The Agusan Marsh and the Agusan River Basin: The need for science-based development and management
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Primavera, J. H. (2013). The Agusan Marsh and the Agusan River Basin: The need for science-based development and management. In M. L. C. Aralar, A. S. Borja, A. L. Palma, M. M. Mendoza, P. C. Ocampo, E. V. Manalili, & L. C. Darvin (Eds.), LakeCon2011: Building on the pillars of Integrated Lake Basin Management (Second National Congress on Philippine Lakes) (pp. 96-101). Los Baños, Laguna: PCAARRD-DOST.
SeriesSummary of Proceedings No. 1/2013
- Conference Proceedings 
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Community-based shrimp stock enhancement for coastal socio-ecological restoration in the Philippines J Altamirano, H Kurokura, ND Salayo, D Baticados, JG Suyo & S Ishikawa - In MRR Romana-Eguia, FD Parado-Estepa, ND Salayo & MJH Lebata-Ramos (Eds.), Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia: Challenges in Responsible Production … International Workshop on Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia 2014 (RESA), 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterThe reality of declining quality of coastal areas has been evident for many developing countries, especially in Southeast Asia. In the Philippines, rural coastal zones and estuaries are now being characterized by declining wild fisheries resources and degrading environment. This paper presents, as an example, the typical rural coastal towns of New Washington and Batan in Aklan province, Philippines and showcases how the concept of shrimp stock enhancement can provide incentives to restore the environment and provide sustainable fishing livelihood in the area.The New Washington-Batan Estuary in northeast Panay Island, Philippines was a productive fishing ground that has been in a state of degenerating brackishwater fisheries and estuarine environment. Average daily catch composed of various species decreased from 24 kg in 1970s to 0.7 kg at present. Shrimp fisheries, the most important livelihood, declined in quality and quantity. The highly-priced and once very abundant tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon was replaced with smaller-sized and lower-priced species like the Metapenaeus ensis. These can be attributed to the conversion of 76% of mangroves to culture ponds in the past 50 years and more than 400% increase in fishing gears since the 1990s. The need to reduce fishing structures and rehabilitate mangroves is evident. However, these drastic changes directly affect fishers livelihood. This paper explores the prospects of P. monodon stock enhancement as positive reinforcement for the estuary s rehabilitation. Number of gears per fisher may have to be reduced but shrimp catches will be relatively high-priced. Simulations with additional tiger shrimp caught due to stock enhancement show that fishers can increase income by more than 4 times from their current PhP 34 gear-1 day-1. Campaigns on the importance of mangrove especially as shrimp habitat can encourage local communities to reforest the estuary especially in abandoned ponds. With effective management, law enforcement, and sustained support from different sectors, shrimp stock enhancement can be a positive strategy in estuarine rehabilitation and livelihood sustainability in the New Washington-Batan Estuary.
Conference paperRF Agbayani - In TU Bagarinao & EEC Flores (Eds.), Towards sustainable aquaculture in Southeast Asia and Japan: Proceedings of the Seminar-Workshop on Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia, Iloilo City, Philippines, 26-28 July, 1994, 1995 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterThe Community Fishery Resources Management Project, launched in 1991 in Malalison Island, Philippines is a development-oriented research project integrating biology, economics, sociology, engineering, and public administration. The general objective is to support, and learn from, the collaboration of people's organization, biologists, and social scientists in applying community-based techniques in fishery management. During Phase I, the Project concentrated on community organizing, institution building, and the introduction of seaweed farming as alternative livelihood. Studies were made on the marine resources of the island, the traditional boundaries and territorial use rights, the economic utilization of resources in the island, and the cultivation techniques for seaweeds. Phase II started in 1994 with the implementation of the territorial use rights in fisheries and the test deployment of prototype concrete artificial reefs. Phase II includes impact assessment (environmental, social, and economic), institutional arrangements in fishery co-management, ethnographic studies, economics of Seafarming techniques, and management of fishery cooperatives.
The way forward with ecosystem-based management in tropical contexts: Reconciling with existing management systems S Aswani, P Christie, N Muthiga, R Mahon, JH Primavera, LAz Cramer, EB Barbier, EF Granek, C Kennedy, E Wolanski & S Hacker -
Marine Policy, 2012 - ElsevierThis paper discusses some of the challenges and opportunities that can arise when implementing ecosystem-basedmanagement (EBM) in tropical nations. EBM creates a new series of challenges, problems, and opportunities that must be considered in light of existing governance and management frameworks in a local context. The paper presents five case studies from different parts of the tropical world, including Oceania, insular and continental Southeast Asia, East Africa, and the Caribbean, which illustrate that the implementation of EBM in watershed and marine ecosystems offers a new series of challenges and opportunities for its inclusion with existing forms of environmental governance and management. The paper suggests that EBM is best thought of as an expansion of customary management (CM) and integrated coastal management (ICM), rather than a paradigm shift, and that it has certain benefits that are worth integrating into existing systems when possible. The paper concludes that the cultural and institutional context of CM as well as the experience, technical skills, and legal basis that serve ICM programs are logical platforms from which to build EBM programs. Some guidelines for creating hybrid management regimes are suggested. In sum, declining marine species and ecosystems require urgent action, necessitating utilization of existing paradigms such as ICM and CM as a foundation for building EBM.