Preliminary capture, husbandry and induced breeding results with the milkfish, Chanos chanos (Forskal)
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The program objective is to breed the milkfish, Chanos chanos (Forskal), in captivity and to raise the fry from the egg, undertaking any research and development which may be necessary to attain that goal. In this, the first year of the project, eight very mature fish were captured and deemed ready for final spawning inducement. One fish (with eggs 0.818 mm in diameter) hydrated and was partially ovulated by two injections of 25 mg salmon gonadotrophin SG-G100. The eggs were not fertilized. The injection procedure or excessive handling and sampling of three other fish resulted in early atresia (reabsorption) of the oocytes. Two fish died from the sampling and handling procedures, and two proved to be too immature with eggs below 0.6 mm in diameter. Preliminary results indicate that oocytes of 0.8 mm and above are at a critical stage (or beyond) at which immediate hypophysation is needed. Injection cannot be delayed. Excessive handling or stress at this stage causes rapid atresia of the oocytes. It appears that oocytes of about 0.7 mm are more suitable for reacting positively to injections. The size of an ovulated egg is about 1.2 mm in diameter. The level and dose rate of SG-G100 used for mullet (20)µg/g body weight) appears too high for the milkfish. A dose of between 12 and 15 µg/g body weight is suggested at present. A resident population of adults of varying ages, numbering over 50 fish, has been assembled. Some were brought from the island of Hawaii to Oahu by land and sea involving 18 hours of travel. All survived the journey. Consequently a small operating satellite field center has been established on Hawaii. A total of 179 dead adult fish have been used for future compilation of age, weight/length, GSI, scale and otolith data. All of the samples are stored. Determination of the GSI for Hawaiian fish indicated a rapid maturation of oocytes and spermatids in June, with a peak spawning period in July and early August. Adult fish have been placed under photoperiod and temperature-regulated conditions to promote maturation out of season. General husbandry methods have been developed for adults in captivity, and a diet formulated which appears to be acceptable. The work on health care is proving to be very informative. Safe handling systems have been developed using ice, and hypotheses made for the results of this treatment and general conditions of stress. Autopsies on dead fish have revealed growths and evidence of heart attack and gastritis. Techniques using commercially available human clinical test kits are proving useful indicators of stress; for example, the presence of hemoglobin and ketones in the mucus increases with stress. Eye lens protein analyses are being undertaken to determine any different racial origins of milkfish.
Nash, C. E., & Kuo, C.-M. (1976). Preliminary capture, husbandry and induced breeding results with the milkfish, Chanos chanos (Forskal). In Proceedings of the International Milkfish Workshop Conference, May 19-22, 1976, Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines (pp. 139-159). Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines: Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center.
PublisherAquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
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Conference paperLV Benitez - In RD Fortes, LC Darvin & DL de Guzman (Eds.), Fish and crustacean feeds and nutrition : Proceedings of the seminar-workshop on fish and crustacean feeds and nutrition held on 25-26 February 1985 at UPV, Iloilo City, 1989 - Philippine Council for Aquatic and Marine Research and DevelopmentThis paper reviews recent work on milkfish nutrition. Substantial progress had been made towards understanding the digestive physiology of milkfish. Major enzaymes envolved in the digestions of carbohydrates, protein and lipids had been detected in the pyloric caece, intestines and pancreas of milkfish. The most active carbohydrates were involved in the hydrolysis of α - glocosidic bonds. Intestinal amylase activity consistently reached the peak at about noon when milkfish gut was full. This confirms that milkfish is s daytime feeder. No cellulase activity was detected in any region orf the digertive treat although the fish relies heavily algae and other plant source for food. Trypsin, chymotrypsin and general proteases were also detected in milkfish digestive tract. A powerful milkfish trypsin inhabitor was detected in the filementous algae, Chaetomorpha brachygona which is predominant species in lumot. Lipass in the pancreas and intestines had two pH optima, suggesting a physiologic versatility for lipid digestion in milkfish. There is a limit information on the nutrient requirement of milkfish. Most studies showed that milkfish fry has a dietary requirement of 40% protein, and 7-10 lipid. Studies on the protein-energy requirement of fingerlings suggested that 30-40% protein, 10% fat and 25% carbohydrates are required. Subsequent studies showed an optimum protein energy to total metabolizable energy ratio of 44.4%. Amino acid test diets for milkfish had been formulated to contain white fish meal, gelatin and approprate amino acid mix.
Lactate dehydrogenase isozyme patterns during the development of milkfish, (Chanos chanos (Forskal)) PD Requintina, LM Engle & LV Benitez -
Kalikasan, The Philippine Journal of Biology, 1981 - University of the Philippines at Los BañosPolyacrylamide disc gel electrophoresis was done to determine the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) isozyme patterns for fry (5-3 mg), fingerling (6-12 g), pond-size (150-250 g) and adult (6-9 kg) milkfish. The patterns were tissue specific; the different tissues examined, viz., eye, liver, heart, and skeletal muscle had different expressions of LDH isozymes. The resolved patterns appeared to be products of LDH gene loci A, B, and C. Subunits A and B were present in all tissues. A4 and B4 were predominant in skeletal and heart muscle, respectively; the two associated non-randomly in vivo and formed only the heteropolymers A3B and AB3. A liver band, L4, was most conspicuous in the fingerling, pond-size, and adult; it was assumed to be coded by locus C. A negatively charged band, X4, was detected in fully developed ovary and in fry homogenized as whole individuals, but it could not be resolved in tissues of fingerling. Six-mo old stunts and 3-mo old fingerlings had similar LDH patterns for all tissues examined. The patterns for 11-mo old stunts and fingerlings also were similar but the one for the eye of the former was the same pattern resolved for the eye of adults. There was no change in the LDH isozyme patterns of milk fish stunted for 6 mo under different salinity levels (0-5, 15-20, 32-35 ppt).
Ongoing research studies on maturation and spawning of milkfish, Chanos chanos at the brackishwater shrimp and milkfish culture applied research and training project, Jepara, Indonesia KH Alikunhi - In Proceedings of the International Milkfish Workshop Conference, May 19-22, 1976, Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines, 1976 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterThe paper gives an account of the research work carried out at Jepara, Indonesia, on induction of maturity of milkfish in ponds and enclosures, and procurement of the spawners from the wild for seed production by hypophysation. Seven to eight years old pond grown milkfish were found sexually immature. Experiments are being conducted for growing and inducing maturity in 1-2 years old milkfish in fertilized ponds with regular tidal flow of water and also under regular hypophysation program. Milkfish spawners collected from sea had a few males in oozing condition and females mostly spent.