Contribution of natural food and supplemental feed to the gut content of Penaeus monodon Fabricius in a semi-intensive pond system in the Philippines
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Juvenile Penaeus monodon were stocked in grow-out ponds and fed a compound diet at high rates for 19 weeks under semi-intensive conditions. At three stages of the rearing period (weeks 6, 11 and 16), the gut content of the shrimp was analysed microscopically at every hour of the day. Additionally, possible sources of natural food (lablab, lumut, zoobenthos, etc.) were analysed microscopically and where possible for proximate composition. At week 6, the gut content consisted of 28.9% supplemental feed, 42.3% plant materials (other than from the pelleted diet), 1.8% crustacean parts and 27.0% diverse detrital matter. For week 11, the percentages (same order) were 47.5%, 21.1%, 22.8%, 8.6% and for week 16, 21.7%, 34.3%, 31.7% and 12.9%, respectively. Food preference did not change with time of the day. At week 6, most feeding activity occurred at night, later, feeding activity shifted to day-time. Reduction of the maximum gut content at dissolved oxygen levels below 4 mg l−1 at night indicated a cessation of feeding in which case shrimp fed during the day-time, when dissolved oxygen levels were higher.
CitationFocken, U., Groth, A., Coloso, R. M., & Becker, K. (1998). Contribution of natural food and supplemental feed to the gut content of Penaeus monodon Fabricius in a semi-intensive pond system in the Philippines.
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Conference paperMN Duray - In CL Marte, GF Quinitio & AC Emata (Eds.), Proceedings of the Seminar-Workshop on Breeding and Seed Production of Cultured Finfishes in the Philippines, Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines, 4-5 May 1993, 1996 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterThe feeding habits of hatchery-reared Epinephelus suillus larvae were determined by examining their gut contents. The larvae (2.6 mm TL) were initially fed rotifers on day 2 and newly-hatched Artemia nauplii on day 21 (9.1 mm TL). The amount of rotifers initially ingested averaged 1.3 individuals/larva. The ingestion rate increased as larvae grew. Larvae immediately showed strong preference for Artemia to rotifers on the first day of introduction. E. suillus larvae showed diurnal feeding pattern at day 7 (3.6 mm TL), day 14 (4.9 mm TL), day 21 (9.1 mm TL) and day 28 (11.1 mm TL). Feeding incidence decreased in the evening and was nil at 2100-2200 h. Active feeding started earlier in older larvae and satiation was between 0900-1000 h. The results of this study will be used as a basis in developing a good feeding scheme for E. suillus larvae.
Book chapterIG Borlongan, RM Coloso & NV Golez - In OM Millamena, RM Coloso & FP Pascual (Eds.), Nutrition in Tropical Aquaculture: Essentials of fish nutrition, feeds, and feeding of tropical aquatic species, 2002 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterThis chapter provides basic information on the feeding habits and behavior, and physiology of fishes and crustaceans. The mechanisms that control the movement and digestion of food, methods of assessing digestibility of feed, factors affecting digestion and absorption of food nutrients, and feeding processes in fish are discussed. An understanding of the feeding habits, feeding mechanisms, and the digestion and absorption processes can help fish farmers and nutritionists maximize the use of feed. The rate at which fish digest their food is of primary importance in determining feeding rates, frequency, and ration size. Knowledge of the digestive physiology of fish is also necessary for an effective feed formulation and in choosing a proper feeding regime. This chapter aims to teach the reader: the feeding habits and behavior of fishes and crustaceans; the structural adaptation in the anatomy of the digestive tract; the various organs of the digestive systems of fishes and crustaceans and their functions; nutrient digestion and absorption by fishes and the fate of digested and undigested food; the factors that affect the rate of digestion and absorption; and the feeding process in fish.
Preliminary observations on the diel feeding patterns of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (L.) in Laguna de Bay, Philippines, with the aid of the computer model MAXIMS. H Richter, U Focken, K Becker, CB Santiago & WB Afuang - 2001 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center; Philippine Council for Aquatic and Marine Research and Development; Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic ResourcesNile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, cultured in cages in Laguna de Bay, were sampled on two occasions in 1995, each time over a 24-hour cycle. The weights of stomach content were averaged and analysed with the computer model MAXIMS. The model predicted that, in May, larger fish feeding on natural food alone fed continuously from dawn to dusk, ingesting 4.9 to 5.4% of their body weight (wet weight basis) whereas smaller fish had two feeding periods per day, from sunrise to mid-morning and again from mid-afternoon until after sunset, ingesting between 13.0 and 13.7%. In August, fish were given supplemental feed that ran out around mid-day, after which they continued to ingest natural food. The fish ingested 3.8 to 4.0% supplemental feed and 4.4 to 4.7% natural food per day. In May, most of the stomach contents consisted of the blue-green alga Anabaena spiroides, whereas in August, the natural food was made up principally of detritus. On the basis of these findings, it is recommended that supplemental feed be given in several doses spread throughout the day.