Biology and hatchery of mangrove crabs Scylla spp.
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This manual includes the biology of crab (Scylla serrata, S. tranquebarica, and S. olivacea), and describes principles and procedures for spawning the mature crabs and rearing the zoea to ‘fly’ size crabs. It focuses on the hatchery rearing of S. serrata as the farming of this species is more economically viable than the two other species. The techniques may be modified depending on the conditions or problems encountered in a specific site.
Quinitio, E. T., Parado-Estepa, F. D., & dela Cruz-Huervana, J. J. (2018). Biology and hatchery of mangrove crabs Scylla spp. (3rd Ed.). Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines: Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center. http://hdl.handle.net/10862/3330
- Biology of Scylla spp.
- Crab anatomy
- Taxonomy and identification
- Life history and habitat
- Food and feeding
- Molting and regeneration
- Sexual maturity
- Embryonic development and hatching
- Larval development
- Hatchery Operations
- Setting up the hatchery
- Preparation of tanks and seawater
- Production of natural food
- Management of broodstock
- Larval rearing
- Culture of megalopa
- Harvesting, packing, and transport of crablets
- Common problems and possible solutions
- Economics of mangrove crab hatchery
PublisherAquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
SeriesAquaculture extension manual; No. 34
Crab culture; Hatcheries; Economic feasibility; Cost analysis; Aquaculture; Brackishwater aquaculture; Crustacean culture; Spawning; Rearing; Nursery ponds; Juveniles; Zoeae; Life cycle; Anatomy; Identification; Larval development; Sexual maturity; Feed; Feeding; Aquaculture economics; Aquaculture techniques; Scylla; Scylla serrata; Crabs; Scylla tranquebarica; Scylla olivacea
Format45 pages : illustrations (chiefly color).
Most of the larval rearing results were based on the projects 9217 (Development of Improved Mud Crab Culture Systems in the Philippines and Australia) funded by the Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, ICA4-CT-2001-10022 (Culture and Management of Scylla spp.) supported by the European Commission (INCO-DC) and National Mud Crab R&D Program funded by the Philippine Council for Agriculture, Aquatic, and Natural Resources Research and Development of the Department of Science and Technology.
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Development of protocol for the production of hatchery-reared mud crab Scylla serrata juveniles for soft-shell crab farming ET Quinitio, GX Libunao & FD Parado-Estepa - In ET Quinitio, FD Parado-Estepa & RM Coloso (Eds.), Philippines : In the forefront of the mud crab industry development : proceedings of the 1st National Mud Crab Congress, 16-18 November 2015, Iloilo City, Philippines, 2017 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterDevelopment of economically viable techniques for growing hatchery-reared juvenile crabs to suitable sizes will address the problem on the source of seed stocks for soft-shell crab farming. This paper reports the production of hatchery-reared mud crab Scylla serrata from juveniles in the nursery to 73-106 g body weight (BW) crabs in the grow-out pond for the individual system soft-shell crab farming. Likewise, the performance of hatchery-reared S. serrata, and wild S. tranquebarica and S. olivacea juveniles was determined in the soft-shell crab production set-up.The BW increased from 1.8-1.9 g to 78-113.7 g when stocked at 0.5 ind m-2 and from 1.6-2.3 g to 73-106.7 g at 1.0 ind m-2 after 75 days. Growth rates at both stocking densities were comparable. However, survival was significantly higher (P<0.05) in lower (63.6~c1.01%) than in higher (35.6~c3.34%) stocking density. Male S. serrata (46.0 ~c 1.75%) had significantly higher BW increase than females (39.4 ~c 2.05%). Crabs stocked at sizes of 51-60 g showed significantly greater percent increase in BW (43.26~c 0.98%) compared with those at 61-70 g (40.98~c1.33%), 71-80 g (38.55~c 1.04%), 81-90 g (36.34 ~c 1.27%) and 91-100 g (38.52 ~c 1.67%). Among the three species, hatchery-reared S. serrata (42.14 ~c 1.34%) had significantly higher mean percent BW increase compared with S. olivacea (38.23 ~c 0.49%) and S. tranquebarica (36.16 ~c 0.78%). S. serrata had significantly shorter mean culture period (24.11 ~c 0.95 days) than S. tranquebarica (28.48 ~c 0.54 days) and S. olivacea (28.75 ~c 0.34 days).
Conference paperET Quinitio - In ET Quinitio, FD Parado-Estepa & RM Coloso (Eds.), Philippines : In the forefront of the mud crab industry development : proceedings of the 1st National Mud Crab Congress, 16-18 November 2015, Iloilo City, Philippines, 2017 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterMud crab farming has long been established in the Philippines and the country is the second top producer in the world. Except for Scylla paramamosain, the three other species, S. serrata, S. tranquebarica and S. olivacea are commonly found in the country, but S. serrata is the preferred species for farming. Crab seeds for farming are mainly from the wild and in recent years, a small percentage from the hatchery. Due to the apparent decline of the wild crab stocks, provincial and municipal ordinances have been issued by a number of Local Government Units (LGUs) along with the Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources (BFAR) to conserve and manage the remaining resources. From the hatchery, megalopa or crab instars are grown in net cages installed in the nursery pond. Mud crab farming engages mostly in long-term grow-out culture of juvenile crabs to market size for 3-5 months, short-term fattening of lean crabs for 15-45 days, and recently, soft-shell crab production. Polyculture of juvenile crabs to market size with one to three other commodities in earthen brackishwater ponds is usually practiced. Mud crabs for soft-shell crab production are mainly from the wild, while SEAFDEC/AQD demonstrates the use of hatchery-produced juvenile mud crabs as seedstock. Refinement is continuously being done to improve the economic viability of producing crabs, although basic technologies have been developed for all phases of culture (hatchery, nursery, grow-out, fattening and soft shell crab production). The major issues facing the industry are the lack of seedstock, difficulty of zoea 5 to molt to megalopa stage, cannibalism particularly at the nursery phase, species identification at the juvenile stage, use of fish as aquafeed, diseases, effects of climate change and quality of crabs at postharvest. In 2012, the Philippine Council for Agriculture, Aquatic and Natural Resources Research and Development (PCAARRD) of the Department of Science and Technology (DOST) started funding projects under the National Mud Crab Science and Technology Program (NMCSTP) to address these issues. The major aim of the Program was to improve the production, profitability and sustainability of crab farming. SEAFDEC/AQD leads in capacity building with focus on the sustainability of the mud crab industry. Various collaborations and research studies on mud crab culture enabled SEAFDEC/AQD to package mud crab technologies, conduct local and international training courses and on-site technology demonstrations, and publish extension manuals and scientific publications since the mid1990s. Research and Development activities have been translated into improved production. With the recent developments and refinements of technologies, it is expected that the Philippines will increase its production by 25-50% in the next 5 years.
BookET Quinitio, E Rodriguez, RF Agbayani, B Juanga, D Baticados, M Catacutan & R Bombeo - 2010 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
Series: Aquaculture extension manual; No. 47An extension manual that is highly illustrated, detailing the biology, nursery, harvest, marketing, costs-and-returns of mudcrab nursery in ponds.