproductive fitness did not recover after one generation of natural rearing, implying that rapid adaptation to a new environment was not reversible at the same rate. I discuss potential consequences of the irreversible fitness reduction in extensively stocked fish species. Understanding the mechanism behind the irreversible rapid adaptation in fish populations will help us figure out a better, nature-friendly, and hence sustainable means of hatchery operations for human welfare.
  • Conference paper

    Abalone aquaculture for stock enhancement and community livelihood project in northern Palawan, Philippines 

    BJ Gonzales - In MRR Romana-Eguia, FD Parado-Estepa, ND Salayo & MJH Lebata-Ramos (Eds.), Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia: Challenges in Responsible Production … International Workshop on Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia 2014 (RESA), 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    One of the interventions to feed the poorest of the poor fisheries sector in the country is the provision of livelihood in the form of mariculture of high value marine species. In the Philippines, livelihood in rural areas is largely linked to resource depletion, hence it is wise not only to provide livelihood to the community but also to encourage them to conserve and enhance the resources. As part of the revised R&D program, the Western Philippines University partnered with NGO and existing projects to embark on a community-based environment-concerned livelihood project, using hatchery bred abalone, although top shell was also considered for stock enhancement. This is in an on-going project thus, preliminary phases such as abalone production and cage-based grow-out as well as subsequent project plans will be discussed. The objectives of this study were to: (a) share the implementing experiences in this project, (b) identify success and failure drivers of the project, (c) explain the conceptual framework for the MPA-based stock enhancement to be used in this project, and (d) give recommendations to improve the implementation and ensure the success of the project.

    The following activities have thus far been conducted: (a) development of criteria for cage micro-site selection; (b) writing of proposal and provision of financial assistance for hatchery juvenile production through a partnership MOA; (c) presentation of site survey results to beneficiaries and stake holders; (d) conduct of trainings on abalone grow out culture to POs; (e) development and improvement of training module; (f) signing of conservation agreement; (g) giving of cage materials and juveniles to people s organizations; (h) on site coaching; and (i) partial monitoring. The next activities include improvement in juvenile production, conduct of researches on abalone nutrition, and development of market and value chain flow analysis. The conceptual framework for community-managed stock enhancement will follow that of the Department of Environment and Natural Resources-ICRMP, of which the stock enhancement project is anchored on the management of marine protected areas or MPAs.

    The steps in all the activities were documented and while the project was in progress, performance of the participants in training were measured, the training module was improved, the training approaches were revised according to needs, and the growth and survival of juvenile abalone were monitored. The problems identified were low production of juveniles, insufficient food for grow-out, political squabbles, social preparation, and delay in implementation schedule. Recommendations to improve or resolve the problems encountered were also presented in this paper.
  • Conference paper

    Hatchery management techniques for tiger-tail seahorse (Hippocampus comes) 

    SMB Ursua & T Azuma - In MRR Romana-Eguia, FD Parado-Estepa, ND Salayo & MJH Lebata-Ramos (Eds.), Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia: Challenges in Responsible Production … International Workshop on Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia 2014 (RESA), 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    Seahorse culture has been practiced throughout the world to meet the demand for global trade and reduce the pressure on wild stocks through overexploitation. Development of culture techniques for seed production of seahorses is one of the most effective measures to avoid such anthropological repercussions on the wild stocks, and is currently being conducted at SEAFDEC/ AQD with the aim to produce seed for stock release to protect these internationally threatened and overexploited species in Southeast Asia. This paper describes the breakthroughs in seahorse breeding and nursery rearing. So far, we have developed water and feeding management schemes that resulted in improved reproductive performance of broodstock and higher survival and growth rates in newborn and juvenile seahorses.

    We highlight the concern of providing desirable food organisms and maintenance of suitable water quality in order to maintain maximum efficiency in the management of the seahorse hatchery. Newborn seahorses fed with formalin-treated food organisms and reared in UV-treated seawater had significantly higher survival and daily growth rate based on stretched height and body weight than those fed with untreated food organisms and reared in both chlorinated and sand-filtered seawater. Broodstocks fed with mysid shrimps showed higher brood size and shorter parturition interval. Thus, improved reproductive performance as well as survival and growth of newborn seahorses were largely influenced by refinement of hatchery management techniques.
  • Conference paper

    Status of resource enhancement and sustainable aquaculture practices in Japan 

    K Okuzawa, T Takebe, N Hirai & K Ikuta - In MRR Romana-Eguia, FD Parado-Estepa, ND Salayo & MJH Lebata-Ramos (Eds.), Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia: Challenges in Responsible Production … International Workshop on Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia 2014 (RESA), 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    Contrary to the rapid increase in the world aquaculture production, fish production in Japan has been decreasing slightly due to the decreasing trend in seafood consumption of Japanese. Aquaculture production is approximately 20% in terms of yield, and 30% in terms of market value, of the country s total fisheries production. In Japan, about 80 species are targeted for release for sea ranching and resource enhancement purposes. The local governments (prefectures) are the main driving force in resource enhancement programs. Chum salmon, Oncorhynchus keta, and scallop Mizuhopecten yessoensisis are examples of successful resource enhancement in Japan. Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus, and red seabream, Pagrus major, represent intensely released fish species in Japan, and around 10% of the total catch of those species are estimated as released fish. The low price of products and increasing costs of production, such as costs of fuel and fish meal, are the major pressing issues in coastal fisheries and aquaculture in Japan. For aquaculture, the guarantee of food safety, minimization of environmental impact, and management of natural stock populations are highly necessary in order to achieve the sustainability of the industry. For resource enhancement, budget constraint is the major issue, and possible impact on natural stocks caused by released fish should also be considered. The Government of Japan (GOJ) is implementing some measures to rectify unstable business practices of aquaculture and to improve production techniques in aquaculture. For resource enhancement, the GOJ encourages cooperation among local governments (prefectures) for seed production and release of certain targeted species in order to reduce the cost and improve the efficiency of stock enhancement. In Japan, traditionally, the purpose for release was mainly sea ranching, namely harvesting all released animals. Nowadays, actual resource enhancement, i.e. the integrated release program including resource management and development of suitable nursery for released fish, is encouraged by the government. The evaluation and counter measures for the negative impact of stocked fish on genetic diversity of the wild population are also implemented. Recently, marked progress was achieved in seed production technologies of two important tropical fish species, namely coral trout, Plectropomus leopardus, and humphead wrasse, Cheilinus undulatus. These technologies are expected to contribute to the advancement of the aquaculture industry in the South East Asian region.
  • Conference paper

    Preliminary trials on the effects of weaning and larval diets on survival and growth of silver therapon (Leiopotherapon plumbeus) larvae 

    FA Aya, VSN Nillasca & LMB Garcia - In MRR Romana-Eguia, FD Parado-Estepa, ND Salayo & MJH Lebata-Ramos (Eds.), Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia: Challenges in Responsible Production … International Workshop on Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia 2014 (RESA), 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    Success in larval rearing of silver therapon can be achieved through early weaning of fish larvae from live food to artificial diet. Two experiments were carried out to investigate the effects of (a) weaning age (abrupt and gradual) and (b) larval diets (artificial and live foods) on survival and growth of silver therapon (Leiopotherapon plumbeus). In the first experiment, larvae were randomly stocked in round 4-l plastic basins at 15 larvae per basin to provide triplicates of four weaning age treatments (8, 14, 20 and 26 days after hatching or DAH, respectively). Larvae were fed thrice daily for 21 days with commercial feed (CF) and with copepods (COP) which served as the control. Larvae weaned at 26 DAH had the highest survival, body weight and total length among the treatment groups, which were comparable with that of the control. In the co-feeding protocol, larvae were fed Artemia nauplii (ART) as the control group and co-fed with either zooplankton i.e. 50% COP + 50% CF or 50% ART + 50% CF for 8 (8-15 DAH), 6 (14-19 DAH) and 4 (20-23 DAH) days, and suddenly weaned to FM until 21 days. Survival ranged from 22.2 ± 16.8 to 40.0 ± 24.0% between treatments, but was still lower than the control (88.9 ± 3.8%). Body weight and total length were significantly higher in larvae with co-feeding for 4 days (70.1 ± 2.8 mg; 18.1 ± 0.8 mm), but were still lower than that of the control (142.8 ± 7.6 mg; 22.3 ± 0.3 mm).

    In the second experiment, 26-day old larvae were stocked in 20-l glass aquaria at 4 larvae l-1. Larval diets ((I) commercial prawn feed (38% crude protein); (II) Artemia nauplii; (III) copepods; and (IV) free-living nematode Panagrellus redivivus) were given twice daily for 28 days. Survival was highest in larvae fed Artemia nauplii and poor in copepod fed larvae. Final total length (TL) of larvae fed prawn diet was higher than those fed copepod or nematodes. However, best growth was noted in larvae fed Artemia nauplii (TL= 24.30 ± 0.81 mm; BW = 156 ± 8 mg; specific growth rate or SGR = 5.33 ± 0.19%/d).
  • Conference paper

    Stock assessment of christian crabs (Charybdis feriatus, Linnaeus, 1758) in San Miguel bay 

    PM Nieves, NR Olfindo & AM Macale - In MRR Romana-Eguia, FD Parado-Estepa, ND Salayo & MJH Lebata-Ramos (Eds.), Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia: Challenges in Responsible Production … International Workshop on Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia 2014 (RESA), 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    Assessment of the status of swimming crab fisheries in San Miguel Bay with focus on Christian or Crucifix crab, Charybdis feriatus, was undertaken from November 2011 to January 2013. An analytical length-based fish stock assessment was employed using the FISAT (version 1.2.2). A total of 7,679 length frequencies (3,612 C. feriatus and 4,067 Portunus pelagicus) were used in the analysis. About 15 and 14 percent gravid females were harvested monthly for both species that may contribute to recruitment overfishing. Population parameters showed exploitation rate (E) for P. pelagicus and C. feriatus exceeded the optimum exploitation (E0.5) implying excessive fishing effort and heavily exploited stocks. Size at maturity of C. feriatus and P. pelagicus in San Miguel Bay is 8.3 cm and 8.5 cm, respectively. Doable options for resources conservation and management strategies are proposed and supported by local government units (LGUs) including the Integrated Fisheries and Aquatic Resource Management Council.
  • Conference paper

    Resource assessment of sea cucumber in northern Iloilo, central Philippines 

    PA Alpasan & RA Billones - In MRR Romana-Eguia, FD Parado-Estepa, ND Salayo & MJH Lebata-Ramos (Eds.), Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia: Challenges in Responsible Production … International Workshop on Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia 2014 (RESA), 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    A resource assessment of sea cucumber was conducted in six out of eight coastal towns in northern Iloilo, a fisheries rich area facing the Visayan Sea in the central Philippines. A yearlong assessment was conducted in 2012. Fishery dependent survey was done with the use of survey questionnaire translated into dialect. Six trained enumerators administered the questionnaires to 114 gatherers and 18 local traders. Fishery independent survey involving Belt Transect Method (BTM) for intertidal areas and Timed-Search Method (TSM) for subtidal areas were conducted in 21 GPS (Global Positioning System)-referenced sampling stations. Sample specimens were also collected and prepared for taxonomic identification. External morphology, internal structures (dissected samples) and spicule analysis were used in the identification.

    Fishery dependent survey showed that gleaning (40%) is the most dominant extraction method used. Various methods were also employed including the dangerous compressor diving and the destructive karas, a method using a rake-like device to scrape the sea bed. In terms of volume, the most heavily exploited sea cucumber belongs to the Stichopus groups. The trade of sea cucumber is dominated by island-based traders. Almost half of the traders are women, signifying that trading is a woman's domain as well. Derived monthly income from sea cucumber trade ranges from PhP 2,000-3,000 for gatherers and PhP 2,000-5,000 for the traders.

    Fishery independent survey resulted in the identification of six sea cucumber genera (Bohadschia, Holothuria, Paracaudina, Pseudocholochirus and Stichopus). Of the 32 species found belonging to the six genera, only 16 were identified up to the species level. Samples of unidentified specimen were sent to the University of the Philippines - Marine Science Institute (UP MSI) laboratory for molecular taxonomic identification. In terms of species count, the most dominant genera is the Holothuria with nine identified and seven unidentified species. H. impatiens is also the most dominant sea cucumber found in the area. Further, the recorded catch per unit effort (CPUE) for fishery-independent survey is 3-4 pcs/diver/hr.

    The resource assessment showed that the trade of sea cucumber is dictated by economic value rather than by ecological abundance. While the scale and extent of sea cucumber fishery in northern Iloilo is small-scale and island based, the study highlights the need for trade regulation and stock enhancement of heavily exploited species as extraction affects the ecological distribution of sea cucumber stocks in the area.
  • Conference paper

    Stock enhancement? Why bother 

    J Ingles - In MRR Romana-Eguia, FD Parado-Estepa, ND Salayo & MJH Lebata-Ramos (Eds.), Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia: Challenges in Responsible Production … International Workshop on Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia 2014 (RESA), 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    There are two approaches to resource enhancement of depleted wild fish stocks: through stock enhancement where aquaculture science plays a central role, or through improved management of fish stocks. This paper presents an argument that despite major advances in stock enhancement technologies (tagging, genetic mapping, numerical modeling techniques), major hurdles in policy framework, science and information gaps, risk mitigation protocols and capacity gap remain. These factors are associated with high and recurring cost that requires medium to long-term solutions that ultimately, improving management and governance to recover depleted stocks will still be the best option available.
  • Conference paper

    Preliminary assessment of the abundance and fishery of snapping shrimp (Alpheus sp.) in Calape, Bohol, Philippines 

    JG Baobao, MDS Rabia & EC Rulida - In MRR Romana-Eguia, FD Parado-Estepa, ND Salayo & MJH Lebata-Ramos (Eds.), Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia: Challenges in Responsible Production … International Workshop on Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia 2014 (RESA), 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    Snapping shrimp Alpheus sp. is abundant in Calape, Bohol, particularly in coastal areas with a wide intertidal zone, mangroves and rich mud banks. Locally known as takla , it is considered as one of the major seafood delicacies in the municipality. An initial assessment of the natural population and fishery of the snapping shrimp was conducted. Using quadrat sampling, mean density was noted at 7 individuals m-2, body weight ranging from 3.87-12.86 g and total length at 4.78-7.44 cm. The largest individual was identified as male having larger claws, the size being two times larger than that found in females. Apart from actual field sampling, a total of 80 shrimp gatherers were surveyed to obtain relevant fishery information for the snapping shrimp. The snapping shrimp is sold in the local public market and traded in hotels and seafood restaurants at PhP50.00 bundle-1 (a bundle averaging 20 pieces) and PhP180.00 a kilo. The current average catch per gatherer is at 75 pieces on a daily basis which is relatively lower compared to the average catch in the 1980s and 1990s ranging from 150-300 pieces day-1. Destruction of mangrove swamps due to fishpond conversion, unabated mangrove cutting for commercial firewood production and unrestricted gathering of snapping shrimps were identified as possible causes for the decline. These baseline data are essential for the local government and the community to come up with appropriate protection and conservation measures. An intensive and comprehensive study on the snapping shrimps ecology and biology also need to be conducted to provide basis for sound and holistic management of this valuable resource.
  • Conference paper

    Country status on sustainable aquaculture in Lao PDR 

    T Khonglaliane - In MRR Romana-Eguia, FD Parado-Estepa, ND Salayo & MJH Lebata-Ramos (Eds.), Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia: Challenges in Responsible Production … International Workshop on Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia 2014 (RESA), 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    Capture fisheries and aquaculture in Lao PDR are based on water resource ecosystems which consist mainly of rivers and streams, hydropower and irrigation reservoirs, diversion weirs, small water bodies, flood plains and wet-season rice-fields. The total area of water resources for capture fisheries is believed to be more than 1.2 million ha. The estimated consumption of inland fish in Lao PDR is approximately 167,922 tonnes per year while consumption of other aquatic animals is estimated at 40,581 tonnes per year. Most of the consumption is from internal production (i.e. imports are of minor importance), so these figures represent approximate catches or yield from fisheries. These estimated yields are conservatively valued at almost US$150 million per year.

    The people of Lao PDR, especially in the rural communities that account for more than 75 per cent of the population, still depend upon the country's fish and other aquatic animals as their most reliable sources of animal protein. The estimate of actual fish consumption per capita (kg/capita/ year) of inland fish is 24.5 kg, while other aquatic animals account for about 4.1 kg and marine products around 0.4 kg, to make a total of 29 kg of fish and aquatic products consumed per capita per year.

    As aquaculture in Lao PDR expands, many forms of production systems are being developed, for example pond culture, communal ponds, rice-cum-fish culture and cage culture. Most fish culture systems in Lao PDR are small-scale. Such forms of production systems are divided into sub-categories depending on the nature and main activity of the producers. According to the Department of Livestock and Fisheries, aquaculture production in 2007 accounted for 54,750 tonnes in an area of more than 42,000 ha, including cage culture in the Mekong and some tributaries.

    There has been a significant increase in intensive tilapia production in recent years in Lao PDR (MRC Technical Paper No. 5 April 2002) based on tilapia cage culture in the Mekong river and irrigation reservoirs. In last two years, an enterprising farmer has established about 360 cages.

    Constraints in the large-scale development of tilapia cage culture are the lack of technical support (e.g. extension services) to the farmers and insufficient supply of advanced fingerlings. Morever, tilapia cage culture in the Mekong river system is perceived to be difficult to sustain because of environmental factors such as river flooding and strong currents during the rainy season and the lack of water during the dry season.
  • Conference paper

    Community-based shrimp stock enhancement for coastal socio-ecological restoration in the Philippines 

    J Altamirano, H Kurokura, ND Salayo, D Baticados, JG Suyo & S Ishikawa - In MRR Romana-Eguia, FD Parado-Estepa, ND Salayo & MJH Lebata-Ramos (Eds.), Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia: Challenges in Responsible Production … International Workshop on Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia 2014 (RESA), 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    The reality of declining quality of coastal areas has been evident for many developing countries, especially in Southeast Asia. In the Philippines, rural coastal zones and estuaries are now being characterized by declining wild fisheries resources and degrading environment. This paper presents, as an example, the typical rural coastal towns of New Washington and Batan in Aklan province, Philippines and showcases how the concept of shrimp stock enhancement can provide incentives to restore the environment and provide sustainable fishing livelihood in the area.

    The New Washington-Batan Estuary in northeast Panay Island, Philippines was a productive fishing ground that has been in a state of degenerating brackishwater fisheries and estuarine environment. Average daily catch composed of various species decreased from 24 kg in 1970s to 0.7 kg at present. Shrimp fisheries, the most important livelihood, declined in quality and quantity. The highly-priced and once very abundant tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon was replaced with smaller-sized and lower-priced species like the Metapenaeus ensis. These can be attributed to the conversion of 76% of mangroves to culture ponds in the past 50 years and more than 400% increase in fishing gears since the 1990s. The need to reduce fishing structures and rehabilitate mangroves is evident. However, these drastic changes directly affect fishers livelihood. This paper explores the prospects of P. monodon stock enhancement as positive reinforcement for the estuary s rehabilitation. Number of gears per fisher may have to be reduced but shrimp catches will be relatively high-priced. Simulations with additional tiger shrimp caught due to stock enhancement show that fishers can increase income by more than 4 times from their current PhP 34 gear-1 day-1. Campaigns on the importance of mangrove especially as shrimp habitat can encourage local communities to reforest the estuary especially in abandoned ponds. With effective management, law enforcement, and sustained support from different sectors, shrimp stock enhancement can be a positive strategy in estuarine rehabilitation and livelihood sustainability in the New Washington-Batan Estuary.
  • Conference paper

    Targeting essential gene utilizing RNA interference to protect the ailing shrimp/prawn industry against WSSV 

    JMS Lazarte & MBB Maningas - In MRR Romana-Eguia, FD Parado-Estepa, ND Salayo & MJH Lebata-Ramos (Eds.), Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia: Challenges in Responsible Production … International Workshop on Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia 2014 (RESA), 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    The white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) remains to be the most widespread and devastating infectious agent that has hit particularly the marine shrimp aquaculture industry worldwide. To date, there are no known effective strategies that can combat WSSV infection. This study aimed to elucidate host-pathogen interaction through the functional study of host - gene. Utilizing RNA Interference, the function of contig23 (c23) in the shrimp genome, identified to have high homology with WSSVORF-325, was determined. Three set-ups were prepared for treatment of c23-, GFP-dsRNA, and PBS using Macrobrachium rosenbergii freshwater prawns. Each treatment group was challenged with WSSV and survival rate was recorded. C23-, and GFP-dsRNA injected prawns showed a significant survival rate of 100%, in contrast to 20% of the PBS injected prawns at 10 days post-infection (dpi). Results showed that injection of c23- and GFP-dsRNA prior to challenge with WSSV, delayed and reduced mortality in contrast to PBS-treated prawns, which showed high mortality. Gene expression analysis showed silencing of both WSSV and c23 at day 3 post-WSSV challenge. This study proved that c23-dsRNA has a protective effect on WSSVchallenged prawns and highlights its involvement in the infectivity of WSSV in M. rosenbergii.
  • Conference paper

    Distribution and abundance of hard clam shells Meretrix meretrix along the coastal areas of Panguil bay, Lanao del Norte, Philippines 

    CQ Jumawan, RB Palma & RO Sia - In MRR Romana-Eguia, FD Parado-Estepa, ND Salayo & MJH Lebata-Ramos (Eds.), Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia: Challenges in Responsible Production … International Workshop on Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia 2014 (RESA), 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    Meretrix meretrix is believed to be abundant in Panguil Bay and in the absence of relevant fishery statistics, it is useful to quantify their biomass with a view to determining their fishery potential. This study aims to monitor the gonadal development, identify the associated macrofauna and determine the distribution and abundance of hard clam shells M. meretrix along the coastline of four municipalities of Lanao del Norte at Panguil Bay. Four sampling sites were selected and established to achieve and relate some generalities using the transect-quadrat method. Clams were counted, measured and identified. Physicochemical parameters were also noted every sampling. M. meretrix was found to be most abundant in Raw-an Pt. Baroy (28-542 pcs./m2) followed by Mayao, Lala (0.3-26 pcs/m2). M. meretrix at Aloha Tubod occurred in low densities (0.1-4 pcs/m2). No hard clam shell was found in Taguitic, Kapatagan. Mean length differed significantly at the three locations. The coastal area of Mayao, Lala, had the highest diversity (H' = 4.236737) in terms of shell species identified and recorded during the twelve months sampling period. Most of the shells dissected were sexually immature with male shellfishes being more predominant than females. Differences in distribution, density and length size of hard clam shells were compared in this study at four locations. Anthropogenic causes e.g. exploitation as well as environmental parameters such as salinity levels and sediment quality are suggested to be the main cause of the variation. These results will be used as baseline information to properly manage hard clam shell resources in Panguil Bay.

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