Shrimp pond effluents and water quality in Imbang River, Negros Occidental
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The contribution of shrimp farm effluents to the pollution load in Imbang River, Negros Occidental was measured during the period May 1993 to February 1995. Shrimp pond effluents were characterized and the pollution load estimated. The pond effluents had low average nitrite (0.0025 ppm) and nitrate (0.06 ppm) and optimum (for shrimp culture) pH 7.9, phosphate 0.15 ppm, dissolved oxygen 5.20 ppm, and salinity 23.3 ppt. Ammonia was 0.13 ppm on average in most farms, above the safe level for shrimp, and total suspended solids was 23 ppm, about 2.5x the allowed limit for effluents. Biochemical oxygen demand (20 ppm) and settleable solids (0.15 ppm) were still with acceptable limits. Residues of organochlorine pesticides were present at very low concentrations, well below the safe levels for aquatic life. Most of the pollution load came from the regular water exchanges over the 4-month crop cycle, at least every two weeks in low-density farms and more frequently in the high-density farms. The total draining of pond water at harvest contributed a minor load. Total solids from shrimp farms contributed a huge load, about 181,325 mt/yr. Total suspended solids contributed 1,285 mt/yr and settleable solids <1 mt/yr. The total BOD load was 154,367 kg/yr. The phosphate load was about 1,080 kg/yr, and the total nitrogen load was 1,225 kg/yr. The effects of effluent release from farms were localized. Upstream water quality and other uses of the river were not affected. Since most of the shrimp farms were located 1.5–2 km from the sea, the release of effluents during water exchange and at harvest did not adversely affect water quality downstream of these farms. Where such draining increased the levels of ammonia, phosphate, and total suspended solids in the river, the effect was significant only within 250 m from the release point, and the pollutants were dissipated about 550–800 m downstream The other water quality variables were at low levels in the pond effluents and did not affect the river water during draining. Often the concentrations of pollutants in the river were higher before than during draining of pond effluents. Stations upstream of the release sites of pond effluents often had high pollutant concentrations from other upstream sources.
Taberna, E. T. (2008). Shrimp pond effluents and water quality in Imbang River, Negros Occidental. In T. U. Bagarinao (Ed.), Research Output of the Fisheries Sector Program (Vol. 2. Reports on Fisheries and Aquaculture, pp. 60-70). Quezon City, Philippines: Bureau of Agricultural Research, Department of Agriculture.
PublisherBureau of Agricultural Research, Department of Agriculture
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Water quality in Imbang river, Negros Occidental: effluents and pollutant loads from agriculture, sugar mills, households, and shrimp farms GA Gonzales, HJ Gonzales, RC Sanares & ET Taberna - In TU Bagarinao (Ed.), Research Output of the Fisheries Sector Program, 2007 - Bureau of Agricultural Research, Department of AgricultureAn ecological assessment of Imbang River in Negros Occidental was undertaken from December 1992 to February 1995. The effluents from sugar mills, households, shrimp farms, sugarcane plantations and rice fields were characterized and their pollutant loads estimated. Water quality and invertebrate assemblages were analyzed at several sites along the river to determine the environmental status. Results showed significant seasonal and site variations in water quality along Imbang River. The dry season, coinciding with the milling season, was the more critical time of the year as water quality tended to deteriorate. The segments of the river near the sugar mills and households had the poorest water quality. Sugar mill effluents had high water temperature (average 33oC but as high as 50oC), low dissolved oxygen, high total solids, the highest settleable solids (average 2.5 and as high as 17 m/l), and the highest biochemical oxygen demand (average 259 ppm but as high as 14,800 ppm BOD). Domestic effluents had low pH, high ammonia, very high BOD, plus detergents or surfactants and high levels of fecal coliform bacteria. Agricultural runoff had high nitrate, high total solids, and the highest total suspended solids (average 296 ppm but as high as 5,095 ppm TSS). Shrimp ponds used saline water of average 23 ppt, and had the highest total solids (average 23,456 ppm and as high as 57,400 ppm). By far the major contributor of pollutant loads into Imbang River was agriculture, due to its huge areal extent and huge volume of water use and run-off. Agricultural run-off carried the highest annual loads of 7,858 kg phosphate; 6,495 kg ammonia; 794 kg nitrite; 67,212 kg nitrate; 16,987 metric tons settleable solids; 16,800,000 mt total solids, and 11,890,000 mt total suspended solids; but only 297 mt BOD. Sugar mill effluents had the highest BOD load (1,583 mt/yr) and also had high nutrient loads. Household effluents contributed the second largest loads of solids next to agriculture, and also added surfactants (966 kg/yr) and fecal coliforms into the river. The six shrimp farms at the lower reaches of Imbang River were a minor contributor of pollutants into the river, annually adding about 891 kg ammonia; 1,077 kg phosphate; and 181,325 mt total solids.
BookDD Baliao & S Tookwinas - 2002 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center; Association of Southeast Asian Nations
Series: Aquaculture extension manual; No. 35This 50-page manual puts together the best practices that SEAFDEC/AQD has developed with the Department of Fisheries in Thailand. These practices include the use of biomanipulators and greenwater system, the use of settling ponds with baffles and biofilters, the use of sludge collectors among others. These practices have been field-tested in Thailand, the Philippines, Myanmar and Viet Nam.
Conference paperMM Alcañices, RC Pagulayan & AC Mamaril - 2001 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center; Philippine Council for Aquatic and Marine Research and Development; Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic ResourcesThe environmental impact of cage culture on water quality of Lake Taal was assessed from March 1996 through February 1997. Three stations were considered namely: Balas, which serves as station 1 (non-cage area) and Sampaloc and Laurel, stations 2 and 3 (cage areas), respectively. Monthly water samples with two replicates were collected using a van Dorn sampler at 0, 5, 10 and 15-m depths in all stations. Below surface water from the inside of the cages was also collected. Water temperature, water transparency, pH, and conductivity were determined in situ. Dissolved oxygen, chloride, NO3, NH3, PO4, and total P were analyzed in the laboratory. Phytoplankton density and algal biomass (through cholorophyll a) and primary productivity indices were determined with the light-and-dark bottle method. Of the water quality parameters, conductivity and DO had significant differences between non-cage and cage areas. Conductivity gave significant difference (P<0.01) between control and cage area during the wet season. Highest conductivity value (2100 µ S/cm) was observed in station 3. Mean values of DO gave significant differences (P<0.05) in the different stations throughout the study period. A decrease of DO to 2.5 mg/1 was observed below 10-m depth around the cage areas. Analysis indicates that cage culture leads to oxygen depletion in the water column. The presence of cage structures decreased the flow rate resulting to weak circulation. The reduced water circulation in effect decreased the supply of oxygen and removal of toxic waste metabolites from the vicinity of the fish farm, and reduced the supply of plankton. These results suggest that the impact of cage culture in Lake Taal is minor but can alter the lake ecosystem if not properly managed. Zoning and continuous water quality monitoring are needed.