Dietary phosphorus requirement of juvenile milkfish, Chanos chanos (Forsskal)
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Seven isocaloric and isonitrogenous diets with graded levels of monopotassium phosphate to yield total phosphorus levels of 0.28 (no P supplementation), 0.43, 0.58, 0.73, 0.88, 1.03 and 1.18% were prepared and fed to five replicate groups of 10 juvenile milkfish (initial weight = 2.5 g). After 16 weeks of feeding, significant differences in growth (300–570%), survival rates (70–100%), and bone and scale mineralization were found among treatment groups. Weight gains of milkfish increased linearly up to the 0.88% dietary phosphorus concentration and levelled off beyond this dietary level. Bone and scale ash, calcium and phosphorus concentrations showed similar patterns as weight gain in response to dietary phosphorus concentration. Broken-line regression analyses of these data indicated that the dietary phosphorus level required for optimal growth and mineralization of juvenile milkfish is ≈ 0.85% of dry diet.
CitationBorlongan, I. G., & Satoh, S. (2001). Dietary phosphorus requirement of juvenile milkfish, Chanos chanos (Forsskal).
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ArticleMGG Miñoso, IG Borlongan & S Satoh -
Fisheries Science, 1999 - Japanese Society of Fisheries ScienceSix semi-purified casein based diets were formulated to contain either a complete mineral mixture (control) or mineral premixes from which a specific test mineral was deleted to obtain phosphorus(P)-free, magnesium(Mg)-free, iron(Fe)-free, zinc(Zn)-free, or manganese(Mn)-free diets. These diets were fed to juvenile milkfish (mean initial weight 2.60±0.08g) for a 22-week experimental period. Final mean percent weight gain ranged from 1022 to 1379% with P-free (1022%) and Fe-free (1066%) diets obtaining a significantly lower weight gain (p<0.01) than the control diet (1270%). Survival was greater than 90% and did not differ significantly among treatments. Upon termination of the growth experiment, milkfish flesh, bones, and combined samples of head, skin, and scales were dissected and analyzed for ash, P, Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, and Mn content. The deletion of P or Fe from mineral mixture lowered P content in flesh and bone. Zn content in bone of fish was also lowered by exclusion of Zn, Mn, Mg or Fe. The result of this study demonstrated that it is necessary to supplement P and Fe even to semi-purified casein based diets.
Conference paperLV Benitez - In RD Fortes, LC Darvin & DL de Guzman (Eds.), Fish and crustacean feeds and nutrition : Proceedings of the seminar-workshop on fish and crustacean feeds and nutrition held on 25-26 February 1985 at UPV, Iloilo City, 1989 - Philippine Council for Aquatic and Marine Research and DevelopmentThis paper reviews recent work on milkfish nutrition. Substantial progress had been made towards understanding the digestive physiology of milkfish. Major enzaymes envolved in the digestions of carbohydrates, protein and lipids had been detected in the pyloric caece, intestines and pancreas of milkfish. The most active carbohydrates were involved in the hydrolysis of α - glocosidic bonds. Intestinal amylase activity consistently reached the peak at about noon when milkfish gut was full. This confirms that milkfish is s daytime feeder. No cellulase activity was detected in any region orf the digertive treat although the fish relies heavily algae and other plant source for food. Trypsin, chymotrypsin and general proteases were also detected in milkfish digestive tract. A powerful milkfish trypsin inhabitor was detected in the filementous algae, Chaetomorpha brachygona which is predominant species in lumot. Lipass in the pancreas and intestines had two pH optima, suggesting a physiologic versatility for lipid digestion in milkfish. There is a limit information on the nutrient requirement of milkfish. Most studies showed that milkfish fry has a dietary requirement of 40% protein, and 7-10 lipid. Studies on the protein-energy requirement of fingerlings suggested that 30-40% protein, 10% fat and 25% carbohydrates are required. Subsequent studies showed an optimum protein energy to total metabolizable energy ratio of 44.4%. Amino acid test diets for milkfish had been formulated to contain white fish meal, gelatin and approprate amino acid mix.
ArticleThis study aimed to develop nutritionally balanced and costeffective processed diets for milkfish larvae (Chanos chanos). Two larval diets (feed A and feed B) were formulated and prepared to contain 45% protein and 10% lipid. Several larval diet preparations were tried such as microbound/unpelleted (freeze-dried), microbound /pelleted (oven-dried) and microbound/flaked (drum-dried) and assessed in terms of feed particle size and buoyancy, water stability and feed acceptability. The preparation that gave the best particle size and buoyancy as well as good water stability was prepared as the microbound diet (using K-carrageenan as a binder) and flaked using a drum drier. A series of feeding experiments were conducted to determine the growth and survival of milkfish larvae reared on various feeding schemes using these processed larval diets which were fed either solely or in combination with live feed. Larvae in control treatments were reared on live foods such as Brachionus plicatilis and Artemia nauplii. Larvae were observed to ingest the diets, indicating that the feeds had suitable physical characteristics and were attractive to the larvae. The overall results of the feeding trials showed that the artificial diets could be fed to milkfish larvae in combination with Brachionus rotifers starting on day 2 or day 8, and could be fed alone starting from day 15. These promising results would reduce the dependence of milkfish larvae on live feed and would have significant economic benefits in the form of simplified milkfish hatchery procedures.