The larval and juvenile fish community in Pandan Bay, Panay Island, Philippines
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Long-term (1975-1977) collections of larval and juvelnile fish were made from 1) onshore, a sandy beach flanked by a coral terrace and a river mouth, and 2) 500m offshore in 30 m deep water in Pandan Bay. About 70 species in 47 families were recorded onshore and 120 specis in 74 families were recorded offshore over the two-year period. About 60 species were common to both stations. Metamorphic stage Mugilidae dominated the onshore catch (75% of 587 samples), followed by Ambassis ssp. (55%) and Chanos chanos (48%). Predominant in the offshore station were larval Stolephorus spp. and Sardinella spp., occurring in 79% and 62% of 345 samples, respectively. Apogonidae, Leiognathidae, Gobiidae, Dussumieria sp., Caesio spp., Upeneus spp. larval, and the neotenic fish, Schindleria praematura, each occured in 20-40% of the offshore samples. Siganus spp., Lutjanus spp., Sphyraena spp. occured in considerable numbers onshore. Offshore, the first two species occured in higher, and the latter two in lower relative abundance. Mugilidae and Chanos chanos were also relatively less abundant offshore. Larvae of many inshore and pelagic fishery species like Carangidae, Scombridae and Bothidae occured at the offshore station together with larvae of coral reefs species like Pomacentrus spp. and the mesopelagic species like Benthosema spp. and Lestidiops sp.
Bagarinao, T., & Taki, Y. (1986). The larval and juvenile fish community in Pandan Bay, Panay Island, Philippines. In T. Uyeno, R. Arai, T. Taniuchi, & K. Matsuura (Eds.), Indo-Pacific Fish Biology: Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Indo-Pacific Fishes: Conducted at the Tokyo National Museum Ueno Park, Tokyo, July 29-August 3, 1985 (pp. 728–739). Tokyo, Japan: Ichthyological Society of Japan.
PublisherIchthyological Society of Japan
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Conference paperAC Emata - In TU Bagarinao & EEC Flores (Eds.), Towards sustainable aquaculture in Southeast Asia and Japan: Proceedings of the Seminar-Workshop on Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia, Iloilo City, Philippines, 26-28 July, 1994, 1995 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterMost of the fish research at SEAFDEC AQD in 1992-1994 was on milkfish. Studies were conducted on year-round spawning through hormonal or environmental manipulation; optimum lipid and protein levels and ration size for captive broodstock; and the influence of spawner age on reproductive performance. The economics of hatchery operations, alone or integrated with broodstock as a commercial enterprise, was assessed. Mass production of larvae was refined with the use of commercial or SEAFDEC-formulated larval diets. Alternative rearing schemes in large tanks and ponds were tried. Hatcheryproduced and wild-caught larvae were compared in terms of growth and production in experimental nursery and grow-out ponds. Supplemental diets for brackishwater grow-out culture were formulated. Studies on broodstock management of grouper Epinephelus spp. included lipid enrichment of the diet and hormonal induction of sex inversion. Seed production techniques were developed but survival rates were low. Grouper culture was found economically feasible in experimental ponds with 'trash' fish as feed. The mangrove red snapper Lutjanus argentimaculatus was successfully induced to spawn with injection of human chorionic gonadotropin. Initial larval rearing trials were successful but survival rates must be improved. Hormonal manipulation of spawning of the Asian sea bass Lates calcarifer allows seed production during most of the year. Photoperiod manipulation leads to maturation of females, but not males, beyond the natural breeding season (April-November). Nursery rearing of 9 mm juveniles is feasible in floating net cages with night lights that attract food zooplankton. The requirements of sea bass for lipid, protein, carbohydrates, and essential amino acids were determined. In the rabbitfish Siganus guttatus, weekly injections of luteinizing hormone releasing hormone analogue (LHRHa) sustains milt production for three weeks. Thyroid hormones injected into broodstocks improved the growth of larvae to day 7. Induced spawning techniques for the Asian catfish Clarias macrocephalus were refined by determining the seasonal responsiveness to LHRHa and pimozide injections and testing for pheromonal induction of spontaneous spawning. The optimum insemination rate was determined and egg hatchability was enhanced by removal of the adhesive coat before incubation. Several practical diets for catfish during grow-out culture were tested against 'trash' fish. The broodstock management for bighead carp Aristichthys nobilis was studied. Cage-reared juveniles from cage-reared broodstock showed the best growth. To improve the reproductive performance, the broodstock diets were supplemented with vitamins A, C, and E. Research on tilapias focused on genetics and strain selection. Several strain testing procedures for Nile tilapia were evaluated in their efficiency to detect economically important strain differences. Reference lines were developed from two existing red tilapia strains to measure and reduce the effects of uncontrolled nongenetic variables in strain evaluation experiments with Nile tilapia. The tolerance of two Nile tilapia strains to heavy metals was similar when gauged by the 24-hour and 96-hour lethal concentration and by fish growth, survival, and reproductive performance. In a separate study, four strains of red tilapia showed generally higher seed production when reared in tanks than in cages. Improvements in the feed and feeding management for Nile tilapia were also studied. Intensive tilapia farming and feeding have led to oxygen depletion and fish kills in Sampaloc Lake. To rehabilitate the lake, it is imperative to reduce the farming area from 30 to 6 hectares; stop the use of commercial feeds; and remove the water hyacinths and other debris. Fish kills in Laguna de Bay have also become serious in recent years, and a review of the occurrences, losses, and possible causes is currently being conducted. Studies on the epizootic ulcerative syndrome of snakeheads in Laguna de Bay have yet to pinpoint the pathogen. Skin lesions in tilapias in several ponds and lakes in the country were found to be due to bacteria.
Larval and early juvenile development of silver therapon, Leiopotherapon plumbeus (Actinopterygii: Perciformes: Terapontidae), reared in mesocosms FA Aya, MNC Corpuz, MA Laron & LMB Garcia -
Acta Ichthyologica et Piscatoria, 2017 - Szczecińskie Towarzystwo NaukoweThe silver therapon, Leiopotherapon plumbeus (Kner, 1864), is an endemic and economically important freshwater food fish in the Philippines. The natural populations of this species have been declining during the past years, mainly due to intense fishing pressure, habitat degradation, and introduction of invasive alien species. At present, it is considered a target species for domestication and conservation efforts. Despite several attempts of artificial reproduction and larval rearing, little is known on larval and early juvenile development of silver therapon. The presently reported study was therefore intended to fill this gap in the knowledge by determining the growth and describing body proportions, pigmentation, and fin formation of this fish. Newly hatched larvae were reared in mesocosm tanks at a mean temperature of 29.5°C. Larvae up to 30 days after hatching were sampled at irregular intervals and preserved in 5% buffered formalin. Early development stages for 245 preserved specimens were described in detail with reference to changes in morphology, growth and body proportions, pigmentation, and fin formation. Five developmental stages of silver therapon were identified: yolk sac larva (1.88 mm TL), preflexion (2.51 mm TL), notochord flexion (4.50-8.27 mm TL), postflexion larva (6.90-12.21 mm TL), and early juvenile (>13.40 mm TL). Growth was isometric for eye diameter and gape size whereas positive allometry was observed for body depth, head length, and preanal length. Some body proportions showed abrupt changes from preflexion to postflexion larvae before it stabilized during the early juvenile stage. Pigmentation in the form of stellate and punctate melanophores increased with developmental stage, with larvae becoming heavily pigmented from postflexion to early juvenile stage. These morphological changes, together with the full complement of fin rays and squamation observed in specimens larger than 13.4 mm TL, suggest the attainment of the juvenile stage of this species. These morphological changes may explain the food and feeding habits during the early life stages of silver therapon which is critical to their survival and recruitment in the wild and in a mesocosm hatchery environment.
Morphometric and morphomeristic variations in five populations of indigenous Celebes goby Glossogobius celebius (Perciformes: Gobiidae) from Southern Luzon, Philippines MNC Corpuz, MVC Camacho & PP Ocampo -
Philippine Agricultural Scientist, 2013 - College of Agriculture, University of the Philippines Los BañosTo elucidate the population structure and pattern of morphological divergence of the indigenous Celebes goby Glossogobius celebius (Valenciennes, 1837), morphometric and morphomeristic characters of this species were compared among populations collected from five study sites in Southern Luzon, Philippines. Univariate analysis of variance confirmed significant differences among populations for 20 out of 23 allometrically-transformed metric characters (P<0.05), while nine meristic traits of five populations were comparatively homogeneous (P>0.05). Intrapopulation variability was very low (6.81-7.21%) for each location. Multivariate analysis of variance determined a very high significant group variability (P<0.05). Also, principal component analysis (PC1=36.60%; PC2=18.34%) and canonical variate analysis (CV1=44.59%; CV2=37.30%) identified the 2 super(nd) dorsal fin length, anal fin length, and the 2 super(nd) dorsal fin origin as the main significant contributors of population differentiation. Derived classification functions correctly classified an average of 68% individuals into their original groups. The canonical variate analysis plot exhibited high isolation of lacustrine populations (Lake Taal and Laguna de Bay) from riverine populations (Dampalit River, Alitaaw River and Pansipit River), with the latter having longer metric characters. Likewise, squared Euclidean distance similarity using metric data clearly produced two clusters representing both river and lake populations. This morphological divergence is suggested to be environmentally-induced (phenotypic plasticity) primarily by the differences in flow rate and temperature of the study sites.