Protective immunity against viral nervous necrosis (VNN) in brown-marbled grouper (Epinephelus fuscogutattus) following vaccination with inactivated betanodavirus
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Viral nervous necrosis (VNN) caused by betanodaviruses has been recently implicated in serious mortalities of groupers in the grow-out culture system. A safe and effective vaccine against this disease is urgently needed. This study demonstrates that a single intramuscular vaccination with formalin-inactivated Philippine strain of piscine betanodavirus (genotype: redspotted grouper nervous necrosis virus; RGNNV) induces potent immune responses and substantial protective immunity against an intramuscular challenge with the homologous virus in brown-marbled grouper, Epinephelus fuscogutattus, a highly susceptible marine fish species to VNN. Seroneutralization assay conducted on sera of vaccinated fish revealed the occurrence of substantial neutralizing-antibody titers from Days 15 (mean titer 1:800) to 190 (1:400) with the highest titer observed at Day 60 post-vaccination (1:5120). When vaccinated fish were challenged with the homologous virus at Days 15, 30 and 75 post-vaccination, significantly higher survival rates were obtained in these fish compared with their corresponding controls (L-15 injected fish). Abrogation of virus multiplication in all vaccinated survivors was indicated by undetectable virus titers in the brains and kidneys paralleled by significantly high levels of neutralizing antibodies in the sera of these fish. Consecutively, replicates of vaccinated fish that survived betanodavirus challenge at Days 15 and 75 post-vaccination were maintained in flow-through aquaria and rechallenged with the homologous virus 3 and 5 months later, respectively. A significant drop in neutralizing-antibody titers of 3 and 8 folds, respectively, were observed in the sera of Days 15 and 75 post-vaccinated fish assayed before the virus rechallenge. Interestingly, reversion in the levels of neutralizing antibodies to significantly high levels (8–15 folds) were noted in these fish after the virus rechallenge. Taken together, our current data clearly demonstrate that a single administration of the inactivated Philippine strain of betanodavirus vaccine can effectively mount a specific anamnestic response and concomitant long-term protection against VNN in grouper at the grow-out culture system.
CitationPakingking Jr., R., Bautista, N. B., de Jesus-Ayson, E. G., & Reyes, O. (2010). Protective immunity against viral nervous necrosis (VNN) in brown-marbled grouper (Epinephelus fuscogutattus) following vaccination with inactivated betanodavirus.
This study was funded by SEAFDEC AQD (study code: 5203-T-RDFH0507) and in part by the Government of Japan Trust Fund through the Regional Fish Disease Project (study code: 8001-T-FD-FH0507). We would like to thank Dr. Felix G. Ayson, Chief Technical Adviser, Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN (FAO), Fish Farming Center, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia for the critical reviewof the manuscript.
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Susceptibility of hatchery-reared snubnose pompano Trachinotus blochii to natural betanodavirus infection and their immune responses to the inactivated causative virus Mass mortality of snubnose pompano Trachinotus blochii fry exhibiting dark coloration, anorexia, and abnormal swimming behavior was recently documented at the hatchery of the Aquaculture Department of the Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center, Philippines. Samples of brain tissues were collected from affected fish and processed for RT-PCR amplification and virus isolation in cell culture. Infected E-11 cells exhibited cytopathic effect characteristic of betanodavirus. Histopathology of moribund fish showed pronounced vacuolations in the brain, spinal cord, and retina. An RT-PCR product of approximately 430 bp was amplified from the culture supernatant of betanodavirus-infected E-11 cells and sequenced. Sequencing of the T4 region of the coat protein gene (RNA 2) revealed clustering of the isolated virus within the red-spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus type. The pathogenicity of the isolated betanodavirus in healthy pompano juveniles and fry was determined via intramuscular injection and immersion challenges, respectively. Higher mortality rates were obtained in challenged fish compared with the controls. An inactivated vaccine was subsequently prepared by treating the clarified betanodavirus with formalin. Pompano juveniles intraperitoneally injected with the inactivated vaccine exhibited neutralizing antibodies from days 15 (mean titer 1:240) to 125 (1:560) with the highest titer noted at day 64 (1:2240) post-vaccination. Additionally, pompano fry bath-vaccinated and consequently bath-challenged with betanodavirus at day 35 post-vaccination showed higher survival rate compared with the control, indicating the potential of the inactivated betanodavirus vaccine against VNN in pompano fry and juveniles.
Book chapterKGS Andrino-Felarca, EG Estante & CC Lazado - In CMA Caipang, MBI Bacano-Maningas & FF Fagutao (Eds.), Biotechnological Advances in Shrimp Health Management in the Philippines, 2015 - Research SignpostShrimp is a high-value commodity and one of the major aquaculture species in the world, including the Philippines. The shrimp farming industry is dominated by the black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon and the Pacific white shrimp, Penaeus vannamei. Intensification in shrimp aquaculture to meet the global demand resulted to several socio-economic and biophysical production bottlenecks. Consequently, the issues besetting the industry had raised several questions on its sustainability. In particular, viral diseases remain a constant threat and a significant concern in many shrimp producing countries especially in the developing world. In this chapter, current knowledge on major viral pathogens affecting shrimp aquaculture in the Philippines is presented and discussed. The discussion is focused on white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), monodon baculovirus (MBV), infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV), hepatopancreatic parvovirus (HPV). yellow head virus (YHV), and taura syndrome virus (TSV). Updates on their clinical signs, transmission and distribution are presented. Records of incidence in the Philippines are provided as well. The second half of the chapter discusses some of the methods how to control viral diseases in shrimp farming with a particular focus on vaccination, biosecurity and diagnostics.
ArticleAE Polk, B Amsden, DJ Scarratt, A Gonzal, AO Okhamafe & MFA Goosen -
Aquacultural Engineering, 1994 - Aquacultural Engineering Society (AES)Potentially, the most useful method of fish vaccination is oral administration. However, this technique is presently only partially effective because of the apparent destruction of the vaccine in the fish digestive system, as well as interaction of the vaccine with the feed components. The authors' approach to this problem was to protect the vaccine by entrapping it within semi-permeable biocompatible microcapsules. Two bioactive agents — a vaccine, Vibrio bacterin and a model protein, bovine serum albumin (BSA) — were entrapped in chitosan-alginate microcapsules by extrusion of a sodium alginate/bioactive agent suspension into a CaCl2/chitosan solution. The results of experiments on the effects of varying the encapsulation parameters and the presence of enzymes on the in-vitro release of entrapped bioactive material are presented. This technique has been developed as a simple, quick, and inexpensive method for oral delivery. Capsules may be dried and mixed with feed for ease of administration, particularly to young fish which are susceptible to high mortality from both the disease and harsher vaccination procedures.