Metabolic rate characteristics and sediment cleaning potential of the tropical sea cucumber Holothuria scabra
MetadataShow full item record
Cited times in Scopus
The oxygen consumption rate (OCR) and ammonium excretion rate (AER) of a tropical sea cucumber, Holothuria scabra, were determined in laboratory experiments. OCR and AER exhibited a significant negative correlation to body weight (BW), expressed as a power function of BW: OCR = 0.09 × BW−0.58 (mgO2/g/h, r2=0.89, n=15) and AER = 0.38 × BW−0.19 (μmolN/g/h, r2=0.54, n=15). These values were comparable to those in previous studies on other sea cucumber species. The OCR of shrimp tank sediment was reduced to less than half (4.5 ± 0.3 to 1.0 ± 0.1 mgO2/gdry/h) by the ingestion and excretion process of H. scabra. Acid volatile sulfide (AVS-S) concentration was also decreased to less than half (0.67 to 0.31 mgS/mgdry); despite the low reduction rates of organic carbon and nitrogen contents (0.19 to 0.14 mgC/mgdry and 0.022 to 0.019 mgN/mgdry, respectively). These results suggest that components in the sediment with high oxygen consumption potential were removed by H. scabra. These findings also provide fundamental information with which to evaluate the quantitative role of H. scabra in polyculture with shrimp.
CitationKodama, M., Sumbing, J. G., Lebata-Ramos, M. J. H., & Watanabe, S. (2015). Metabolic rate characteristics and sediment cleaning potential of the tropical sea cucumber Holothuria scabra.
PublisherMinistry of Tropical Agricultural Research Centre
This study was funded by the Japan International Research Center for Agricultural Sciences (JIRCAS).
- Journal Articles 
Showing items related by title, author, creator and subject.
The effects of dietary tryptophan levels on growth and metabolism of rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) MJ Walton, RM Coloso, CB Cowey, JW Adron & D Knox -
British Journal of Nutrition, 1984 - Cambridge University Press1. Groups of rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) (mean weight 14 g) were given diets containing 0.8, 1.3, 2, 3, 4 or 6 g tryptophan/kg diet for 12 weeks. 2. By analysis of the growth results, the dietary requirement of tryptophan was found to be 2.5 g/kg diet (equivalent to 50 mg/kg biomass per d). 3. Carbon dioxide expired by trout following intraperitoneal injection of [14COOH]tryptophan contained little radioactivity when dietary tryptophan level was low but, above 2.0 g/kg diet, it increased rapidly with increasing dietary tryptophan level. The break point in the dose-response curve did not, however, coincide with that from the growth results. 4. Changes in concentrations of free tryptophan in blood and liver and activity of hepatic tryptophan pyrrolase (EC 220.127.116.11) in response to changes in dietary tryptophan concentration did not provide reliable indicators for quantifying dietary requirement. Unlike the situation in mammals, blood tryptophan was not protein-bound to any appreciable extent. Tryptophan pyrrolase of trout has properties which suggest it has no apoenzyme form. 5. In fish given adequate levels of tryptophan injected intraperitoneally with a tracer dose of [14COOH]tryptophan, 60% of the dose was incorporated into body protein within 1 d. The turnover of the label in this protein is very slow. 6. Those trout given diets deficient in tryptophan suffered from severe scoliosis and lordosis as well as having increased liver and kidney levels of calcium, magnesium, sodium and potassium.
The effect of dietary protein-energy levels on growth and metabolism of milkfish (Chanos chanos Forsskal) RM Coloso, LV Benitez & LB Tiro -
Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology - Part A: Physiology, 1988 - Elsevier
- Groups of milkfish juveniles (mean weight, 2.8 g) were fed diets containing white fishmeal and gelatin with varying protein-energy to total metabolizable energy (PE:TME) ratios.
- Amino acids were incorporated in the diets to stimulate the pattern of milkfish protein. The control diet contained fishmeal as sole protein source and was not supplemented with amino acids
- Among the amino acid supplemented diets, best growth was observed at PE:TME ratio of 44.4%. However, the control diet gave better growth rate than any of the amino acid supplemented diets
- Specific activities of pyruvate kinase (PK) and glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) increased significantly with increase in dietary protein-energy level.
Shrimp metabolism: The roles of lactate dehydrogenase (c31), glycogen phosphorylase (c34) and protein kinase (PK) as revealed by RNA interference MVR Tare, H Kondo, I Hirono & MBB Maningas - In MRR Romana-Eguia, FD Parado-Estepa, ND Salayo & MJH Lebata-Ramos (Eds.), Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia: Challenges in Responsible Production … International Workshop on Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia 2014 (RESA), 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterEnergy metabolism is well-studied in vertebrate systems, providing insights on the genes and mechanisms involved in different pathways necessary for the survival of an organism. Yet, such studies are still lacking in invertebrate systems much more in shrimp. An earlier study has showed several contigs from the black tiger shrimp to be homologous to white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), a devastating pathogen in shrimp, including contig 31-WSSVORF82 (c31) and contig 34-WSSVORF21 (c34). This study aims to unveil the roles of three genes: c31, c34 and protein kinase (PK) in the shrimp system and its possible role in WSSV-infection. Rapid amplification of cDNA ends-polymerase chain reaction or RACE-PCR was used to obtain the full-length sequence of c31 and c34, followed by in vivo gene silencing using RNAi technology, and intramuscularly injecting dsRNA to WSSVchallenged Macrobrachium rosenbergii and Penaeus (Marsupenaeus) japonicus. Gene expression followed for healthy shrimps and dsRNA-treated shrimps. Mrc31 was revealed to be the enzyme lactase dehydrogenase (LDH), commonly released during tissue damage and is a marker for disease. The most parsimonious tree pictured Mrc31 to be sister clades to LDH of other shrimp species, Penaeus monodon and P. vannamei, supported with 100% and 72% bootstrap values, respectively. Mrc34 was highly homologous to the glycogen phosphorylase (GP) enzymes of other organisms including that of another shrimp, M. japonicus, bearing a bootstrap value of 99%. For PK, phylogenetic analysis revealed that the three open reading frames (ORFs) from P. monodon, M. rosenbergii and P. japonicus have 30% homology to WSSV-PK supported by a 98% bootstrap value. Mortality data from dsRNA-treated and WSSV-infected shrimps showed that treatment with dsRNA-LDH, GP and PK had significantly higher survival rates compared to that of the controls, Phosphate Buffered Saline (PBS) and Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP). Silencing the three genes in the shrimp has rendered some protective effect against the virus. Gene expression showed that all three genes are present in immune-related organs such as the gills, hepatopancreas and hemocyte. This study is the first to report the possible identities and functions of contigs 31, 34 and PK providing valuable data on the shrimp's genome.