Effect of three innovative culture systems on water quality and whitespot syndrome virus (WSSV) viral load in WSSV-fed Penaeus monodon cultured in indoor tanks
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White spot syndrome virus is the most important among the shrimp diseases. It has been devastating the shrimp industry for more than 3 decades. Previous studies reported that greater percentage of yellow colonies on thiosulfate citrate bile salt sucrose agar (yellow vibrios) in the rearing water, abundant supply of natural food such as Chlorella, and the use of the greenwater technology (GW) are some ecological ways of preventing WSSV outbreak. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficiency of the 3 systems against WSSV. Shrimp, experimentally infected with WSSV by feeding with WSSV positive shrimp carcass, was cultured in tanks using three treatments: with tilapia to simulate the GW, seeded with Chlorella, and with molasses added to enhance growth of yellow vibrios. Shrimp cultured in seawater served as the control. Survival was recorded and shrimp were analyzed for WSSV quantification using qPCR upon termination. Analysis showed no significant differences in shrimp survival at 120 h post infection in all treatments and the control. However, from the original viral load of 1.40 × 101 WSSV/mg sample, WSSV decreased and was significantly lowest in shrimp cultured using GW (7.0 × 100), compared to the control (4.82 × 105) and the other treatments (3.66 × 105 for molasses added and 4.64 × 105 for Chlorella seeded) in which viral load increased 4–5 times. Shrimp survival was highest in Chlorella seeded treatment and lowest in GW. Nitrogenous waste concentrations were lowest in molasses added water and highest in GW. Results suggest that the GW culture technology provides protection against WSSV while addition of molasses lowers nitrogenous waste concentration. The use of GW in combination with the addition of molasses for shrimp culture is suggested.
CitationTendencia, E. A., Bosma, R. H., & Sorio, L. R. (2012). Effect of three innovative culture systems on water quality and whitespot syndrome virus (WSSV) viral load in WSSV-fed Penaeus monodon cultured in indoor tanks.
The study was funded by the Government of Japan under the trust fund granted to SEAFDEC AQD (GoJ TFD FH0710) and by RESCOPAR funded by INREF of the Aquaculture Center, Wageningen University. Gratitude is due to SEAFDEC's Marine Finfish Hatchery Staff for the Chlorella cultures, to Mr. Deogracias Reyes and Dr. Rowena Eguia for the O. mossambicus.
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ArticleBA Maralit, MFH Ventolero, MBB Maningas, EC Amar & MD Santos -
Dataset Papers in Science, 2014 - Hindawi Publishing CorporationThere is increased interest in the development of virus-resistant or improved shrimp stock because production is currently hindered by outbreaks and limited understanding of shrimp defense. Recent advancement now allows for high-throughput molecular studies on shrimp immunity. We used next-generation sequencing (NGS) coupled with suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) to generate a transcriptome database of genes from tiger shrimp that survived White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) challenge. A total of 9,597 unique sequences were uploaded to NCBI Sequence Read Archive with accession number SRR577080. Sixty-five unique sequences, 6% of the total, were homologous to genes of Penaeus monodon. Genes that were initially related to bacterial infection and environmental stress such as 14-3-3 gene, heat shock protein 90, and calreticulin were also found including a few full-length gene sequences. Initial analysis of the expression of some genes was done. Hemocyanin, ferritin, and fortilin-binding protein exhibited differential expression between survivor and control tiger shrimps. Furthermore, candidate microsatellite markers for brood stock selection were mined and tested. Four trinucleotide and one dinucleotide microsatellites were successfully amplified. The study highlights the advantage of the NGS platform coupled with SSH in terms of gene discovery and marker generation.
magazineArticleR Bosma, E Tendencia, M Verdegem & J Verreth -
Aquaculture Asia, 2014 - Network of Aquaculture Centres in Asia-PacificWhite spot syndrome virus (WSSV) has brought financial losses to all shrimp farming systems, and lately the “Early Mortality Syndrome” (EMS) or more accurately termed Acute Hepatopancreatic Necrosis Disease (AHPND) have added to the threats to shrimp farming in South Asia. Most studies on WSSV have been done in tanks with species other than Penaeus monodon. Several studies of RESCOPAR aimed to study WSSV epidemiology in on-farm situations and find ecological means of disease prevention or control. To achieve these goals experimental, cross-sectional, longitudinal and case studies were carried out by PhDs in Indonesia, the Philippines (Tendencia, 2012) and Vietnam.
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