Notes on the capture, handling and transport of the sabalo or adult milkfish, Chanos chanos (Forskal)
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The paper describes a simple and inexpensive method of handling and transporting wild sabalo captured from the sea.
Mateo, R., Paraan, O., & Rodriguez, L. (1976). Notes on the capture, handling and transport of the sabalo or adult milkfish, Chanos chanos (Forskal). In Proceedings of the International Milkfish Workshop Conference, May 19-22, 1976, Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines (pp. 95-103). Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines: Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center. http://hdl.handle.net/10862/3376
PublisherAquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
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Conference paperLV Benitez - In RD Fortes, LC Darvin & DL de Guzman (Eds.), Fish and crustacean feeds and nutrition : Proceedings of the seminar-workshop on fish and crustacean feeds and nutrition held on 25-26 February 1985 at UPV, Iloilo City, 1989 - Philippine Council for Aquatic and Marine Research and DevelopmentThis paper reviews recent work on milkfish nutrition. Substantial progress had been made towards understanding the digestive physiology of milkfish. Major enzaymes envolved in the digestions of carbohydrates, protein and lipids had been detected in the pyloric caece, intestines and pancreas of milkfish. The most active carbohydrates were involved in the hydrolysis of α - glocosidic bonds. Intestinal amylase activity consistently reached the peak at about noon when milkfish gut was full. This confirms that milkfish is s daytime feeder. No cellulase activity was detected in any region orf the digertive treat although the fish relies heavily algae and other plant source for food. Trypsin, chymotrypsin and general proteases were also detected in milkfish digestive tract. A powerful milkfish trypsin inhabitor was detected in the filementous algae, Chaetomorpha brachygona which is predominant species in lumot. Lipass in the pancreas and intestines had two pH optima, suggesting a physiologic versatility for lipid digestion in milkfish. There is a limit information on the nutrient requirement of milkfish. Most studies showed that milkfish fry has a dietary requirement of 40% protein, and 7-10 lipid. Studies on the protein-energy requirement of fingerlings suggested that 30-40% protein, 10% fat and 25% carbohydrates are required. Subsequent studies showed an optimum protein energy to total metabolizable energy ratio of 44.4%. Amino acid test diets for milkfish had been formulated to contain white fish meal, gelatin and approprate amino acid mix.
Ongoing research studies on maturation and spawning of milkfish, Chanos chanos at the brackishwater shrimp and milkfish culture applied research and training project, Jepara, Indonesia KH Alikunhi - In Proceedings of the International Milkfish Workshop Conference, May 19-22, 1976, Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines, 1976 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterThe paper gives an account of the research work carried out at Jepara, Indonesia, on induction of maturity of milkfish in ponds and enclosures, and procurement of the spawners from the wild for seed production by hypophysation. Seven to eight years old pond grown milkfish were found sexually immature. Experiments are being conducted for growing and inducing maturity in 1-2 years old milkfish in fertilized ponds with regular tidal flow of water and also under regular hypophysation program. Milkfish spawners collected from sea had a few males in oozing condition and females mostly spent.
Ration reduction, integrated multitrophic aquaculture (milkfish-seaweed-sea cucumber) and value-added products to improve incomes and reduce the ecological footprint of milkfish culture in the Philippines EGT de Jesus-Ayson & RJ Borski - In Technical Reports: Investigations 2009-2011, 2012 - AquaFish Collaborative Research Support Program, Oregon State UniversityIn the Philippines, cage culture of milkfish in marine environments is increasing. The practice uses high stocking densities, with significantly greater inputs of artificial feeds which more often than not, have led to excessive feeding and consequently excessive nutrient loading in receiving waters, exacerbating problems with pollution. These could have contributed to occurrence of periodic fish kills in areas of marine milkfish culture clusters. In marine cage culture, about 80% of variable expenses are attributable to feed costs. Experiments were conducted to compare production characteristics of milkfish fed on alternate days versus those raised on daily feeding in marine cage culture. Fish were fed either daily or every other day using a reduced feed ration at 7.5% of fish biomass at the start of culture down to 3% of fish biomass towards harvest. We showed this ration level was as effective as the industry standard that begins at a rate of 10% average body weight. Morevover, we had previously found that milkfish reared in brackishwater ponds on an alternate day feeding scheme using the reduced ration level produced a 56% cost savings in feed with little impact on total yield relative to fish raised on a daily feeding protocol. In the present study, survival rates (~ 90%) were comparable between the control fish fed daily and groups fed on alternate days in marine cages. Similarly, total harvested biomass of fish in the alternate day and daily feeding groups was similar as was the harvest value, although fish on the alternate day feeding scheme grew slightly less. The amount of feed and the corresponding cost of feeds consumed were significantly lower in stocks that were fed on alternate days compared with those fed daily (P < 0.05). Feed conversion ratio (FCR) was lower in the alternate-day fed group (FCR = 2.46) relative to stocks fed daily (FCR = 3.59). Overall, the results demonstrate that feed costs can be reduced by around 32% in stocks fed on alternate days, which yields an estimated 20-25% improvement in production efficiency relative to raising animals on a daily feeding protocol. Hence, a significant costs savings with reduced impact of nutrient loading in the environment is likely to be realized for farmers who adopt an alternate day feeding scheme in raising milkfish in marine cages.