Development of transgenic fish: scientific background
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This chapter highlights some of the important examples of transgenic fish development. An overview of important steps in fish transgenesis is given. The status of development in the case of transgenic carp, tilapias, Atlantic salmon and mud loach is discussed. Other future applications of transgenic fish are presented. The key research and capacity needs for further development of transgenic fish are also discussed.
Nam, Y. K., Maclean, N., Fu, C., Pandian, T. J., & Eguia, M. R. R. (2007). Development of transgenic fish: scientific background. In A. R. Kapuscinski, K. R. Hayes, S. Li, G. Dana, E. M. Hallerman, & P. J. Schei (Eds.), Environmental risk assessment of genetically modified organisms, Volume 3. Methodologies for transgenic fish (pp. 61-94). Wallingford: CABI.
Aquaculture; Temperature tolerance; Disease resistance; Gene expression; Genes; Biotechnology; Genetically modified organisms; Growth; Metabolism; Monitoring; Phenotypes; Fishery production; Infertility; Salt tolerance; Somatotropin; Techniques; Genetic engineering; Transgenic animals; Cold tolerance
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ArticleT Bagarinao -
Aquatic Toxicology, 1992 - ElsevierThis review brings together a large number of independent and seemingly unrelated studies in various disciplines under four major topics: (1) sulfide as an environmental factor in aquatic habitats; (2) sulfide as a toxicant; (3) sulfide tolerance of aquatic organisms; and (4) adaptations limiting sulfide toxicity. Sulfide is widely distributed in the aquatic environment, but has been largely overlooked as an environmental factor for aquatic organisms. Sulfide at nanomoiar to millimolar concentrations adversely affects cytochrome c oxidase, various other enzymes, oxygen transport proteins, cellular structures, and consequently the physiological functions of organisms. These toxic effects are well documented in the biomedical literature, and also occur in the aquatic organisms that have been studied. Sulfide tolerance varies widely among protozoans, sediment meiofauna, polychaetes, bivalves, crustaceans, marine and freshwater fishes, and aquatic plants, often in correlation with the relative sulfide levels in the respective habitats. Aquatic organisms have evolved various adaptations against sulfide toxicity, possibly several acting in concert. Most animals are able to avoid and escape from sulfide, but cannot exclude sulfide from the body. No sulfide-resistant cytochrome c oxidase has been demonstrated, and most animals are capable of some degree of anaerobic meabolism. Various invertebrates have entered into symbiotic associations with sulfide-oxidizing bacteria. Some of these invertebrates immobilize and transport sulfide by means of sulfide-binding proteins or persulfides in the blood. Detoxication of sulfide occurs by methylation, non-specific oxidation, and enzymatic oxidation by mitochondria. Oxidative detoxication of sulfide to thiosulfate by mitochondria is common to several major taxa (protozoan, mollusk, teleosts, mammal), and is effective at low micromolar sulfide concentrations. Among organisms lacking sulfide-oxidizing bacterial symbionts, the mitochondria may thus provide the chief defense against environmental sulfide, and may allow the whole organism to tolerate sulfide concentrations 2–3 orders of magnitude greater than would inhibit cytochrome c oxidase.
Conference paperSM Aypa - In TU Bagarinao & EEC Flores (Eds.), Towards sustainable aquaculture in Southeast Asia and Japan: Proceedings of the Seminar-Workshop on Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia, Iloilo City, Philippines, 26-28 July, 1994, 1995 - SEAFDEC Aquaculture DepartmentAquaculture is regarded as the most promising source of protein food in the years ahead. Milkfish and Nile tilapia are the major fishes now produced but groupers, sea bass, rabbitfish, red snappers, carps, and catfishes are grown by some farmers. The tiger shrimp is still the most important cultured crustacean, but white shrimps and mudcrabs also have great potential. Oysters and mussels are produced in considerable amounts. Mariculture of the seaweed Eucheuma is now a well established industry, and the pond culture of Gracilaria for agar extraction is beginning to take off.
Growth response of Nile tilapia fry to salinity stress in the presence of an ‘internal reference’ fish Growth of three strains of Oreochromis niloticus L. fry exposed to salinity stress in the presence of an internal reference fish were compared. The Central Luzon State University (CLSU) strain was obtained from the Freshwater Aquaculture Center, CLSU, Philippines. The ISRAEL strain was acquired from the Philippine government's Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources National Freshwater Fisheries Technology Center (BFAR-NFFTC), Munoz, Nueva Ecija. The National Inland Fisheries Institute (NIFI) strain was obtained from the NIFI, Bangkok, Thailand. Eight to nine full-sib families (replicates) per strain were split into two groups. One group was grown in freshwater for 2 weeks, acclimated to 32 ppt and reared for 2 weeks and finally grown in freshwater for another 2 weeks. Another group was contemporaneously grown in freshwater polyethylene tanks for 6 weeks. Each replicate family included a size-matched internal reference population of red tilapia strain. Two-way analysis of variance (anova) revealed no significant strain differences (P=0.081; r2=0.106). However, analysis of covariance with the internal reference strain used as a covariate showed significant (P=0.049; r2=0.638) strain effects on specific growth (based on standard length measurements). The ISRAEL strain showed consistently better growth rate in both saline and freshwater environments than the NIFI and CLSU strains. We estimated the statistical power of the two-way anova (ϕ=√(k′−1)(factor MS−s2)/(k′s>2); Zar 1984) to be ∼0.30. There was a 70% probability of a Type II error and no true difference in the growth of the three strains was detected. The use of internal reference strain as a covariate improved the r2 from 0.106 to 0.638 and increased the efficiency of the test in detecting a true difference. Other strain comparison studies in our laboratory at the Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center Aquaculture Department showed that the ISRAEL strain shows better growth than the NIFI and CLSU strains in a crowding stress tolerance experiment, when fed only with rice bran and under restrictive feeding regimes.