Influence of fishing gears on excessive use of fishing grounds in Batan Estuary, Aklan, central Philippines
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The excessive fishing activities have led to the depletion of many coastal fisheries resources in most of the countries in Southeast Asia. It is therefore necessary to find out the causal factors of excessive fishing in order to build up effective fisheries management system. This paper highlights the results of the study that investigated the overfishing or excessive fishing in Batan Estuary, Aklan, Central Philippines. The data were gathered through an interview of selected households in Barangay Pinamuk-an, Aklan from March 2-26 2010. Of the 93 respondent-households, 67 or 72% is engaged in fishing. The most popular fishing gear was the small set net with synthetic fiber, which was introduced to the community in the latter part of 1970s. The relatively lower cost of this small fishing gear, and a few labor force requirement, including its availability in nearby market made it easier for the fisherfolks to acquire this fishing gear. The small set net with synthetic fiber has been widely used by the fishers, which led to the overuse of the fishing grounds in the Batan Estuary. Thus, this paper argues that the introduction of new fishing gear and method triggered the excessive fishing in coastal areas in Philippines.
Kamiyama, R., Altamirano, J. P., Yoshino, K., & Kurokura, H. (2010). Influence of fishing gears on excessive use of fishing grounds in Batan Estuary, Aklan, central Philippines. In L. L. Tolentino, L. D. Landicho, S. Wun’Gaeo, & K. Ikegami (Eds.), 4th International Conference : the multidimensionality of energy, economy and environmental crises and their implications to rural livelihoods : September 7-10, 2010, Bicol University, Legazpi City, Albay, Philippines (Vol. 1, pp. 254-262). Philippines: Asian Rural Sociology Association.
PublisherAsian Rural Sociology Association
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BookLMB Garcia (Ed.) - 2001 - SEAFDEC Aquaculture DepartmentThis report describes the present state of marine resources in several coastal barangays of Ibajay and Tangalan, Aklan (Philippines). Field data were obtained from rapid surveys conducted from July to September 1998. Recommendations based on analyses of the data will guide fisherfolk and other stakeholders, particularly the local government units, in their development plans for these neighboring municipalities. Both land and marine products in the area are mainly harvested for the local market. All coastal barangays are dependent on fishing for their livelihood. The medium-scale municipal fishery of Tangalan employs several passive (encircling gill net, bag net, fish corral) and active gears (baby purse seine) compared with the traditional fishing methods employed by Ibajay fishers. Pond aquaculture in mangrove areas is well-developed in Ibajay West (barangays Aquino and Ondoy) and in Tangalan. However, ownership of these ponds is limited to a few individuals and families, unlike in Barangay Bugtong Bato where informal ownership distributed among families has been the traditional rule. Nonetheless, the introduction of so-called environment-friendly methods of utilizing mangroves (e.g., aquasilviculture) and other shared coastal resources may seriously undermine the informal rights-based social structures in the barangays. Without proper rules and enforcement, the application of these methods may be misused, aggravating the already poor overall state of their coastal resources. Major problems affecting their fishing livelihood include siltation of nearshore waters due to illegal deforestation upland, encroachment of municipal fishing grounds by commercial and other fishers elsewhere, and the lack of capital to finance the fishery. Weak inter-organizational links among government and non-government organizations have hampered the implementation of solutions to these common problems in coastal barangays. For instance, a conflict between fishers from these neighboring municipalities over territorial boundaries of common fishing grounds in Pangayawan and Pungtod reefs has not been resolved over the years. Likewise, the introduction of aquasilviculture in mangrove areas may become a potent source of conflict among resource-users who maintain informal rights over the mangrove resource. The overall state of coastal resources in these municipalities is in immediate need of a unified plan to promote both their preservation and conservation. To achieve this end, a joint resource management council representing all resource-users from both municipalities must be organized and convened. To address the presently weak inter-organizational links among existing organizations, this joint council may provide a legitimate forum to identify, resolve, integrate, implement, and enforce guidelines on the common use of resources, both marine and inland. Low estimated yields from the reef fishery, conversion of mangroves for aquaculture beyond the allowable limit, a persistent conflict over fishing rights in several reefs offshore, the limited resources for seaweed and fish mariculture, and threats on existing traditional social structures by progressive resource-users are several issues that require thorough discussions to formulate popularly approved and acceptable management strategies. These strategies include community-based approaches of co-managing resources such as "no-take zones" (sanctuaries), ecotourism development, and livelihood schemes to mitigate, in part, the pressure of over-exploitation of fishery resources.
Conference paperPC Liong, HB Hanafi, ZO Merican & G Nagaraj - In JV Juario & LV Benitez (Eds.), Seminar on Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia, 8-12 September 1987, Iloilo City, Philippines, 1988 - SEAFDEC Aquaculture DepartmentMalaysia is a fish-consuming country with fish representing 60% of a total animal protein intake. At an annual per capita consumption of 32 kg some 560 000 mt of fish is required for the projected of 17.5 million people in year 2000. Coastal marine capture fisheries, the mainstay of Malaysia's fishsupply, has not shown any increase in landings over the last few years. In fact in 1985 there was a decline of 3.7% compared to 1984 fish landings. This declining contribution of marine fisheries is compensated by an increase in aquaculture production. In 1985, aquaculture contributed 51 709 mt to the total fish supply. This represents 10% of the total fish landings of 514 570 mt or 13% of total table (edible) fish landings. Malaysia does not have a long standing aquaculture tradition unlike its neighbours in the Indo-Pacific. Even then, the industry has seen rapid growth in the last few years. Today there are 19 species of finfishes, crustaceans and shellfish cultured in the country. The main freshwater fish species bred and cultured are bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis), grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), common carp (Cyprinus carpio), Indonesian carp (Punctius gonionotus), catfish (Clarias macrocephalus and Pangasius spp), snakefish gourami (Trichogaster pectoralis) and tilapia (mainly Oreochromis niloticus). Marine finfishes bred and cultured are sea bass (Lates calcarifer), grouper (Epinephelus sp.) and snapper (Lutjanus johni). Penaeus monodon is the dominant marine prawn species bred and cultured but culture of P. merguiensis is receiving considerable interest. Macrobrachium rosenbergii is the only freshwater prawn cultured commercially. Molluscs cultured are the blood clam (Anadara granosa) and the green mussel (Perna viridis). In 1985, blood clam and mussel culture accounted for 87% of all aquaculture production of Malaysia, freshwater fish 12%, floating cage culture of marine fish 0.7% and brackishwater pond culture 0.3%. In terms of value blood clam and mussels represented 30% (M$15M) of total value (M$49.5M), freshwater fish 57% (M$28M),cage culture of marine fin fishes 7% (M$3.4M),and brackishwater pond production 6% (M$2.1M). Aquaculture in Malaysia has considerable growth potential. It is projected that 22 000 ha of mangrove will be opened by the year 2000 for shrimp culture. Some 330 000 m2 of protected coastal waters have been identified for cage culture. Some 6500 rafts can considerably expand the present capacity. In freshwater culture about 8000 ha of land and 17 500 ha of mining pools can be developed while 200 000 ha of artificial lakes and impoundments for freshwater fish cage culture are available. Yet such development is not without constraints. Freshwater finfish culture is hampered by lack of good quality broodstock. There is also a limited market for freshwater finfishes. Marine finfish culture is limited by lack of fingerlings and good quality compounded diet to replace trash fish which is deteriorating in quality and quantity. Marine prawn culture is heavily dependent on wild spawners, the supply unpredictable and inadequate. Acid sulfate soil continues to cause the deterioration of brackishwater ponds. Cockles and mussels can be sold to export markets only if they meet specific quality standards.
Conference paperH Thein - In MRR Romana-Eguia, FD Parado-Estepa, ND Salayo & MJH Lebata-Ramos (Eds.), Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia: Challenges in Responsible Production … International Workshop on Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia 2014 (RESA), 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterMyanmar has impressive freshwater capture fisheries. Inland freshwater bodies cover 8.1 million ha of which 1.3 million ha are permanent while the rest are seasonally inundated floodplains. There are repeated references to the crucial importance of fish and fish products in the nutrition of the Myanmar people. Over the past few decades, inland fisheries resources have increased pressure from overfishing, use of destructive fishing gear/methods, pollution and environment changes. In order to make a sustainable inland capture fisheries and conservation of aquatic biodiversity as well as nutritional security and improved rural livelihoods, fisheries resource enhancement and conservation measures have long been adopted in Myanmar since 1967, initiated through a seed replenishment program in natural waters, such rivers, lake, dams, even rice fields, etc. However, the institutional, policy, legislative and financial environments under which enhancement and capture fisheries regimes exist are not conducive to the interests of the fishers. Strong tools for valuation of ecosystem goods and services, enabling governance arrangements and estimation of environmental flows are needed. Fishing communities need to be organized into strong co-management/participatory/community regimes in order to ensure that all stakeholders take part in decision-making process and the benefits accrued are shared equitably by all.