Milkfish production and processing technologies in the Philippines
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Book chapterEEM Santos-Yap - In T Bagarinao (Ed.), Research Output of the Fisheries Sector Program, 2007 - Bureau of Agricultural Research, Department of AgricultureThe recommended steps in new product development were followed to utilize bullet tuna maximally. New products were generated, evaluated, and refined. Three product concepts were initially advanced to the product optimization stage; both product and positioning blueprints were created. The products were optimized in terms of the levels and combinations of additives and spices, and the organoleptic properties were evaluated. The new products—bullet tuna loaf, seasoned dried bullet tuna, canned spicy bullet tuna, and canned pet foods—were tested for shelf-life. Tuna loaf treated with potassium sorbate remained acceptable for 29 days at 0°C, whereas untreated samples remained acceptable for 26 d at 0°C, 16 d at 14°C, and 3 d at 35°C. Seasoned dried tuna was still acceptable until 15 d in storage at 0°C and until 6 d at 35°C. Canned spicy tuna remained acceptable after more than a year of storage at 35°C. Cost analysis based on the current retail prices of bullet tuna (P30/kg), additives, spices and other raw materials showed that the production costs were: P19 for 100 g of bullet tuna loaf; P2 for a piece of seasoned dried tuna; and P 12.5 for a can of spicy bullet tuna. Traditional processing methodologies were applied to bullet tuna as raw material. Smoking and dry-salting yield bullet tuna products that can be offered to the consumers at prices much lower than those of the newly developed value-added products.
ArticleJP Altamirano, JH Primavera, MRN Banaticla & H Kurokura -
Wetlands Ecology and Management, 2010 - SpringerPractical mapping methods employing GPS field surveys and manual image analyses with affordable software were used to assess two mangrove sites in Aklan Province, NE Panay Island, central Philippines. The Jawili mangroves, absent from current maps, actually included 21.5 ha with 24 true mangrove species. On the other hand, the Batan Estuary mangroves, shown to be 4244 ha in available topographic maps, revealed only 406 ha of scattered patches. Actual mangrove data on specific areas worldwide is limited, especially in the Philippines where available maps show discrepancies from actual mangrove distribution. Remote sensing (RS) techniques provide promising results but require expensive setup, particularly for small areas. Therefore, financially limited users need affordable and rapid mapping alternatives. The practical techniques presented here can be immediately implemented at minimal cost and can produce useful estimates of actual mangrove area, fundamental for coastal management. Basic principles used here also have potential applications in other systems and locations. When resources are available though, additional confirmation and precise mapping are also further recommended.
The fish processing industry in Central Luzon and the processors' assessment of the extension program of the Department of Agriculture MS Morata - In T Bagarinao (Ed.), Research Output of the Fisheries Sector Program, 2007 - Bureau of Agricultural Research, Department of AgricultureA survey was done in 1992 of 242 fish processors in Region III or Central Luzon: 57 in Bataan, 39 in Bulacan, 24 in Nueva Ecija, 45 in Pampanga, 41 in Tarlac, and 36 in Zambales. The fish processors were engaged in three major fish processing enterprises: fish smoking (52%), fish drying (17%), and fish fermentation (31%). The products were smoked fish ‘tinapa’, dried fish ‘daeng’, fish paste ‘bagoong’, rice-fish paste ‘buro’, and fish sauce ‘patis’. Most of the processors in Zambales, Bataan, and Bulacan produced bagoong; ‘buro’ was produced only in Pampanga. Of the processors, 105 were small-scale operators, most of them in Pampanga, Bataan, and Bulacan, who had average capital of P11,000, worked an average of 3 days a week, and processed an average of 5,000 kg of fish a year. The 90 medium-scale processors had average capital of P20,000 and handled between 5,000 and 20,000 kg of fish a year, 5 days a week. The 47 large-scale processors, mostly in Zambales, Bataan, and Tarlac, invested an average of P94,000, and handled more than 20,000 kg of fish a year, seven days a week. The 242 fish processors in Region III in 1992 employed 501 people, 47% of them family members. The total production of processed fish products was about 73,000 kg a month, including about 21,511 kg ‘tinapa’, 4,790 kg ‘daeng’, and 46,634 kg ‘bagoong’. Processors in Zambales fermented the most fish, about 23,000 kg/month, followed by those in Bulacan. Among those in fish smoking, Bataan processors produced the biggest volume of 5,900 kg/month. Fish drying was done only in Bataan and Bulacan, and Bataan processors produced about 2,800 kg/month. The fish processors in Region III sold their produce three ways: wholesale, retail, and contract buying. They followed a simple marketing plan, using outlets in nearby towns and cities, including Metro Manila. For six months of operation, the cost was lowest in fish smoking and highest in fish drying. Gross sales was also lowest in fish smoking, but highest in ‘bagoong’-making. Net profit was lowest in fish smoking and highest in ‘bagoong’-making. Return on investment was 38% in fish smoking, 41% in ‘bagoong’-making, but only 19% in fish drying. More than one-half of the processors earned incomes of P20,000–35,000 a month, one-fifth earned less, but one-fourth earned more. Fish processors in Region III in 1992 were on average 46 years old; nearly 80% were 26–55 years old and only two were younger than 26 years. There were more women than men in fish processing, particularly in Bataan, and about 93% were married. The respondents had formal education, but 60% did not go beyond elementary school. The respondents had considerable experience in fish processing, 60% of them having been in the business for 5–20 years, and 19% of them for even longer. Many reported household expenditures of P1,000–3,000 a month, but some also as high as P6,000–7,000 a month. The processors owned household appliances and furniture, and a few owned motorized boats. The Department of Agriculture provided extension services and credit to fish processors in Region III. Services included technical assistance, direct consultation, field visits, lectures, demonstrations, training, seminar, and preparation of feasibility study when availing of loans. Most fish processors in Bulacan considered extension services important, but most of those in Nueva Ecija were indifferent to extension services, apparently because they already had the needed knowledge and skills. In Pampanga, the older processors and those with greater investment considered extension services very important. In Zambales, processors with more experience required less extension services. In Bataan, gender, education level, investment, civil status, and income significantly influenced the processors’ assessment of the importance of extension services and the extent of their participation in the government’s extension program. Women considered it very important to avail of extension services, especially those who were married and those with little formal education.