FAO policies and initiatives promoting responsible and efficient use of feed ingredients from marine animal origin
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After rapid development for three decades, aquaculture has become the most important source of food fish in Asia, which currently supplies about 55 per cent of food fish for the people. The rapid growth of aquaculture production has been largely the result of intensification of aquaculture, which heavily relies on artificial feeding. The development of shrimp and high value marine and inland finfish culture has greatly increased the demand for feed ingredients from animal sources, particularly fish meal and fish oil and low value fish as direct feed. Due to various factors, the production of fish meal from whole fish has, overall, declined gradually since 2005 despite some fluctuations. This decrease has been only partly offset by a growing share of fish meal production obtained from fishery by-products. In contrast, the overall demand for fish meal continued to grow, pushing prices to historic high at US$1,919 per mt in January 2013, with an increase of 206 percent between January 2005 and January 2013. The soaring price of fish meal and fish oil has significantly affected the economic return from farm production that relies on the feed with high content of fish meal and fish oil or direct use of low value fish as feed. Furthermore, the increasing use of fish meal and fish oil from whole fish that can be direct source of animal food for people has raised major public concerns. Due to the population and economic growth, it is projected that in 2030 the Asia-Pacific region will need to increase fish production by 30 million mt, mainly through aquaculture. With the on-going process of aquaculture intensification and potential increase of high value commodities that require high protein in feed, it is anticipated that demand of Asian aquaculture for feed ingredients, particularly the protein source, will continue to increase. With the stagnant capture fish production and potentially more production to be directed for direct consumption by people, there will be a gap between the demand for feed ingredients and the supply of traditional sources such as fish meal, fish oil and fresh/frozen low value fish. How effectively the gap can be filled might determine the future of the aquaculture industry and whether the increasing demand of people for fish can be met effectively. Therefore, responsible and effective use of feed ingredients from animal sources of marine origin is the key to achieve sustainable growth of aquaculture for food security and nutrition, livelihood development and economic growth in the region. This paper provides a global and regional picture of use of marine origin animal feed and feed ingredients in aquaculture. It also briefly discussed major issues on the use of marine origin animal feed and feed ingredients in aquaculture. It briefly introduced the FAO policy and its global and regional initiatives that promote responsible and efficient use of feed ingredients from marine animal origin.
Miao, W., Hasan, M., & Funge-Smith, S. (2015). FAO policies and initiatives promoting responsible and efficient use of feed ingredients from marine animal origin. In M. R. Catacutan, R. M. Coloso, & B. O. Acosta (Eds.), Development and Use of Alternative Dietary Ingredients or Fish Meal Substitutes in Aquaculture Feed Formulation : Proceedings of the ASEAN Regional Technical Consultation on Development and Use of Alternative Dietary Ingredients or Fish Meal Substitutes in Aquaculture Feed Formulation, 9-11 December 2014, Nay Pyi Taw, Myanmar (pp. 109-119). Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines: Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center.
PublisherAquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
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Book | Conference publication
Development and use of alternative ingredients or fish meal substitutes in aquaculture feed formulation: Proceedings of the ASEAN Regional Technical Consultation on Development and Use of Alternative Dietary Ingredients or Fish Meal Substitutes in Aquaculture Feed Formulation MR Catacutan, RM Coloso & BO Acosta (Eds.) - 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterRecognizing the need for a concerted effort to follow-up on this priority issue of the ASEAN on aquaculture feed development and utilization. SEAFDEC (Aquaculture Department and Secretariat) and the Government of Myanmar organized the 'Regional Technical Consultation (RTC) on development and Use of Alternative Dietary Ingredients or Fish Meal Substitutes in Aquaculture Feed Formulation'. The meeting was convened with the main purpose of providing a forum for charting the regional priorities and future directions on feed development, particularly on the use of alternative feed ingredients or protein substitutes. The specific objectives were to: (i) review the ASEAN-SEAFDEC member country status, constraints associated with developing alternative dietary ingredients for aquaculture feed; (ii) identify specific advances being made in the region with respect to the development of alternative aquaculture feed ingredients; and (iii) define approaches or initiatives supporting catch reduction of low-value/trash fish; (iv) formulate relevant policy recommendations (regional and country-specific) for effective development and utilization of aquaculture feeds; and (v) enhance cooperation among member countries and relevant stakeholders on initiatives that support sustainable aquaculture practices, particularly on feeds. This publication presents the outputs of the RTC. The country reports and review papers presented during the conference which are contained in this volume are cited individually.
Conference paperN Ishida, T Koshiishi, T Tsuzaki, S Yanagi, S Katayama, M Satoh & S Satoh - In MR Catacutan, RM Coloso & BO Acosta (Eds.), Development and Use of Alternative Dietary Ingredients or Fish Meal Substitutes in Aquaculture Feed Formulation … Ingredients or Fish Meal Substitutes in Aquaculture Feed Formulation, 9-11 December 2014, Nay Pyi Taw, Myanmar, 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterA non-fish meal diet using plant and/or animal protein materials for yellowtail, Seriola quinqueradiata was developed. Three kinds of non-fish meal diets and a control diet containing 50% fish meal were processed. In the non-fish meal diets, the fish meal was replaced with commercially available plant or animal materials and supplemented with taurine and other ingredients for maintaining palatability. These diets were fed to one year old yellowtail (body weight: 753±96 g) in net cages. No significant differences in growth, daily weight gain, daily feed rate, feed conversion ratio and protein efficiency ratio were observed among fish given the diets. Non-fish meal diets were processed in a factory and their biological characteristics were studied such as uptake, stomach evacuation rate, and disease resistance. In addition, the diet palatability of each substitute protein source for fish was examined and ingredients that enhanced palatability of the non-fish meal diets were identified. Non-fish meal diets have the potential to support the growth of one year old yellowtail.
Status on development and use of alternative dietary ingredients in aquaculture feed formulations in Viet Nam VA Tuan - In MR Catacutan, RM Coloso & BO Acosta (Eds.), Development and Use of Alternative Dietary Ingredients or Fish Meal Substitutes in Aquaculture Feed Formulation … Ingredients or Fish Meal Substitutes in Aquaculture Feed Formulation, 9-11 December 2014, Nay Pyi Taw, Myanmar, 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterThis paper reviewed fish catch production and estimated demand of aquafeed, fish meal, fish oil, soybean meal in Viet Nam for year 2013. Fish catch production was around 2.8 million metric tons (mt) while marine fish production was 1.9 million mt. Estimated marine trash fish production was 0.8 million mt with over 100 species including the dominant species anchovy (Stolephorus spp.), lizard fish (Saurida spp.) and pony fish (Leistognathus spp.). Approximately 0.5 million mt of marine trash fish was used for livestock, aquaculture and fish meal. Local marine fish meal consisting of protein content from 50 to 68% and catfish byproduct meal containing protein level from 50 to 60% were available. Based on FCR values of 5 major species including catfish, black tiger shrimp, white leg shrimp, Asian seabass, and snake head, aquafeed production was estimated at around 2.5 million mt. Marine fish oil/squid liver oil requirement was from 15.5 to 31 thousand mt. Fish meal demand was from 252 and 430 thousand mt. Almost all fish meal and marine fish oil used in aquafeed were imported. Moreover, soybean and other plant ingredients are potential alternative sources to replace fish meal and fish oil. Vietnamese farmers produced 168 thousand mt soybean while soybean demand amounts for aquafeed were from 693 to 1,140 thousand mt. In 2013, feedmills imported approximately 3 million mt of soybean meal (cake) from many countries in the world. Some other plant protein sources which were also imported, have good nutrient profiles but they contain some anti-nutritional factors. In the future, research on replacement of fish meal and fish oil with plant and animal by-product sources and feed additives for aquafeed should be studied. In particular, the management of local fish meal plants and capture fishery should be improved.