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    Philippine National Standard: Organic aquaculture 

    Bureau of Agriculture and Fisheries Standards - 2016 - Bureau of Agriculture and Fisheries Standards
    The Philippine National Standard (PNS) for Organic Aquaculture (PNS/BAFS 112:2016) was originally prepared and adopted in 2012. Organic aquaculture encourages polyculture production system, promotes the use of indigenous/endemic species under the extensive and semi-intensive culture systems, reduces/minimizes inputs of artificial ingredients, prohibits the use of genetically modified organisms (GMOs), and considers ecological conditions necessary for sustainable aquaculture production.

    The PNS for Organic Aquaculture was revised by the Technical Working Group (TWG) organized by the Bureau of Agriculture and Fisheries Standards (BAFS) through a Department of Agriculture (DA) Special Order No.476, Series of 2015. The TWG is composed of members representing the Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources (BFAR), Organic Certification Center of the Philippines (OCCP), Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center Aquaculture Department (SEAFDEC-AQD), Philippine Council for Agriculture, Aquatic and Natural Resources Research and Development (PCAARRD) and Central Luzon State University (CLSU). This PNS was presented and reviewed during the consultative meetings with the concerned stakeholders in Region I (Pangasinan) and Region XI (Davao City). Comments gathered during the consultations were carefully evaluated by the TWG and included accordingly in the final version of this standard. Drawn from the general principles of the Philippine National Standard on Organic Agriculture, this PNS on Organic Aquaculture attempts to cover the aquaculture production and postharvest operations in order to ensure the integrity of organic products. The requirements for the inclusion of Substances and Criteria for the development of the list of substances shall follow the Philippine National Standards for Organic Aquaculture and the Guidelines for the Production, Processing, Labelling and Marketing of Organically Produced Foods (GL 32-1999).

    The revision of this PNS was undertaken in order to achieve equivalence with the existing international standards and its future amendment, and takes into consideration the new developments and inclusion of the identified potential species for organic aquaculture. Thus, this PNS identifies minimum requirements on documentation, conversion to organic aquaculture, parallel production, selection of site, interaction with surrounding ecosystem, organic fertilization, aquatic plants, aquatic animal sources/origin, breeding and hatchery management, aquatic animal nutrition and feeding, aquatic animal health and welfare, harvesting, post-harvest handling, transport and processing, storage, and social aspects.
  • Book

    Philippine National Standard: Organic aquaculture feeds 

    Bureau of Agriculture and Fisheries Standards - 2016 - Bureau of Agriculture and Fisheries Standards
    The Bureau of Agriculture and Fisheries Standards (BAFS) in line with its mandate under Republic Act 10068 or the Organic Agriculture Act of 2010, initiated the development of Philippine National Standard (PNS) for Organic Aquaculture Feeds to address the needs of the organic aquaculture industry. It aims to provide minimum requirements for the production of organic feeds for organic aquaculture animals.

    The PNS for Organic Aquaculture Feeds was developed by the Technical Working Group (TWG) organized by the Bureau of Agriculture and Fisheries Standards (BAFS) through a Department of Agriculture (DA) Special Order No.183, Series of 2015. The TWG is composed of members representing the Bureau of Animal Industry (BAI), Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources (BFAR), Organic Certification Center of the Philippines (OCCP), Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center Aquaculture Department (SEAFDEC-AQD), Philippine Council for Agriculture, Aquatic and Natural Resources Research and Development (PCAARRD) and Central Luzon State University (CLSU). This PNS was presented and reviewed during the consultative meetings with the concerned stakeholders in Region I (Pangasinan), XI (Davao City) and NCR (Quezon City). Comments gathered during the consultations were carefully evaluated by the TWG and included accordingly in the final version of this standard. Drawn from the general principles of the PNS on Organic Aquaculture, this PNS on Organic Aquaculture Feeds attempts to cover the aquaculture feed formulation and preparation in order to ensure the integrity of organic products. The requirements for the inclusion of feed additives, processing aids and other ingredients and criteria for the development of the list of ingredients shall follow the PNS for Organic Aquaculture and Organic Agriculture.

    This PNS identifies the minimum requirements on the organic aquaculture feed products and forms, essential composition and quality factors (including raw materials, feed additives, processing aids and other ingredients), hygiene and handling, packaging and labeling, methods of sampling, examination and analysis and definition of defectives.
  • Book

    Philippine National Standard: Dried anchovies 

    Bureau of Agriculture and Fisheries Standards - 2016 - Bureau of Agriculture and Fisheries Standards
    This PNS for dried anchovies aims to provide a common understanding on the scope of the standard, product description, process description, essential composition and quality factors, food additives, contaminants, hygiene and handling, packaging and labeling, methods of sampling, examination and analysis, definition of defectives and lot acceptance.
  • Book

    Philippine National Standard: Pasteurized crab meat 

    Bureau of Agriculture and Fisheries Standards - 2016 - Bureau of Agriculture and Fisheries Standards
    This PNS for pasteurized crab meat aims to provide a common understanding on the scope of the standard, product description, process description, essential composition and quality factors, food additives, contaminants, hygiene and handling, packaging and labeling, methods of sampling, examination and analysis, definition of defectives and lot acceptance.
  • Book

    Philippine National Standard: Live mangrove crab 

    Bureau of Agriculture and Fisheries Standards - 2016 - Bureau of Agriculture and Fisheries Standards
    This PNS for live mangrove crab aims to provide a common understanding on the scope of the standard, product description, process description, essential composition and quality factors, food additives, contaminants, hygiene and handling, packaging and labeling, methods of sampling, examination and analysis, definition of defectives and lot acceptance.
  • Book

    Philippine National Standard: Live, chilled/frozen grouper 

    Bureau of Agriculture and Fisheries Standards - 2009 - Bureau of Agriculture and Fisheries Standards
    This Philippine National Standard for live, chilled/frozen grouper identifies the Philippine species of grouper, specifies their essential composition and quality factors (including size classification and quality characteristics), provides the presentation, packaging and labeling requirements, indicates the methods sampling, examination and analyses, and defines the types of defectives. It is hoped that this standard accomplishes our two pronged goal of protecting consumer health and making the Philippine fish and fishery products globally competitive.
  • Book chapter

    Fish catch and fisher incomes before and after installation of artificial reefs in Panguil Bay, northern Mindanao 

    HP Moncay & LP Cablo - In TU Bagarinao (Ed.), Research Output of the Fisheries Sector Program, 2007 - Bureau of Agricultural Research, Department of Agriculture
    Two artificial reef complexes (10 modules) were deployed in Panguil Bay in 1990. The effect of the ARs on the fish catch and fisher incomes was studied from March 1993 to April 1994 in Purok 3, 4, 6, and 7 in San Antonio, Ozamis City and in Poblacion 1 and 4 in Clarin, Misamis Occidental. Clarin‘s 40 full-time fisher respondents had 50 outrigger boats, all without engines, and used 181 fishing gears, 93% of them simple or multiple hand lines. San Antonio‘s 80 full-time fisher respondents had 87 non-motor boats and 44 motor boats and used 489 fishing gears, 86% of them bottom-set gill nets. The fishers worked an average of 19 days a month and four hours a day. The fishing grounds were mostly between 3 and 3.5 km from shore, and the gears were operated in waters about 50 m deep. Of about 17,000 kg of fish harvested in Clarin and San Antonio over one year, 33% came from bottom-set gill nets, 32% from bottom-set long lines, and 28% from multiple hand lines. The catch included a great variety of fishes, plus shrimps and cuttlefish; threadfins made up 13% of the total volume by weight, slipmouths 10%, and sardines 7%. The catch ranged from 2,382 kg valued at P75,862 in Purok 3 to 3,212 kg worth P97,303 in Poblacion 1, but in Purok 7, the catch was 2,965 kg worth P123,195. The average annual revenues of fishers was P24,191 in San Antonio and P11,472 in Clarin, corresponding to monthly earnings of P2,016 and P956, respectively. The revenues and net incomes were low, but the returns on investment were high (78–300%). The fishing boat, with or without engine and gas, was the major expense incurred by the fishers. Between 1989 and 1993–94, the volume of fish catch increased two-fold in San Antonio and four-fold in Clarin. The average annual income of fishers in the six villages increased by 10–60% after the ARs, and the average annual expenses also increased by 5–30%. In 1993-94, the computed return on investment was 105% in San Antonio and 274% in Clarin, higher than in 1989.
  • Book chapter

    The squid fishery in Carigara Bay, Samar: catch of Photololigo duvaucelii by squid jigs and Sepioteuthis lessoniana by hanging squid pot 

    JO Dickson & BR Ricafrente - In T Bagarinao (Ed.), Research Output of the Fisheries Sector Program, 2007 - Bureau of Agricultural Research, Department of Agriculture
    The squid fishery in Carigara Bay used the following gears: hanging squid pots, squid jigs, drive-in net, and spear by slingshot. Hanging squid pot operations were concentrated in the municipal waters of Capoocan and Carigara and targeted Sepioteuthis lessoniana. During the one-week survey in Carigara Bay, 705 hanging squid pots with markers were found offshore of barangays Culasian, Pinamopoan, Cabul-an and Talarian, all in Capoocan town. Other operators in Carigara, Babatngon, Barugo, and San Miguel towns hung their squid pots from fish shelters (arong) offshore of Carigara and Capoocan towns. Test fishing operations were conducted in Carigara Bay from January to December 1992 using the hanging squid pot, squid jigs, and a squid cast net. A 16 hp motorized boat F/B Ellah Meh was used during the fishing operations. A total of 162 days test fishing with 15 hanging squid pots yielded 125.7 kg of the longfin squid Sepioteuthis 1essoniana. Sixty nights of fishing with the ordinary squid jig yielded 97 kg of Indian squid Photololigo duvaucelii. Two test fishing operations with the squid cast net yielded no squid at all. The S. lessoniana (75-500 g body weight) caught by pots were larger than the P. duvaucelii (7-270 g) caught by jigs.
  • Book chapter

    Improved production of mud crabs Scylla serrata in marine pens with used tires and bamboo tubes as shelters 

    MC Basaya - In T Bagarinao (Ed.), Research Output of the Fisheries Sector Program, 2007 - Bureau of Agricultural Research, Department of Agriculture
    One serious problem in mud crab farming systems is cannibalism and low survival, but this can been offset by provision of shelters. Two types of shelters were tested on mud crabs grown in bamboo pens set in a mangrove area in Tiniguiban Cove in Puerto Princesa. Six pens, each 3 m x 3 m in area, were built side by side (the whole array 9 m x 6 m in area). Two pens were provided bamboo tubes, two had used tires, and two had both shelter types. The bamboo tubes were about 46 cm long and 13 cm in diameter, open on both ends, and each with a node retained as partition. The bamboo tubes were laid in one layer at the middle of the pens, 48 tubes in each of the two pens. The used tires were 50 cm in diameter, placed 20 cm apart in one layer in the middle of the pens, 12 tires in each of two pens. In the two pens that had both shelter types, half the number of bamboo tubes and used tires were laid out. All shelters were tied and did not move off the bottom. Juvenile crabs of 46 g body weight were stocked at 63/pen or 7/m2. The crabs were fed chopped trash fish at 5% of body weight daily at 0800 h and 1600 h. Mud crabs in the pens with bamboo tubes as shelters had the best survival (79%), weight gain (81 g), net production (4.5 kg/pen), and feed conversion ratio (4.9), as well as net income (P544,202/ha-yr) and return on investment (48%). The results clearly indicated that bamboo tubes were better shelter for juvenile mud crabs than used tires. Bamboo tubes were presumably more familiar to mud crabs reared in bamboo pens. Having node partitions in the middle, the bamboo tubes had smaller and safer hiding places. These shelters effectively reduced crowding, aggression, and cannibalism, and thus increased the survival and growth of mud crabs. The used tires evidently did not provide a good shelter configuration nor sufficient protection for mud crabs in bamboo pens.
  • Book chapter

    The fish processing industry in Central Luzon and the processors' assessment of the extension program of the Department of Agriculture 

    MS Morata - In T Bagarinao (Ed.), Research Output of the Fisheries Sector Program, 2007 - Bureau of Agricultural Research, Department of Agriculture
    A survey was done in 1992 of 242 fish processors in Region III or Central Luzon: 57 in Bataan, 39 in Bulacan, 24 in Nueva Ecija, 45 in Pampanga, 41 in Tarlac, and 36 in Zambales. The fish processors were engaged in three major fish processing enterprises: fish smoking (52%), fish drying (17%), and fish fermentation (31%). The products were smoked fish ‘tinapa’, dried fish ‘daeng’, fish paste ‘bagoong’, rice-fish paste ‘buro’, and fish sauce ‘patis’. Most of the processors in Zambales, Bataan, and Bulacan produced bagoong; ‘buro’ was produced only in Pampanga. Of the processors, 105 were small-scale operators, most of them in Pampanga, Bataan, and Bulacan, who had average capital of P11,000, worked an average of 3 days a week, and processed an average of 5,000 kg of fish a year. The 90 medium-scale processors had average capital of P20,000 and handled between 5,000 and 20,000 kg of fish a year, 5 days a week. The 47 large-scale processors, mostly in Zambales, Bataan, and Tarlac, invested an average of P94,000, and handled more than 20,000 kg of fish a year, seven days a week. The 242 fish processors in Region III in 1992 employed 501 people, 47% of them family members. The total production of processed fish products was about 73,000 kg a month, including about 21,511 kg ‘tinapa’, 4,790 kg ‘daeng’, and 46,634 kg ‘bagoong’. Processors in Zambales fermented the most fish, about 23,000 kg/month, followed by those in Bulacan. Among those in fish smoking, Bataan processors produced the biggest volume of 5,900 kg/month. Fish drying was done only in Bataan and Bulacan, and Bataan processors produced about 2,800 kg/month. The fish processors in Region III sold their produce three ways: wholesale, retail, and contract buying. They followed a simple marketing plan, using outlets in nearby towns and cities, including Metro Manila. For six months of operation, the cost was lowest in fish smoking and highest in fish drying. Gross sales was also lowest in fish smoking, but highest in ‘bagoong’-making. Net profit was lowest in fish smoking and highest in ‘bagoong’-making. Return on investment was 38% in fish smoking, 41% in ‘bagoong’-making, but only 19% in fish drying. More than one-half of the processors earned incomes of P20,000–35,000 a month, one-fifth earned less, but one-fourth earned more.

    Fish processors in Region III in 1992 were on average 46 years old; nearly 80% were 26–55 years old and only two were younger than 26 years. There were more women than men in fish processing, particularly in Bataan, and about 93% were married. The respondents had formal education, but 60% did not go beyond elementary school. The respondents had considerable experience in fish processing, 60% of them having been in the business for 5–20 years, and 19% of them for even longer. Many reported household expenditures of P1,000–3,000 a month, but some also as high as P6,000–7,000 a month. The processors owned household appliances and furniture, and a few owned motorized boats.

    The Department of Agriculture provided extension services and credit to fish processors in Region III. Services included technical assistance, direct consultation, field visits, lectures, demonstrations, training, seminar, and preparation of feasibility study when availing of loans. Most fish processors in Bulacan considered extension services important, but most of those in Nueva Ecija were indifferent to extension services, apparently because they already had the needed knowledge and skills. In Pampanga, the older processors and those with greater investment considered extension services very important. In Zambales, processors with more experience required less extension services. In Bataan, gender, education level, investment, civil status, and income significantly influenced the processors’ assessment of the importance of extension services and the extent of their participation in the government’s extension program. Women considered it very important to avail of extension services, especially those who were married and those with little formal education.
  • Book chapter

    Giant squid Thysanoteuthis rhombus caught by jigs in Calauag Bay, southeastern Luzon 

    JO Dickson & RV Ramiscal - In T Bagarinao (Ed.), Research Output of the Fisheries Sector Program, 2007 - Bureau of Agricultural Research, Department of Agriculture
    Test fishing for the giant squid Thysanoteuthis rhombus using large jigs was conducted in selected areas around Alabat Island, Quezon Province from May 1991 to October 1992. A total of 92 fishing days and 425.3 fishing hours were successfully completed and 1,650 jigs were set. The total catch was 82 giant squids of total weight 412 kg. Catch per unit effort was on average 0.02 kg/jig-hour or 5 squids/100 jigs, but higher from July to September. Capture of the giant squid by jigs was very seasonal, only from June to October. During these months, fish aggregating shelters were installed to catch pelagic fishes, and these shelters may have attracted the giant squid to Calauag Bay. The sample of 82 giant squids adds considerable information to the biology of this species in Philippine waters. The smallest specimen, caught in August 1991, was 23 cm in mantle length and 750 g in weight. The largest specimen, caught in September 1992, was a male 69 cm in mantle length and 10.3 kg in weight. Of the 66 specimens examined, 31 were males and 35 were females. About 52% of the specimens were sexually mature, 30% were maturing, and the rest were immature. Of the 61 stomachs dissected, 20 were empty, six were full or 3/4 full, and the rest were in between. The giant squid was a fish eater, almost all stomachs containing fish bones, spines, scales, or digested fish meat.
  • Book chapter

    Bacterial loads in hatcheries and virulence of Vibrio spp. to larvae of the tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon 

    JL Torres - In T Bagarinao (Ed.), Research Output of the Fisheries Sector Program, 2007 - Bureau of Agricultural Research, Department of Agriculture
    Shrimp hatcheries are high-density systems and are prone to diseases. A small-scale and a large-scale hatchery for the tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon in Iloilo, Philippines were monitored over two months for water quality and shrimp survival. Water quality (water temperature, pH, salinity, dissolved oxygen, and specific gravity) was not significantly different between the two hatcheries. However, the small hatchery seemed to favor survival of eggs to early postlarval stages, whereas the large hatchery favored the survival of late postlarvae. The normal microflora and bacterial loads of tiger shrimp eggs, larvae, postlarvae, and rearing water were determined to identify the dominant bacteria and potential pathogens. Shrimp eggs harbored the lowest heterotrophic bacterial counts. The counts increased from the nauplii to the mysis stages, decreased during the mysis stage, and then gradually increased in the older larvae. Bacterial loads in the rearing water reflected those in raw sea water and reservoir-aged sea water. Vibrio, Pseudomonas, and Aeromonas were not detected in eggs but were found in postlarvae. Ubiquitous in sea water, these bacteria increased with the build-up of organic matter. The bacterial load in the water adversely affected larval survival. Forty bacterial strains were isolated from tiger shrimp eggs, larvae, postlarvae, from the feeds, and from the rearing water. These were tested for biochemical characteristics and segregated into eight groups or genera. Six genera were found in the mysis and five genera in the postlarvae. The Vibrio species were dominant. Only Escherichia spp. were present in feeds, whereas five genera were present in the rearing water. Only Vibrio and Pseudomonas were present in both larvae and water. Moraxella, Aeromonas, and Klebsiella were found in larvae but not in rearing water. Micrococcus and coryneforms were found only in rearing water. Four Vibrio isolates were tested for virulence against shrimp postlarvae at inoculation densities of 102 and 107 cfu/ml. The four Vibrio species caused mortality of postlarvae, and more at the higher inoculation density. The most virulent was Vibrio anguillarum—30% of postlarvae died after 24 h exposure to a bacterial density of 102 cfu/ml, and all larvae died after 48 h at 107 cfu/ml. Shrimp hatcheries must have protocols for hygiene and sanitation and for disease prevention and control.
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    Domestic effluents and pollution in Imbang River, Negros Occidental 

    GA Gonzales - In T Bagarinao (Ed.), Research Output of the Fisheries Sector Program, 2007 - Bureau of Agricultural Research, Department of Agriculture
    Domestic effluents, or waste waters from human settlements, were sampled from eight stations along Imbang River in Negros Occidental from July 1993 to February 1995. Three types of domestic waste waters were produced by communities along Imbang River. Waste waters from clothes washing, house cleaning, and bathing, including washings of domestic animals and holding pens and run-off from rains and storms were conveyed by open canals and ditches to the river. This type of domestic effluents were well aerated and had the least potential to degrade the rivers. Waste waters from kitchens and markets carried large volumes of food scraps and other solid wastes, were unsightly, and smelled bad from the decomposition of garbage. Overflows from septic tanks were the most objectionable domestic effluents with offensive visual and olfactory properties. Domestic effluents had pH 4–7.6, dissolved oxygen of 0.5–7.2 ppm, and biochemical oxygen demand ranging from 2 to 240 ppm. The overflows from septic tanks were of the worst quality, with BOD 20x greater than household washings, and 6x more than kitchen and market effluents. Fecal coliform bacteria made up 93% of the total coliforms in the septic tank overflows, 86% in kitchen and market waste waters, and 39% in household washings. The domestic effluents from the communities around Imbang River had higher than allowable levels of BOD and solids. The 11 barangays with 16,486 households and 85,535 people loaded about 3,4000 m3 of waste water into the river every day. Along with the waste water were 180 mt/yr of BOD, 590 mt/yr of total solids, plus large quantities of nutrients, surfactants, and fecal coliform bacteria.
  • Book chapter

    Households, agriculture, industry, fishing, and fish farming along Imbang River, Negros Occidental 

    RC Sanares - In T Bagarinao (Ed.), Research Output of the Fisheries Sector Program, 2007 - Bureau of Agricultural Research, Department of Agriculture
    Interviews were conducted among respondents identified from the households, agriculture farms, sugar mills, and fish farms along the whole stretch of Imbang River, Malisbog River, and Muyao Creek, down to Barangay Balaring at the coast of Silay City in Negros Occidental. Among the 1,073 households, 11% used river water for washing clothes, but 20% also used the rivers for disposal of waste waters, 11% for human wastes, and 13% for animal wastes. Among the 30 respondents from the agriculture sector, 70% discharged water into the river. The two sugar mills in the area treated waste waters partially before release into the rivers; one sugar mill also released wastes in a nearby rice field. Milling wastes such as bagasse, molasses, and mud press were reused and not dumped into the river. Imbang River was both the water source and wastewater sink for seven fish farms.
  • Book chapter

    Yield and agar quality of three red seaweed Gracilaria species grown in tanks at three salinities 

    MSR Ferrer & AN Marasigan - In T Bagarinao (Ed.), Research Output of the Fisheries Sector Program, 2007 - Bureau of Agricultural Research, Department of Agriculture
    Gracilaria changii, G. firma and G. tenuistipitata were collected from the eastern coast of Sorsogon in southeastern Philippines and grown in concrete tanks at the SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department in Iloilo in May-June and in September-October 1994 at a stocking density of 1 kg/m2 and at three salinities (15, 25, and 35 ppt). In the first run, the highest specific growth rates per day were 2.5% at 25 ppt for G. changii, 3.6% at 35 ppt for G. firma, and 3.2% at 15 ppt for G. tenuistipitata. In the second run, the highest daily growth rates were 1.4% for G. changii, 1.2% for G. firma, and 3.3% for G. tenuistipitata, all at 15 ppt. Nutrient and light limitation in the second run led to lower and even negative growth rates. Gracilaria changii and G. firma were euryhaline but grew best at 25–35 ppt; G.tenuistipitata was not euryhaline and grew best at 15 ppt. The highest growth rates in tanks were at salinities close to those in the natural habitat: G. changii at 25 ppt, G. firma at 35 ppt, and G. tenuistipitata at 15 ppt. The estimated potential production (dry weight kg/m2-yr) in tanks was 1.65 kg G. changii at 25 ppt, 2.49 kg G. firma at 35 ppt, and 2.35 kg G. tenuistipitata at 15 ppt.

    Agar yields from three Gracilaria species varied from 5% to 23%, on average lowest in G. tenuistipitatata, and were generally higher at 25 ppt and 35 ppt than at 15 ppt. Agar gel strengths were also strongly affected by salinity and were highest at 35 ppt. Gracilaria tenuistipitata had very high gel strength (average 782 g/cm2 but as high as 1,082 g/cm2 comparable to agarose), well above the specified 750 g/cm2 for the international market. Gracilaria changii and G. firma had average gel strengths of 516 and 558 g/cm2, well within the range (400–600 g/cm2) for commercial agar used in the food industry. The sulfate contents were lower at 15 ppt and were even 0% in several instances, especially in G. tenuistipitata. The gelling temperature of 32°C and melting temperature of 97.3°C qualifies G. tenuistipitata for the international market. Gracilaria changii and G. firma had melting temperatures of 93–95°C but gelling temperatures of just 29°C. Farming techniques for these seaweeds should be developed to produce enough raw material for profitable commercial processing.
  • Book chapter

    Transplantation, hatchery, and grow-out of window-pane oyster Placuna placenta in Guimaras and Iloilo 

    SS Garibay, SN Golez & AS Unggui - In T Bagarinao (Ed.), Research Output of the Fisheries Sector Program, 2007 - Bureau of Agricultural Research, Department of Agriculture
    The windowpane oyster Placuna placenta (local name kapis) used to be harvested in large quantities and support a shellcraft industry in the Philippines, particularly in Panay Island. But the fishery and the industry declined markedly by the 1990s. Studies were conducted to transplant kapis and also to develop hatchery techniques for it in an effort to counter the population depletion. Kapis with average shell heights of 7 cm and 10 cm were transplanted from Roxas City in northern Panay Island and from Oton, Iloilo in southern Panay to Taklong Island in Guimaras during the rainy season (July–November) and the dry season (February–June). Survival of the transplants was higher during the dry season (57–60%) than during the rains (35–48%). Sexually mature kapis 10 cm in shell height were induced to spawn by temperature manipulation, water level manipulation, and use of ultravioletirradiated sea water. Spawning was successfully induced by raising the water temperature to 29±0.5oC. Eggs measured 45 μm on average, and fecundity was 5,000–10,000 per female. Kapis larvae were reared on a combination of the microalgae Isochrysis galbana, Tetraselmis sp., and Chaetoceros calcitrans, maintained at a density of 100,000 cells/ml. Three water treatment schemes were tested for larval rearing: chlorination, ultraviolet irradiation, and filtration (control). Larvae survived to the umbo veliger stage (180 μm, day 10) in chlorinated sea water whereas mass mortality occurred at the straight-hinge stage (days 4–) in both UV-treated and filtered sea water.
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    Grow-out of the tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon in floating net cages in Batan Bay, northern Panay 

    JG Genodepa, MJ Sanoy & G Banehit - In T Bagarinao (Ed.), Research Output of the Fisheries Sector Program, 2007 - Bureau of Agricultural Research, Department of Agriculture
    The effects of two stocking densities and two feed combinations on growth, survival and production of the giant tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon in floating net cages were studied in an attempt to refine the existing technology on cage culture of tiger shrimp for the benefit of small- and medium-scale fish farmers. Four treatments were tested, replicated in time: stocking density of 100 shrimp/m2, feeding with 70% commercial shrimp pellets P and 30% 'trash fish' F; 100 shrimp/m2 and 50% P + 50% F; 200 shrimp/m2 and 70% P + 30% F; and 200 shrimp/m2 and 50% P + 50% F. Harvested after 93–95 d, the shrimps at the lower density treatments were significantly larger and had greater proportion of good sizes (>18 g body weight). Although the combination of 70% P + 30% F resulted in better growth, the combination of 50% P + 50% F resulted in more good-size shrimps. Survival, production, and gross income were not significantly different among treatments. None of the treatments in this study was economically viable. Gross income was very low due to poor growth and survival, mostly due to luminous vibriosis, then a new disease that eventually wiped out many shrimp hatcheries and ponds around Panay Island.
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    Grow-out of milkfish in net-walled marine pens in La Union 

    ND Domenden - In T Bagarinao (Ed.), Research Output of the Fisheries Sector Program, 2007 - Bureau of Agricultural Research, Department of Agriculture
    Grow-out of milkfish in 125 m2 net-walled marine pens was tested in Santo Tomas Cove, La Union at three stocking densities of 6, 9, and 12 fish/m2 and using commercial feed (crumbles and pellets) with 25–30% crude protein. After 115 days, survival of milkfish in marine pens was 92–97%. Fish stocked at 12/m2 or 1,500/pen grew to average weights of 286 g, larger than the fish stocked at lower densities. Feed conversion ratio was 2.3 at the highest density and worse at the lower densities. Costs and returns of milkfish grow-out in marine pens at three densities showed that feeds were the most costly component (55–69%) of production. The milkfish harvest was equivalent to about 33 mt/ha at the stocking of 120,000 fish/ha. Only at this high density was adequate profit made for a 48% return on investment per crop. Two crops are possible in the Ilocos region during the dry season from November to June. Grow-out of milkfish in marine pens can be improved if seed and feeds could be procured at lower cost.
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    Adaptation of integrated fish-duck-pig farming system in Leyte 

    G Alcober - In T Bagarinao (Ed.), Research Output of the Fisheries Sector Program, 2007 - Bureau of Agricultural Research, Department of Agriculture
    Adaptation of a fish-duck-pig integrated farming system was conducted at the Busay Freshwater Experimental Farm in Babatngon, Leyte. Genetically improved farmed tilapia (GIFT) and common carp (at a ratio of 4:1) were stocked at densities of 3/m2 and 6/m2 in four earthen ponds; they were not given any commercial feed. Animal houses were built over the ponds and stocked with mallard ducks at a density of 375/ha, and piglets at 30/ha; they were given commercial feeds daily. After 154 days, the farming system produced a net yield of 1,685 kg fish/ha at a stocking density of 3/m2 and 2,808 kg/ha at 6/m2. Since water quality was not adversely affected, the higher stocking density of 6/m2 is a viable option. This farming system can be further improved and refined for better production and higher incomes.
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    Shrimp pond effluents and water quality in Imbang River, Negros Occidental 

    ET Taberna - In T Bagarinao (Ed.), Research Output of the Fisheries Sector Program, 2007 - Bureau of Agricultural Research, Department of Agriculture
    The contribution of shrimp farm effluents to the pollution load in Imbang River, Negros Occidental was measured during the period May 1993 to February 1995. Shrimp pond effluents were characterized and the pollution load estimated. The pond effluents had low average nitrite (0.0025 ppm) and nitrate (0.06 ppm) and optimum (for shrimp culture) pH 7.9, phosphate 0.15 ppm, dissolved oxygen 5.20 ppm, and salinity 23.3 ppt. Ammonia was 0.13 ppm on average in most farms, above the safe level for shrimp, and total suspended solids was 23 ppm, about 2.5x the allowed limit for effluents. Biochemical oxygen demand (20 ppm) and settleable solids (0.15 ppm) were still with acceptable limits. Residues of organochlorine pesticides were present at very low concentrations, well below the safe levels for aquatic life. Most of the pollution load came from the regular water exchanges over the 4-month crop cycle, at least every two weeks in low-density farms and more frequently in the high-density farms. The total draining of pond water at harvest contributed a minor load. Total solids from shrimp farms contributed a huge load, about 181,325 mt/yr. Total suspended solids contributed 1,285 mt/yr and settleable solids <1 mt/yr. The total BOD load was 154,367 kg/yr. The phosphate load was about 1,080 kg/yr, and the total nitrogen load was 1,225 kg/yr. The effects of effluent release from farms were localized. Upstream water quality and other uses of the river were not affected. Since most of the shrimp farms were located 1.5–2 km from the sea, the release of effluents during water exchange and at harvest did not adversely affect water quality downstream of these farms. Where such draining increased the levels of ammonia, phosphate, and total suspended solids in the river, the effect was significant only within 250 m from the release point, and the pollutants were dissipated about 550–800 m downstream The other water quality variables were at low levels in the pond effluents and did not affect the river water during draining. Often the concentrations of pollutants in the river were higher before than during draining of pond effluents. Stations upstream of the release sites of pond effluents often had high pollutant concentrations from other upstream sources.

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