Euryhaline rotifer Proales similis as initial live food for rearing fish with small mouth
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The SS-type rotifer Brachionus rotundiformis is a common initial food for rearing fish larvae with a small mouth. However, there are commercially important fish species whose mouth sizes are too small to feed on SS-type rotifers. In 2004, we isolated a small (body length = 82.7 ± 10.9 μm; body width 40.5 ± 6.4 μm), flexible, and iloricate rotifer, Proales similis from an estuary in Okinawa, Japan. Under laboratory conditions (25 °C, 2–25 ppt) P. similis produced its first offspring on 2.5 to 2.8 days after hatching, and produced 4.3 to 7.8 offspring within 4.0 to 4.7 days life span. Batch cultured P. similis fed Nannochloropsis oculata suspension at 28.8 μg dry weight ml− 1 and cultured at 25 °C, 25 ppt filtered seawater, increased exponentially from 25 to 2400 ind ml− 1 after 11 days of culture with an overall intrinsic rate of natural increase (r) of 0.42 day− 1. The growth rate of P. similis was not significantly different when fed fresh N. oculata and super fresh Chlorella vulgaris-V12®. Total lipid per wet weight of P. similis fed by N. oculata and C. vulgaris were 2.4 and 2.6%, respectively. The compositions of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and arachidonic acid (ARA) of P. similis fed N. oculata were 23.2, 0.0 and 5.3%, respectively, while these were 11.0, 17.5 and 0.5% respectively, when fed C. vulgaris. The use of P. similis to feed small mouth fish including seven-band grouper Epinephelus septemfasciatus, rusty angelfish Centropyge ferrugata, and humphead wrasse Cheilinus undulatus showed that it is an excellent starter food for these species because of their high selectivity index and improved survival. In addition, P. similis was ingested by Japanese eel Anguilla japonica larvae with a complicated digestive system. The use of P. similis as starter feed for small mouth fish larvae is highly recommended.
CitationHagiwara, A., Wullur, S., Marcial, H. S., Hirai, N., & Sakakura, Y. (2014). Euryhaline rotifer Proales similis as initial live food for rearing fish with small mouth.
Marine fish; Food organisms; Marine invertebrates; Catadromous species; Body size; Marine aquaculture; Digestive system; Fish larvae; Fish culture; Epinephelus septemfasciatus; Centropyge; Nannochloropsis oculata; Cheilinus undulatus; Anguilla japonica; Proales; Brachionus rotundiformis; Rotifera; Japan
This research was supported by the JSPS Kakenhi (Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research B), Grant Number 24380108 to A.H.
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Journal of the Fisheries Society of Taiwan, 2004 - The Fisheries Society of TaiwanFour species of sea lice were found parasitic on ten species of marine fishes either cultured in the coastal ponds or occurring in the sea water supply canals in the Philippines. They are: Caligus epidemicus Hewitt, 1971 on Acanthurus mata Cuvier), Epinephelus coioides (Hamilton), Glossogobius celebius (Valenciennes), Liza parmata (Cantor), Lutjanus argentimaculatus (Forsskael), Monodactylus argenteus (Linnaeus), Oreochromis urolepis hornorum (Trewavas), Oreochromis mossambicus (Peters), Rachycentron canadum (Linnaeus), and Siganus guttatus (Bloch); Caligus quadratus Shiino, 1954 on L. argentimaculatus and S. guttatus; Lepeophtheirus sigani n. sp. on S. guttatus; and Pseudocaligus uniartus n. sp. on S. guttatus and L. argentimaculatus. These ten species of fishes are new host to C. epidemicus, except for O. mossambicu which has been reported to carry C. epidemicus from Taiwan. Caligus quadratus is new to the Philippines and the two species of fish harboring it are the new host. While L. sigani was found only on S. guttatus, P. uniartus was recovered mostly from S. guttatus, and C. quadratus, largely from L. argentimaculatus. Caligus epidemicus exhibits extremely low host specificity and was found on all species of fishes examined.