Milkfish production and processing technologies in the Philippines
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Book chapterEEM Santos-Yap - In T Bagarinao (Ed.), Research Output of the Fisheries Sector Program, 2007 - Bureau of Agricultural Research, Department of AgricultureThe recommended steps in new product development were followed to utilize bullet tuna maximally. New products were generated, evaluated, and refined. Three product concepts were initially advanced to the product optimization stage; both product and positioning blueprints were created. The products were optimized in terms of the levels and combinations of additives and spices, and the organoleptic properties were evaluated. The new products—bullet tuna loaf, seasoned dried bullet tuna, canned spicy bullet tuna, and canned pet foods—were tested for shelf-life. Tuna loaf treated with potassium sorbate remained acceptable for 29 days at 0°C, whereas untreated samples remained acceptable for 26 d at 0°C, 16 d at 14°C, and 3 d at 35°C. Seasoned dried tuna was still acceptable until 15 d in storage at 0°C and until 6 d at 35°C. Canned spicy tuna remained acceptable after more than a year of storage at 35°C. Cost analysis based on the current retail prices of bullet tuna (P30/kg), additives, spices and other raw materials showed that the production costs were: P19 for 100 g of bullet tuna loaf; P2 for a piece of seasoned dried tuna; and P 12.5 for a can of spicy bullet tuna. Traditional processing methodologies were applied to bullet tuna as raw material. Smoking and dry-salting yield bullet tuna products that can be offered to the consumers at prices much lower than those of the newly developed value-added products.
ArticleJP Altamirano, JH Primavera, MRN Banaticla & H Kurokura -
Wetlands Ecology and Management, 2010 - SpringerPractical mapping methods employing GPS field surveys and manual image analyses with affordable software were used to assess two mangrove sites in Aklan Province, NE Panay Island, central Philippines. The Jawili mangroves, absent from current maps, actually included 21.5 ha with 24 true mangrove species. On the other hand, the Batan Estuary mangroves, shown to be 4244 ha in available topographic maps, revealed only 406 ha of scattered patches. Actual mangrove data on specific areas worldwide is limited, especially in the Philippines where available maps show discrepancies from actual mangrove distribution. Remote sensing (RS) techniques provide promising results but require expensive setup, particularly for small areas. Therefore, financially limited users need affordable and rapid mapping alternatives. The practical techniques presented here can be immediately implemented at minimal cost and can produce useful estimates of actual mangrove area, fundamental for coastal management. Basic principles used here also have potential applications in other systems and locations. When resources are available though, additional confirmation and precise mapping are also further recommended.
Total volume of 3D small patch reefs reflected in aerial photographs can predict total species richness of coral reef damselfish assemblages on a shallow back reef Because fish have a high dispersal ability, an understanding coral reef fish metacommunity structure is vital for effective conservation. Coral reefs provide patchy habitat of various sizes and scales. We examined the species–area relationship (SAR) of damselfish (Pomacentridae) assemblages over 81 environmentally homogenous patch reefs ranging 0.07–45.4 m2 with low coral cover. Patch reefs were located in the shallow back reef (<2.5 m deep) off Ishigaki Island, Japan. Reef area was measured by performing image analysis of enlarged sections of a high-resolution (>1/2500) color aerial photograph used as a fine-scale seascape map. To assess the effects of three-dimensional meso-scale rugosity on species richness, we assumed that all reefs had a cylindrical shape and examined species by volume (area × height) relationships (SVR). Patch reef volume was a better determinant of species richness than area, and the regression functions of SVR provided better estimates of patch reef species richness. Neither the observed SVRs nor SARs, however, could be explained by a random placement model alone. Our results suggest that several small reefs are likely to have higher species richness than a single large reef of equivalent area in the shallow back reef where large patch reefs are flat. Thus, total patch reef volume (area × height) better reflects meso-scale rugosity and is a useful indicator of total species richness relative to the total amount of essential habitat in shallow back reefs.