Spawning of tiger grouper Epinephelus fuscoguttatus and squaretail coralgrouper Plectropomus areolatus in sea cages and onshore tanks in Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India
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The broodstock of two grouper species, tiger grouper Epinephelus fuscoguttatus and squaretail coralgrouper Plectropomus areolatus, were maintained in sea cages near Rutland Island, Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India, and their spawning performance was monitored from June 2007 to December 2010. E. fuscoguttatus generally spawned monthly in association with the new moon phase, for 8–9 months each year. Each year, they underwent a 3- to 4-month refractory period between February and June then recommenced spawning in May–July. P. areolatus showed a different spawning pattern to E. fuscoguttatus, spawning for less than 6 months each year, also in association with the new moon, and demonstrating much longer refractory periods (up to 15 months) than E. fuscoguttatus. Analysis of temperature data from the sea cage site showed that water temperature was significantly lower during spawning events than during comparable non-spawning periods. We postulate that one factor inhibiting spawning is higher water temperatures exceeding the upper thermal inhibitory limit for both grouper species during the hotter months of the year. Selected broodstock fish of both species were also maintained in onshore tanks fitted with recirculating filtration systems, but the spawning performance of both grouper species in the onshore tanks was inferior to broodstock held in the sea cages. E. fuscoguttatus maintained in onshore tanks spawned during only 5 months of the 42-month study period, whereas E. fuscoguttatus held in the sea cages spawned during 29 months over the same time frame. P. areolatus held in onshore tanks over the same period did not spawn, whereas P. areolatus held in sea cages spawned during 16 months out of the 42-month study period.
CitationRimmer, M. A., Thampisamraj, Y. C., Jayagopal, P., Thineshsanthar, D., Damodar, P. N., & Toledo, J. D. (2013). Spawning of tiger grouper Epinephelus fuscoguttatus and squaretail coralgrouper Plectropomus areolatus in sea cages and onshore tanks in Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India.
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Conference paperZ Jangkaru & R Djajadiredja - In Proceedings of the International Workshop on Pen Cage Culture of Fish, 11-22 February 1979, Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines, 1979 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center; International Development Research CentreThe main objective of this experiment was to determine the optimal density or stocking rate for the optimal total production and growth rate of common carp, Cyprinus carpio . A raft of 10 x 10 m made of steel bars with drums as floaters was divided into nine plots. A cage of polyethylene 3 x 3 x 2 m, 1 inch mesh size was hung in every plot. About three fourths of the cage was under water. Three stages of stocking rate of common carp of about 130 g individual weight were used: 2 kg/m2, 4 kg/m2 and 6 kg/m2. The experimental Latin Square design was used. Artificial fish food (pellet) containing about 32 percent crude protein was given five times a day. Fish were fed to satiation. Morphometrical and limnological data were measured every 14 days. Individual growth and actual rations were calculated daily. As a result of this experiment, common carp culture is floating net cages with a stocking rate of 6 kg/m2 is recommended.
Conference paperK Fukusho - In TU Bagarinao & EEC Flores (Eds.), Towards sustainable aquaculture in Southeast Asia and Japan: Proceedings of the Seminar-Workshop on Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia, Iloilo City, Philippines, 26-28 July, 1994, 1995 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterAquaculture production in Japan in 1993 was 1,351,000 tons, 15.6% of the total fisheries production. About 93.6% came from mariculture and 6.4% from freshwater aquaculture. The per cent contribution of aquaculture to total production has increased in recent years but partly because marine fisheries,especially of sardine and pollack, have decreased. Aquaculture has reached a plateau, and decreased slightly between 1992 and 1993. Diverse marine and freshwater species are cultured in Japan — various fishes, crustaceans, mollusks, seaweeds, sea squirt, sea urchin, and others. Research and development in mariculture focus on finding substitutes for animal protein in feeds, improvement of fish quality, protection of the culture environment, use of offshore floating culture systems, and protection from diseases. Research in freshwater aquaculture has expanded to include recreational fishing, the propagation and preservation of endangered species, and the construction of fish ladders for salmonids and other migratory species.