Milkfish nutrition: a review
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This paper reviews recent work on milkfish nutrition. Substantial progress had been made towards understanding the digestive physiology of milkfish. Major enzaymes envolved in the digestions of carbohydrates, protein and lipids had been detected in the pyloric caece, intestines and pancreas of milkfish. The most active carbohydrates were involved in the hydrolysis of α - glocosidic bonds. Intestinal amylase activity consistently reached the peak at about noon when milkfish gut was full. This confirms that milkfish is s daytime feeder. No cellulase activity was detected in any region orf the digertive treat although the fish relies heavily algae and other plant source for food. Trypsin, chymotrypsin and general proteases were also detected in milkfish digestive tract. A powerful milkfish trypsin inhabitor was detected in the filementous algae, Chaetomorpha brachygona which is predominant species in lumot. Lipass in the pancreas and intestines had two pH optima, suggesting a physiologic versatility for lipid digestion in milkfish. There is a limit information on the nutrient requirement of milkfish. Most studies showed that milkfish fry has a dietary requirement of 40% protein, and 7-10 lipid. Studies on the protein-energy requirement of fingerlings suggested that 30-40% protein, 10% fat and 25% carbohydrates are required. Subsequent studies showed an optimum protein energy to total metabolizable energy ratio of 44.4%. Amino acid test diets for milkfish had been formulated to contain white fish meal, gelatin and approprate amino acid mix.
Benitez, L. V. (1989). Milkfish nutrition: a review. In R. D. Fortes, L. C. Darvin, & D. L. de Guzman (Eds.), Fish and crustacean feeds and nutrition : Proceedings of the seminar-workshop on fish and crustacean feeds and nutrition held on 25-26 February 1985 at UPV, Iloilo City (pp. 31-34). Laguna, Philippines: Philippine Council for Aquatic and Marine Research and Development.
PublisherPhilippine Council for Aquatic and Marine Research and Development
- Conference Proceedings 
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Conference paperDL Lee & IC Liao - In Proceedings of the International Milkfish Workshop Conference, May 19-22, 1976, Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines, 1976 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterIn studying the nutritional requirements of young milkfish experiments were conducted to develop a purified test diet. Mixtures of the purified constituents tested were: vitamin-free casein, vitamin-free gelatin, supplemented with L-tryptophan and L-cystine as the protein sources; shark liver oil and soybean oil as the far sources; and dextrin as the carbohydrate source. Mineral mixture and vitamin mixture were also added. The results showed that a test diet containing vitamin-free casein supplemented with L-tryptophan as the protein source, was best for the growth of young milkfish. Soybean oil was found to be a better source of fat. Vitamin mixture (4%) and mineral mixture (10%) were observed to promote growth in young milkfish. A purified test diet consisting of vitamin-free casein 60%, L-tryptophan 0.5%, soybean oil 10%, vitamin mixture 4%, mineral mixture 10%, carbohydrate and others 16% was thus suggested for young milkfish.
ArticleSeven isocaloric and isonitrogenous diets with graded levels of monopotassium phosphate to yield total phosphorus levels of 0.28 (no P supplementation), 0.43, 0.58, 0.73, 0.88, 1.03 and 1.18% were prepared and fed to five replicate groups of 10 juvenile milkfish (initial weight = 2.5 g). After 16 weeks of feeding, significant differences in growth (300–570%), survival rates (70–100%), and bone and scale mineralization were found among treatment groups. Weight gains of milkfish increased linearly up to the 0.88% dietary phosphorus concentration and levelled off beyond this dietary level. Bone and scale ash, calcium and phosphorus concentrations showed similar patterns as weight gain in response to dietary phosphorus concentration. Broken-line regression analyses of these data indicated that the dietary phosphorus level required for optimal growth and mineralization of juvenile milkfish is ≈ 0.85% of dry diet.
Effects of DHA-enriched live food on growth, survival and incidence of opercular deformities in milkfish (Chanos chanos) The use of commercial enrichers to improve the nutritional quality of live food in larviculture of milkfish was investigated. Fish were either fed rotifers cultured on Chlorella sp. and newly hatched Artemia nauplii (Control, Trt I) or rotifers and Artemia given DHA enrichment diets (DHA-treated, Trt II). Results showed survival was significantly better (P<0.05) in the DHA-treated fish than in the untreated fish after 25-day culture period. Although growth was not statistically different (P>0.05) between the control and DHA-treated fish during the hatchery phase, extensive rearing of the postlarvae (fry) in nursery ponds for another 60 days showed that DHA-treated fish exhibited significantly better (P<0.05) growth than the untreated fish. Opercular deformities in 85-day old milkfish juveniles were also significantly lower (P<0.05) in the DHA-treated fish than the control. Survival after nursery culture, however, was high for both treatments but not significantly different (P>0.05). The lack of a viable and reliable method of mass culturing copepods as live food in the hatchery makes the use of off-the-shelf commercial enrichment diets for rotifers and Artemia a practical option in the larval culture of milkfish.