Development and characterization of nine novel microsatellite markers for the milkfish Chanos chanos
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The milkfish, Chanos chanos, is an important aquaculture resource in Southeast Asia. Using NGS data, 72 microsatellite markers were developed. PCR product confirmation using agarose gel electrophoresis allowed the identification of 24 utilizable markers. Milkfish samples (n = 48) from a hatchery stock in Palawan, Philippines were analyzed for genetic variability at the aforementioned 24 loci. Consequently, nine of these microsatellite loci were noted to have high success rate in amplification, exhibited polymorphism with 19 maximum number of alleles and no null alleles. These are the first microsatellite markers to be developed and characterized for C. chanos that will efficiently enable genetic stock delineation and monitoring as well as marker-aided genetic improvement research.
CitationSantos, B. S., Romana-Eguia, M. R. R., Basiao, Z. U., & Ikeda, M. (2015). Development and characterization of nine novel microsatellite markers for the milkfish Chanos chanos.
Funds for this study were provided by the Department of Science and Technology-Philippine Council for Agriculture, Aquatic and Natural Resources Research and Development (DOST-PCAARRD) and the Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center, Aquaculture Department (SEAFDEC/AQD; study code Br-02-F2012B).
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Lactate dehydrogenase isozyme patterns during the development of milkfish, (Chanos chanos (Forskal)) PD Requintina, LM Engle & LV Benitez -
Kalikasan, The Philippine Journal of Biology, 1981 - University of the Philippines at Los BañosPolyacrylamide disc gel electrophoresis was done to determine the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) isozyme patterns for fry (5-3 mg), fingerling (6-12 g), pond-size (150-250 g) and adult (6-9 kg) milkfish. The patterns were tissue specific; the different tissues examined, viz., eye, liver, heart, and skeletal muscle had different expressions of LDH isozymes. The resolved patterns appeared to be products of LDH gene loci A, B, and C. Subunits A and B were present in all tissues. A4 and B4 were predominant in skeletal and heart muscle, respectively; the two associated non-randomly in vivo and formed only the heteropolymers A3B and AB3. A liver band, L4, was most conspicuous in the fingerling, pond-size, and adult; it was assumed to be coded by locus C. A negatively charged band, X4, was detected in fully developed ovary and in fry homogenized as whole individuals, but it could not be resolved in tissues of fingerling. Six-mo old stunts and 3-mo old fingerlings had similar LDH patterns for all tissues examined. The patterns for 11-mo old stunts and fingerlings also were similar but the one for the eye of the former was the same pattern resolved for the eye of adults. There was no change in the LDH isozyme patterns of milk fish stunted for 6 mo under different salinity levels (0-5, 15-20, 32-35 ppt).
Conference paperLV Benitez - In RD Fortes, LC Darvin & DL de Guzman (Eds.), Fish and crustacean feeds and nutrition : Proceedings of the seminar-workshop on fish and crustacean feeds and nutrition held on 25-26 February 1985 at UPV, Iloilo City, 1989 - Philippine Council for Aquatic and Marine Research and DevelopmentThis paper reviews recent work on milkfish nutrition. Substantial progress had been made towards understanding the digestive physiology of milkfish. Major enzaymes envolved in the digestions of carbohydrates, protein and lipids had been detected in the pyloric caece, intestines and pancreas of milkfish. The most active carbohydrates were involved in the hydrolysis of α - glocosidic bonds. Intestinal amylase activity consistently reached the peak at about noon when milkfish gut was full. This confirms that milkfish is s daytime feeder. No cellulase activity was detected in any region orf the digertive treat although the fish relies heavily algae and other plant source for food. Trypsin, chymotrypsin and general proteases were also detected in milkfish digestive tract. A powerful milkfish trypsin inhabitor was detected in the filementous algae, Chaetomorpha brachygona which is predominant species in lumot. Lipass in the pancreas and intestines had two pH optima, suggesting a physiologic versatility for lipid digestion in milkfish. There is a limit information on the nutrient requirement of milkfish. Most studies showed that milkfish fry has a dietary requirement of 40% protein, and 7-10 lipid. Studies on the protein-energy requirement of fingerlings suggested that 30-40% protein, 10% fat and 25% carbohydrates are required. Subsequent studies showed an optimum protein energy to total metabolizable energy ratio of 44.4%. Amino acid test diets for milkfish had been formulated to contain white fish meal, gelatin and approprate amino acid mix.
ArticleThe milkfish, Chanos chanos Forsskal, does not reach gonadal maturity easily in captivity. In an attempt to induce maturation, exogenous hormones, LHRH-A and 17α-methyl-testosterone, were implanted into adult milkfish either alone or in combination. The hormones were delivered using cholesterol pellets (LHRH-A) or silastic tubing sealed with elastomer (17α-methyl-testosterone). The fish were implanted three times at monthly intervals between March and May of 1985. The combination of LHRH-A and 17α-methyl-testosterone induced significantly more maturing fish (P < 0.05) than LHRH-A alone or sham controls; 88%, 38%, and 13%, respectively. Fish with average egg diameters between 768 μm and 905 μm, spawned 48 h after hormone implantation. These results indicate that the maturation and spawning of milkfish in tanks can be induced and accelerated 1–2 months earlier than the beginning of the normal spawning season through hormone implantation.