OIE initiatives on acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) and other aquatic animal diseases in Asia
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The World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) is an intergovernmental organization established in 1924 responsible for improving animal health and welfare worldwide to facilitate safe international trade of animals and animal products while avoiding unnecessary impediments to trade. OIE, as a reference organization of the World Trade Organization (WTO), works to set and update its international standards (OIE Codes and Manuals) regularly through transparent and democratic procedures. The Aquatic Code defines an OIE list of notifiable aquatic animal diseases according to the criteria for listing, which comprise consequences, spread and diagnosis. To be listed, a disease should meet the criteria of each characteristic defined in the Aquatic Code. The acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) has been officially included in the OIE-listed diseases since May 2015 and officially enforced since 1 January 2016. To fulfill its overall vision which can be summarized by its slogan Protect animals and Preserve our Future, the OIE Regional Representation in Tokyo, Japan and Sub-Regional Representation in Bangkok, Thailand, are working in concert to provide regionally adapted services to OIE Members so that surveillance and control of animal diseases in the region may be strengthened.
Kugita, H. (2016). OIE initiatives on acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) and other aquatic animal diseases in Asia. In R. V. Pakingking Jr., E. G. T. de Jesus-Ayson, & B. O. Acosta (Eds.), Addressing Acute Hepatopancreatic Necrosis Disease (AHPND) and Other Transboundary Diseases for Improved Aquatic Animal Health in Southeast Asia: Proceedings of the ASEAN Regional Technical Consultation on EMS/AHPND and Other Transboundary Diseases for Improved Aquatic Animal Health in Southeast Asia, 22-24 February 2016, Makati City, Philippines (pp. 11-15). Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines: Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center.
PublisherAquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
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Conference paperMG Bondad-Reantaso - In RV Pakingking Jr., EGT de Jesus-Ayson & BO Acosta (Eds.), Addressing Acute Hepatopancreatic Necrosis Disease (AHPND) and Other Transboundary Diseases for Improved Aquatic … Diseases for Improved Aquatic Animal Health in Southeast Asia, 22-24 February 2016, Makati City, Philippines, 2016 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterThe Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) and the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations Agricultural Outlook 2015-2024 reported that fisheries production worldwide is projected to expand by 19% between the 2012-14 base period and 2024, to reach 191 million metric tons (MT) and the main driver of this increase will be aquaculture, which is expected to reach 96 million MT by 2024, 38% higher than the base period (average 2012-14) level. Among the 7 key uncertainties that affect gains in productivity, the potential of animal disease outbreaks to affect aquaculture production and subsequently domestic and international markets are once again highlighted, although for the first time in this outlook. Another milestone document, the Blue frontiers: managing the environmental costs of aquaculture identified a number of fish health issues, including increased risk of the spread of pathogens and diseases with intensification, through increased movement of aquatic animals, inter-regional trade and introduction of new species and new strains, and through the use of trash fish or live feed; concerns on residues and development of drug resistant pathogens brought about by the abuse on the use antimicrobials and other veterinary drugs; limited availability of vaccines; environmental stressors that compromise the immune system; difficulties faced by developing countries in implementing international standards; and the need for legislation, enforcement and capacity building. The issues identified then and now are almost the same. Addressing animal health issues in aquaculture is very challenging because the sector is highly complex (with a wide range of diversity in terms of species, systems, practices and environment, each presenting different risks), its fluid environment, and the transboundary nature where fish is considered as one of the most traded commodity, aquatic animals require more attention in order to monitor their health: they are not visible except in tank holding conditions; they live in a complex and dynamic environment and feed consumption and mortalities are hidden under water. This paper looks at the status of a newly emerging disease of cultured shrimp, acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND), which has been recognized as the most important non-viral disease threat to cultured shrimp. In particular, this paper presents the highlights of the International Technical Seminar/Workshop: EMS/AHPND: Government, Scientist and Farmer Responses held from 22-24 June 2015 in Panama City, Panama, which was organized under the auspices of an FAO inter-regional project TCP/INT/3502: Reducing and Managing the Risks of AHPND of Cultured Shrimp, being participated by 11 countries, namely: Colombia, Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Panama and Peru from Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) region and India, Iran, the Philippines and Sri Lanka from the Asian region. The Panama EMS/AHPND June 2015 event aimed to provide a platform to improve the understanding of the disease through the lens of governments, scientists and producers and collectively generate practical management and control measures. More than 100 stakeholders from 21 countries representing the government, academe and producer sectors participated in the event. The highlights contain the latest available information at that time (June 2015) about AHPND including the current state of knowledge about the causative agent, the host and geographical distribution, detection methods, risk factors, management and actions of regional and international organizations.
Conference paperIC Liao, JJ Guo & MS Su - In JR Arthur, CR Lavilla-Pitogo & RP Subasinghe (Eds.), Use of Chemicals in Aquaculture in Asia : Proceedings of the Meeting on the Use of Chemicals in Aquaculture in Asia 20-22 May 1996, Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines, 2000 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterAquaculture in Taiwan has a history of more than three centuries. To satisfy consumer preferences, a wide variety of aquatic species, 71 in 1993, are being cultured in Taiwan. It is difficult to control diseases when many species are cultured and stocking densities are high. At present, it is important to manage the use and application of chemotherapeutants effectively. Many aquatic animal diseases fall under the category of potentially curable illnesses. These include diseases of bacterial, protozoan, fungal, and environmental etiologies. This paper summarizes the chemicals used in aquaculture, farm management practices, alternative disease prevention methods, national regulations, and the current research on chemical use for aquaculture in Taiwan.
Conference paperCR Lavilla-Pitogo - In B Dodet & OIE Scientific & Technical Department (Eds.), The OIE Global Conference on Aquatic Animal Health, Bergen, Norway, 9-12 October 2006, 2007 - KargerTraining has played a significant role in the development of capacity in aquatic animal health in the Asia-Pacific region where most specialists have fisheries or a background in biology rather than in veterinary medicine. Training courses offered by various organizations, national institutes, universities and the private sector are aimed at providing graduates with skills in disease diagnostics using molecular methods, histopathology, epidemiology, immunology, as well as in disease prevention and control methods. Most training programmes either focus on diseases affecting specific commodities, such as shrimp, marine fish or molluscs, or on diagnostic methods for pathogens such as viruses. Because of the need to train a large pool of geographically dispersed participants, innovative and cost-effective ways of delivery like online and on-site training should be encouraged as well as workshops preceding or following meetings and symposia. One important aspect to be addressed is the translation of training materials to facilitate knowledge transfer to the farm level. Since the inadequate level of aquatic animal health expertise in the Asia-Pacific affects worldwide aquaculture, partnerships between governments, various international organizations and academia should be strengthened in order to fill the training gap.