Fatty acid composition of five candidate aquaculture species in Central Philippines
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Fatty acid composition was determined in five candidate aquaculture species, mangrove red snapper (Lutjanus argentimaculatus), two rabbitfish (Siganus guttatus and S. canaliculatus), coral trout (Plectropomus leopardus) and striped jack (Caranx fulvoguttatus) sampled in the Central Philippines. Special attention was paid to arachidonic acid (ARA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Total lipids of hatchery-produced eggs and newly hatched larvae of mangrove red snapper unexpectedly had equal levels of ARA and EPA. Ovarian polar lipids were subsequently found to have intermediate or high ARA (5.5–10.7%) and DHA (14.4–20.4%) levels but relatively low EPA levels (1.5–1.9%), consequently showing high ARA/EPA (4.4–6.0) and DHA/EPA (7.4–14.9) ratios in wild mangrove red snapper and rabbitfish (S. guttatus and S. canaliculatus). Similar trends were observed even in hatchery-reared mangrove red snapper, rabbitfish (S. guttatus) and coral trout. Not only ovary but also liver and muscle contained relatively higher ARA compared with EPA in mangrove red snapper, regardless of the sample source. ARA, EPA and DHA levels in the polar lipids of wild fry (whole body) ranged respectively from 3.2% to 4.0%, from 2.7% to 4.7% and from 23.5% to 27.6% with intermediate or high ARA/EPA (0.8–1.5) and DHA/EPA (5.9–8.8) ratios in mangrove red snapper, rabbitfish (S. canaliculatus) and striped jack. As overall traits, the five species in the Central Philippines appear to have intermediate or high ARA and DHA levels with low EPA level, consequently having high ARA/EPA and DHA/EPA ratios compared to species in high and temperate northern hemisphere. Thus, the present results indicate that ARA is not a minor component in the tropical species, suggesting that ARA may be nutritionally much more important for egg development and larvae growth in the tropical species than in cold water species. The information of the present study can be used as a guideline for development of appropriate broodstock and/or larval diets in the Philippines.
CitationOgata, H. Y., Emata, A. C., Garibay, E. S., & Furuita, H. (2004). Fatty acid composition of five candidate aquaculture species in Central Philippines.
Aquaculture development; Arachidonic acid; Biochemical composition; Brood stocks; Diets; Embryonic development; Fatty acids; Fish culture; Fish larvae; Larval development; Lipids; Mangroves; Marine fish; Eggs; Larvae; Ovaries; Caranx fulvoguttatus; Lutjanus argentimaculatus; Plectropomus leopardus; Siganus guttatus; Philippines; Caranx; Docosahexaenoic acid; Eicosapentaenoic acid; Essential fatty acids; Lutjanus
We would like to thank K.D. Shearer, Northwest Fisheries Science Center, NMFS, Seattle, WA, USA, for his critical reading of the manuscript. This study was supported by the collaborative project titled “Studies on Sustainable Production Systems of Aquatic Animals in Brackish Mangrove Areas’’ between Japan International Research Center for Agricultural Sciences, Japan and the Aquaculture Department, SEAFDEC, Philippines.
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Advanced broodstock diets for the mangrove red snapper and a potential importance of arachidonic acid in eggs and fry AC Emata, HY Ogata, ES Garibay & H Furuita -
Fish Physiology and Biochemistry, 2003 - Springer VerlagMangrove red snapper fed advanced broodstock diets containing squid meal and squid oil exhibited higher hatching rates, cumulative survival and survival activity index than those fed a basal diet or a basal diet supplemented with mixture of antioxidants. On the other hand, fatty acid analyses of ovaries and fry of wild fish and eggs and larvae of broodstock fed raw fish revealed high arachidonic acid (ARA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) levels and relatively lower eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) levels consequently showing high ARA/EPA and DHA/EPA ratios compared to cold water species. This suggests that ARA may be nutritionally more important for egg and larval development and survival in tropical marine fish and its supplementation in broodstock diets may enhance reproductive performance of mangrove red snapper.
Conference paperMN Duray - In CL Marte, GF Quinitio & AC Emata (Eds.), Proceedings of the Seminar-Workshop on Breeding and Seed Production of Cultured Finfishes in the Philippines, Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines, 4-5 May 1993, 1996 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterIn the past, larviculture of milkfish depended entirely on the use of rotifers and brine shrimp nauplii and rearing trials were done under roofed facilities. Since the dietary value of live food varies according to culture and feeding conditions, rotifers were enriched with SELCO, a lipid emulsion containing high levels of highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA) prior to feeding the larvae. Alternatively, a microbound larval feed (Nosan R-1) was given as a supplement to rotifers during the first two weeks of culture. Larval growth was enhanced and survival was significantly improved when rotifers were enriched or supplemented with these diets. All rearing trials were conducted in 5-10 tons concrete circular/rectangular outdoor tanks. Verification runs on the use of HUFA-enriched rotifers to milkfish larvae were tried in two nearby private hatcheries. Results from mis collaborative work are presented.
Conference paperM Boonyaratpalin - In MR Catacutan, RM Coloso & BO Acosta (Eds.), Development and Use of Alternative Dietary Ingredients or Fish Meal Substitutes in Aquaculture Feed Formulation … Ingredients or Fish Meal Substitutes in Aquaculture Feed Formulation, 9-11 December 2014, Nay Pyi Taw, Myanmar, 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterFish meal (FM) is the best and main protein source for fish and shrimp feed because of the favorable amino acid profile, highly unsaturated fatty acids, palatability and absence of antinutritional factors. Aquaculture production has increased (about 8-9% a year) and is expected to increase further at the same rate to meet the demand for increase world population and health concern. In this connection, more aquafeed is required. Aquafeed rely much on fish meal (FM) and fish oil (FO) for the supply of major essential nutrients (essential amino acids, essential fatty acids, mineral and attractant). Therefore, more FM is required. However, world fish meal production has been relatively static in the last 15 years and is unlikely to increase further, coupled with public pressure on sustainable feed (fish in fish out ratio or fish meal independent ratio). Thus, levels of FM use in fish feed will have to be reduced and replaced by alternative protein sources for a sustainable increase in aquaculture production. Therefore, the identification and development of alternative feed ingredients that can replace FM is recognized as an international research priority. Consequently, several international integrated projects have been established in Europe, USA and Australia to reduce fish meal and fish oil in fish feeds. A European integrated project involving 14 countries, 32 partners with 4 major programs has been established to develop feeds from sustainable alternatives to fish meal and fish oil to produce safe, healthy seafood; assess the health benefits of fish farmed on the new diets; assess the safety of fish farmed on the new diets; assess perceptions regarding farmed fish and to devise a framework to communicate the risk and benefit of consuming farmed fish to the public and other stake holders. The strategic goal of this project is to tailor aquaculture feeds to produce high-quality fish with significantly reduced use of fish meal (FM) and fish oil (FO).