Households, agriculture, industry, fishing, and fish farming along Imbang River, Negros Occidental
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Interviews were conducted among respondents identified from the households, agriculture farms, sugar mills, and fish farms along the whole stretch of Imbang River, Malisbog River, and Muyao Creek, down to Barangay Balaring at the coast of Silay City in Negros Occidental. Among the 1,073 households, 11% used river water for washing clothes, but 20% also used the rivers for disposal of waste waters, 11% for human wastes, and 13% for animal wastes. Among the 30 respondents from the agriculture sector, 70% discharged water into the river. The two sugar mills in the area treated waste waters partially before release into the rivers; one sugar mill also released wastes in a nearby rice field. Milling wastes such as bagasse, molasses, and mud press were reused and not dumped into the river. Imbang River was both the water source and wastewater sink for seven fish farms.
Sanares, R. C. (2008). Households, agriculture, industry, fishing, and fish farming along Imbang River, Negros Occidental. In T. U. Bagarinao (Ed.), Research Output of the Fisheries Sector Program (Vol. 2. Reports on Fisheries and Aquaculture, pp. 83-86). Quezon City, Philippines: Bureau of Agricultural Research, Department of Agriculture.
PublisherBureau of Agricultural Research, Department of Agriculture
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Book chapterGA Gonzales - In T Bagarinao (Ed.), Research Output of the Fisheries Sector Program, 2007 - Bureau of Agricultural Research, Department of AgricultureDomestic effluents, or waste waters from human settlements, were sampled from eight stations along Imbang River in Negros Occidental from July 1993 to February 1995. Three types of domestic waste waters were produced by communities along Imbang River. Waste waters from clothes washing, house cleaning, and bathing, including washings of domestic animals and holding pens and run-off from rains and storms were conveyed by open canals and ditches to the river. This type of domestic effluents were well aerated and had the least potential to degrade the rivers. Waste waters from kitchens and markets carried large volumes of food scraps and other solid wastes, were unsightly, and smelled bad from the decomposition of garbage. Overflows from septic tanks were the most objectionable domestic effluents with offensive visual and olfactory properties. Domestic effluents had pH 4–7.6, dissolved oxygen of 0.5–7.2 ppm, and biochemical oxygen demand ranging from 2 to 240 ppm. The overflows from septic tanks were of the worst quality, with BOD 20x greater than household washings, and 6x more than kitchen and market effluents. Fecal coliform bacteria made up 93% of the total coliforms in the septic tank overflows, 86% in kitchen and market waste waters, and 39% in household washings. The domestic effluents from the communities around Imbang River had higher than allowable levels of BOD and solids. The 11 barangays with 16,486 households and 85,535 people loaded about 3,4000 m3 of waste water into the river every day. Along with the waste water were 180 mt/yr of BOD, 590 mt/yr of total solids, plus large quantities of nutrients, surfactants, and fecal coliform bacteria.
Agroindustrial waste products as sources of cheap substrates for algal single-cell protein production MT Zafaralla, LR Vidal & LE Travina - In IJ Dogma Jr., GC Trono Jr. & RA Tabbada (Eds.), Culture and use of algae in Southeast Asia. Proceedings of the Symposium on Culture and Utilization of Algae in Southeast Asia, 8-11 December 1981, Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines, 1990 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterFour types of agroindustrial waste products were tested for their suitability as substrates for Chlorella single-cell protein production. Based on cell density on day 7, unsterilized rice straw filtrate, Tris-buffered inorganic medium (control), unsterilized slop (1%) and unsterilized rice hull filtrate were suitable culture media. Dry weight yield after two weeks did not vary among media. Gross protein content of algae was highest in rice straw with or without sterilization. Substrates for algal SCP production are assessed on the basis of their nutrient content, pH, and hygienic acceptability.
Conference paperCR De la Cruz - In TU Bagarinao & EEC Flores (Eds.), Towards sustainable aquaculture in Southeast Asia and Japan: Proceedings of the Seminar-Workshop on Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia, Iloilo City, Philippines, 26-28 July, 1994, 1995 - SEAFDEC Aquaculture DepartmentIntegrated aquaculture-agriculture systems are more common in fresh water than in brackish water. Nevertheless, southeast Asian countries already have considerable research and experience in brackishwater integrated farming systems. In the Philippines, the effects of animal wastes on water quality and production of fish have been studied: chicken wastes on the mixed culture of milkfish Chanos chanos, tilapia Oreochromis niloticus, and shrimp Penaeus indicus; chicken and cattle manures on P. monodon and Artemia; and swine wastes on tilapia O. mossambicus. In Indonesia, about 60 hectares of fish farms have crops (pumpkin, spinach, cassava, maize, and chili) or livestock (cattle, goat, sheep, chicken, and duck) grown on the dikes of milkfish ponds. In Vietnam, culture of the giant prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii, Scylla serrata and marine shrimps has been integrated with coastal rice farming. Aquaculture-silviculture is a flourishing venture in Vietnam and Indonesia and gaining ground with experimental sites in Thailand and the Philippines. The seaweed Gracilaria has been cultured with fishes and shrimps in Taiwan, Vietnam, Thailand, and the Philippines. The production of Artemia cysts and biomass has been integrated with salt-making and fish or shrimp farming in the Philippines and Thailand. Production inputs and outputs from these integrated farming systems vary widely and socioeconomic information is nil. It is imperative to conduct follow-up research and evaluation of each system in terms of production and socioeconomics.