Recent Submissions

  • Conference paper

    Morphological measurements, gonadal development and estimated age of adult milkfish, Chanos chanos captured in Pandan Bay from 10 May - 16 June, 1975 

    LB Tiro Jr., AC Villaluz & WE Vanstone - In Proceedings of the International Milkfish Workshop Conference, May 19-22, 1976, Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines, 1976 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    From 10 May to 16 June, 1975, 106 adult milkfish were captured in an otoshi-ami 500 meters offshore. Of the 106 specimens, 37 were females in various stages of gonadal development or spent and 69 were males of which 41 were sexually mature. The age of these fishes were estimated to be between 3 and 5 years.
  • Book | Conference publication

    International Milkfish Workshop Conference, May 19-22, 1976, Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines 

    Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center, Aquaculture Department, & International Development Research Centre - 1976 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
  • Conference paper

    Capture, transport and domestication of adult milkfish, Chanos chanos 

    WE Vanstone, AC Villaluz, PE Bombeo & RB Belicano - In Proceedings of the International Milkfish Workshop Conference, May 19-22, 1976, Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines, 1976 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    Methods used in the capture, transport and domestication of adult milkfish are described and illustrated.
  • Conference paper

    The occurrence of milkfish Chanos chanos fry in Pandan Bay, Antique, from 21 May to 25 June, 1975 

    S Kumagai, AC Villaluz, LB Tiro Jr. & WE Vanstone - In Proceedings of the International Milkfish Workshop Conference, May 19-22, 1976, Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines, 1976 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    Milkfish fry were collected at the Pandan shoreline and 500 meters offshore. While shore-caught fry were uniform in size those captured offshore varied in size and stage of development.
  • Conference paper

    Physiological functions of the epibranchial organ of milkfish from the point of its ontogeny 

    T Kafuko & Y Kuwatani - In Proceedings of the International Milkfish Workshop Conference, May 19-22, 1976, Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines, 1976 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    The epibranchial organ of milkfish was believed for long to be a respiratory organ similar to that in Anabantoids. Later on, the structure was considered to be an accessory to the digestive system. The observations made by the authors on the physiological functions of the organ supports the latter views. This finding, probably would provide a new field of research on milkfish.
  • Conference paper

    Bibliographical sources on the biology and culture of milkfish, Chanos chanos 

    K Kuronuma - In Proceedings of the International Milkfish Workshop Conference, May 19-22, 1976, Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines, 1976 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    A comprehensive bibliography of the publications on the culture of milkfish (Chanos chanos) that were published in 1975 or earlier.
  • Conference paper

    A preliminary study on the purified test diet for young milkfish, Chanos chanos 

    DL Lee & IC Liao - In Proceedings of the International Milkfish Workshop Conference, May 19-22, 1976, Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines, 1976 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    In studying the nutritional requirements of young milkfish experiments were conducted to develop a purified test diet. Mixtures of the purified constituents tested were: vitamin-free casein, vitamin-free gelatin, supplemented with L-tryptophan and L-cystine as the protein sources; shark liver oil and soybean oil as the far sources; and dextrin as the carbohydrate source. Mineral mixture and vitamin mixture were also added.

    The results showed that a test diet containing vitamin-free casein supplemented with L-tryptophan as the protein source, was best for the growth of young milkfish. Soybean oil was found to be a better source of fat. Vitamin mixture (4%) and mineral mixture (10%) were observed to promote growth in young milkfish. A purified test diet consisting of vitamin-free casein 60%, L-tryptophan 0.5%, soybean oil 10%, vitamin mixture 4%, mineral mixture 10%, carbohydrate and others 16% was thus suggested for young milkfish.
  • Conference paper

    Effects of salinity on growth of young milkfish, Chanos chanos 

    F Hu & IC Liao - In Proceedings of the International Milkfish Workshop Conference, May 19-22, 1976, Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines, 1976 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    Growth of young milkfish was studied at different levels of salinity over a period 68 days. Results suggested that young milkfish reared in freshwater or less saline sea water grew faster than in sea water. The increase in body weight was neither due to the increase in water content nor increase in feeding rate. The difference in growth rate might be attributed to the deviation from the original acclimating salinity. Mechanisms of the effect of salinity in retarding or accelerating milkfish growth should be investigated in the future.
  • Conference paper

    Qualitative analysis of the contents of the anterior portion of the oesophagus from adult milkfish, Chanos chanos, captured in Pandan Bay from 10 May-June 1975 

    AC Villaluz, LB Tiro, LM Ver & WE Vanstone - In Proceedings of the International Milkfish Workshop Conference, May 19-22, 1976, Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines, 1976 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    Qualitative analysis of food items in the anterior spiral portion of the oesophagus suggests that adult milkfish feed on both benthic and planktonic materials.
  • Conference paper

    Preliminary capture, husbandry and induced breeding results with the milkfish, Chanos chanos (Forskal) 

    CE Nash & CM Kuo - In Proceedings of the International Milkfish Workshop Conference, May 19-22, 1976, Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines, 1976 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    The program objective is to breed the milkfish, Chanos chanos (Forskal), in captivity and to raise the fry from the egg, undertaking any research and development which may be necessary to attain that goal.

    In this, the first year of the project, eight very mature fish were captured and deemed ready for final spawning inducement. One fish (with eggs 0.818 mm in diameter) hydrated and was partially ovulated by two injections of 25 mg salmon gonadotrophin SG-G100. The eggs were not fertilized. The injection procedure or excessive handling and sampling of three other fish resulted in early atresia (reabsorption) of the oocytes. Two fish died from the sampling and handling procedures, and two proved to be too immature with eggs below 0.6 mm in diameter.

    Preliminary results indicate that oocytes of 0.8 mm and above are at a critical stage (or beyond) at which immediate hypophysation is needed. Injection cannot be delayed. Excessive handling or stress at this stage causes rapid atresia of the oocytes. It appears that oocytes of about 0.7 mm are more suitable for reacting positively to injections. The size of an ovulated egg is about 1.2 mm in diameter.

    The level and dose rate of SG-G100 used for mullet (20)µg/g body weight) appears too high for the milkfish. A dose of between 12 and 15 µg/g body weight is suggested at present.

    A resident population of adults of varying ages, numbering over 50 fish, has been assembled. Some were brought from the island of Hawaii to Oahu by land and sea involving 18 hours of travel. All survived the journey. Consequently a small operating satellite field center has been established on Hawaii.

    A total of 179 dead adult fish have been used for future compilation of age, weight/length, GSI, scale and otolith data. All of the samples are stored. Determination of the GSI for Hawaiian fish indicated a rapid maturation of oocytes and spermatids in June, with a peak spawning period in July and early August.

    Adult fish have been placed under photoperiod and temperature-regulated conditions to promote maturation out of season.

    General husbandry methods have been developed for adults in captivity, and a diet formulated which appears to be acceptable.

    The work on health care is proving to be very informative. Safe handling systems have been developed using ice, and hypotheses made for the results of this treatment and general conditions of stress. Autopsies on dead fish have revealed growths and evidence of heart attack and gastritis. Techniques using commercially available human clinical test kits are proving useful indicators of stress; for example, the presence of hemoglobin and ketones in the mucus increases with stress.

    Eye lens protein analyses are being undertaken to determine any different racial origins of milkfish.
  • Conference paper

    Review of work programmes carried out in India on the biology of the milkfish Chanos chanos 

    PRS Tampi & P Bensam - In Proceedings of the International Milkfish Workshop Conference, May 19-22, 1976, Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines, 1976 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    This account is a brief review of the investigation carried out in India on the various aspects of the biology of the milkfish. It covers the records of observations on the distribution of Chanos fry in the coastal areas, food and feeding of the fish, its growth, maturity, fecundity and spawning, and also certain experimental results on the physiological adaptation of the fish together with the histological structures of its kidney, pituitary and thyroid. While emphasising the paucity of data on the adult milkfish in the wild, the priority areas where information is lacking especially on the spawning ground, reliable identifying characters of the egg as well as on the possible existence of different racial stocks have been discussed.
  • Conference paper

    A preliminary report on the gonadal development of adult milkfish, Chanos chanos, reared in tank 

    IC Liao & YS Chang - In Proceedings of the International Milkfish Workshop Conference, May 19-22, 1976, Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines, 1976 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    Milkfish is one of the most important food fishes in Taiwan. There are more than 16,000 ha of culture area and over 160 millions of fry are needed for milkfish farming industry every year. The fry are collected from the sea and also imported from other countries. However, due to several environmental factors, there is unpredictable fluctuations in the occurrence of these wild fry. In recent years, the demand for milkfish fry has gone up considerably owing mainly to the fast-growing populations, the natural resources being so limited that there is insufficient supply of stocking materials of this important foodfish.

    To solve the problem of shortage of milkfish fry, Tungkang Marine Laboratory started the preliminary work on artificial propagation of milkfish in 1970. In addition to capturing wild spawners, the Laboratory has also been raising the adult milkfish in tanks for this objective. After being reared for six years, one male and one female were dissected on 11 April 1976. The male had ripe sperms; the testes weighing 4.63 g with the GSI of 0.12. The gonad of the female weighed 21.20 g with the GSI of 0.66 and part of the ovarian oocytes was found to be at the oil droplet (yolk vesicle) stage. Judging from the condition of maturity of the above female, the feasibility of raising tank-reared spawners was ensured. It is believed that this is the first attempt on the world and is the prelude to successful artificial propagation by using tank-reared milkfish as spawner.
  • Conference paper

    A simple method for monitoring the spawning activity of fish in net enclosures 

    RC May, GS Akiyama & MT Santerre - In Proceedings of the International Milkfish Workshop Conference, May 19-22, 1976, Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines, 1976 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    A simple method is described for monitoring the spawning activity of fish held in suspended net enclosures. The method, which involves an airlift pump, has been used successfully with the threadfin, Polydactylus sexfilis, and has revealed important aspects of the daily, monthly and yearly spawning rhythms of this species. It is suggested that this approach may be useful in studies of Chanos chanos.
  • Conference paper

    Spawning of milkfish, Chanos chanos, in captivity 

    WE Vanstone, AC Villaluz & LB Tiro Jr. - In Proceedings of the International Milkfish Workshop Conference, May 19-22, 1976, Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines, 1976 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    Newly captured milkfish released 0.8 mm in diameter non-hydrated eggs spontaneously in captivity. After injection with partially purified salmon gonadotropin (SG-G100), 1.2 mm in diameter hydrated eggs were released. These eggs, however, were not fertilized.
  • Conference paper

    Notes on food and feeding habits of milkfish (Chanos chanos) from the sea 

    A Poernomo - In Proceedings of the International Milkfish Workshop Conference, May 19-22, 1976, Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines, 1976 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    Study on the natural food of adult milkfish was made from specimens caught from the open sea. The contents of guts from 15 specimens were qualitatively analysed, and both planktonic as well as benthic forms were encounted. The relationship between the gut length and body length has been worked out. Ten out of 15 milkfish examined were also found to be infected with Acanthocephalan parasites confined mainly to the anterior part of the intestine.
  • Conference paper

    Ongoing research studies on maturation and spawning of milkfish, Chanos chanos at the brackishwater shrimp and milkfish culture applied research and training project, Jepara, Indonesia 

    KH Alikunhi - In Proceedings of the International Milkfish Workshop Conference, May 19-22, 1976, Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines, 1976 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    The paper gives an account of the research work carried out at Jepara, Indonesia, on induction of maturity of milkfish in ponds and enclosures, and procurement of the spawners from the wild for seed production by hypophysation. Seven to eight years old pond grown milkfish were found sexually immature. Experiments are being conducted for growing and inducing maturity in 1-2 years old milkfish in fertilized ponds with regular tidal flow of water and also under regular hypophysation program. Milkfish spawners collected from sea had a few males in oozing condition and females mostly spent.
  • Conference paper

    Notes on the capture, handling and transport of the sabalo or adult milkfish, Chanos chanos (Forskal) 

    R Mateo, O Paraan & L Rodriguez - In Proceedings of the International Milkfish Workshop Conference, May 19-22, 1976, Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines, 1976 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    The paper describes a simple and inexpensive method of handling and transporting wild sabalo captured from the sea.
  • Conference paper

    Milkfish cultivation in Sarawak 

    OK Bian - In Proceedings of the International Milkfish Workshop Conference, May 19-22, 1976, Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines, 1976 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    The paper reports the results of experimental rearing of milkfish fry in both fresh and brackishwater ponds in Sarawak. Date on the growth and survival of these imported fry are also given.
  • Conference paper

    Reviews and recommendations on current and future research activities for the biological investigations on milkfish 

    K Kuronuma - In Proceedings of the International Milkfish Workshop Conference, May 19-22, 1976, Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines, 1976 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    Presented in this paper are the recommendations on current and future research activities for the biological investigations on milkfish (Chanos chanos). Included were the bahavior and bio-ecology of milkfish in the wild. It also tackled the protocols in transporting broodstocks.
  • Conference paper

    Occurrence of milkfish eggs in the adjacent waters of Panay Island, Philippines 

    T Senta, S Kumagai & L Ver - In Proceedings of the International Milkfish Workshop Conference, May 19-22, 1976, Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines, 1976 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    Location of spawning grounds of milkfish is one of the most important steps towards gaining knowledge on the spawning habits of the fish as well as the early life history and nature of its eggs and larvae. The present study is an attempt towards this objective. Surveys were made in selected areas in the sea around the Panay Island and milkfish eggs were collected on several occasions from surface to 20 m depth water by towing with larval nets. The eggs floated in the water in a glass jar. The eggs and newly hatched larvae had the same characteristics as described by Delsman (1929). A comparative study has been made to distinguish milkfish eggs from other more or less similar size pelagic eggs of fishes occurring in the same waters at the same time.

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