Induction of immunity and resistance to white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in shrimp Penaeus monodon (Fabricius) by synthetic oligodeoxynucleotide and bacterial DNA
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Shrimps like all invertebrates are believed to lack true adaptive immunity but recent evidence indicate that they can be protected against pathogenic organisms by priming their immune system with immunostimulatory substances. Here, we describe results of investigation aimed to strengthen shrimp immunity as a preventive strategy against white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection. Oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) with and without Cytosine-Guanine (CpG) motifs, and Vibrio harveyi genomic DNA (VHD) were administered by intramuscular injection and shrimp responses were assessed by ex vivo assays and experimental infection trials. Results showed that CpG ODN significantly increased ex-vivo immunity indices such as total hemocyte count (THC), plasma agglutination titer (PAT) and hemocyte lysate agglutination titer (HLAT). VHD significantly increased immune indices such as THC, plasma total protein (PTP) and HLAT. Reverse (GpC) motifs increased THC only. At a lower viral challenge dose, both CpG and GpC motifs, and VHD, were able to reduce shrimp mortality significantly but only CpG and VHD did so at a higher challenge dose. Strengthening shrimp immunity by the use of immunostimulatory nucleotides and bacterial genomic DNA could be a feasible preventive approach in the management of WSSV infections in shrimp.
CitationAmar, E. C., & Faisan Jr., J. P. (2012). Induction of immunity and resistance to white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in shrimp Penaeus monodon (Fabricius) by synthetic oligodeoxynucleotide and bacterial DNA.
PublisherUniversity of the Philippines Los Baños
This study was supported by research funds from SEAFDEC AQD and the Regional Fish Disease Project of the Government of Japan Trust Fund Phase 4 under Study Code 8001-T-FD-FH1204.
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Evaluation of dietary freeze-dried Chaetoceros calcitrans supplementation to control Vibrio harveyi infection on Penaeus monodon juvenile Effects of supplementation of diets with freeze-dried Chaetoceros calcitrans to control Vibrio harveyi infection are evaluated through immune responses, and disease resistance of juvenile Penaeus monodon. Total lipid and fatty acid profile of Chaetoceros calcitrans is also analyzed. A challenge infection with 107 cfu/mL concentration of Vibrio harveyi is intramuscularly injected to juvenile Penaeus monodon after 45 days of feeding of diets supplemented with 15 g/kg and 30 g/kg dried Chaetoceros calcitrans. The use of dried Chaetoceros calcitrans is compared with that of ß-1,3 glucan Curdlan, a commercial immune enhancer. Incorporation of 30 g/kg Chaetoceros calcitrans in the diet enhances the immune system of shrimp as effected by high prophenoloxidase activity and plasma protein concentration and is better compared to the commercially available Curdlan. Chaetoceros calcitrans also contains polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) such as linolenic acid and eicosapentanoic acid (EPA) which are responsible for its antibacterial action against Vibrio harveyi. All these biological activities of Chaetoceros calcitrans add up to increase resistance of the juvenile Penaeus monodon to vibriosis as shown by its high survival rate from the challenge infection with Vibrio harveyi. Therefore, it is worthwhile to use Chaetoceros calcitrans as supplementary feed. Its effect in increasing the immune competence coupled with its antibacterial action, make the shrimp resistant to luminous vibriosis that continues to affect the industry, thereby augmenting aquaculture production.
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BookA textbook on diseases of cultured warmwater fish and shrimps in the Philippines. Eleven chapters cover essential information on the basic principles of disease causation, major diseases of cultured fish and crustaceans, particularly shrimps, and methods of prevention and control. Emphasis is made on major diseases that occur in the Philippines and other countries in the Asian region. Included also are topics on harmful algae, immunology and molecular biological diagnostic techniques.