Development of integrated multi-trophic aquaculture using sea cucumber
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MetadataShow full item record
PublisherUnited States Department of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Marine Fisheries Service
SeriesNOAA technical memorandum; NMFS-F/SPO-168
- Conference Proceedings 
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ArticleSubstrate preference for both burying and feeding of sandfish Holothuria scabra juveniles (3–6 g wet body weight) and their associated daily behavior, growth and survival were investigated in laboratory and field experiments using different coastal substrate types (silty mud, sandy mud, and coarse sand) to determine the ideal habitat for potential grow-out culture, sea ranching or stock enhancement of this important sea cucumber species. During the peak hours of burying (03:00–09:00 h) and feeding (15:00–03:00 h), a significantly greater number of sandfish juveniles preferred to bury in (28.3%) and feed on (21.5%) sandy mud, typical of intertidal coastal sand flats. Silty mud was the least preferred substrate for feeding (13.5%) and burying (13.8%). Burying and feeding preferences of sandfish juveniles were not significantly influenced by the presence of seagrass (Thalassia hemprichii) on coarse sand. Growth of sandfish juveniles in the first two weeks of rearing in tanks was significantly greater on coarse sand (growth rate: 0.59 g d−1 or 7.0% d−1), followed by sandy mud (0.34 g d−1 or 4.72% d−1) while OM content of these sediments remain almost unchanged. On silty mud, sandfish juveniles constantly shrunk (−0.02 g d−1 or −0.63% d−1) for 8 weeks while sediment OM content increased. In the field, silty mud substrate of a mangrove pond caused total mortality of sandfish within two weeks, while sandy mud substrate of a sand flat provided significantly higher growth than the control (no sediment), but not significantly different than coarse sand of a seagrass bed. Sandy mud to coarse sand substrates of intertidal sand flats were most preferred by sandfish juveniles while silty mud associated with muddy mangroves and culture ponds seems to be unsuitable that sandfish would opt to avoid. Our results will contribute to the selection of suitable sites for sandfish sea ranching and stock enhancement in coastal areas.
Conference paperMF Nievales, R Sibonga & H Figurado - In MRR Romana-Eguia, FD Parado-Estepa, ND Salayo & MJH Lebata-Ramos (Eds.), Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia: Challenges in Responsible Production … International Workshop on Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia 2014 (RESA), 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterVarious post-larval rearing methods were compared to determine which scheme would give the most yield of newly settled (visible) juvenile stage (> 1mm body length). Five types of postlarval rearing methods were tested: T1- planktonic diatom only (Chaetoceros calcitrans, Cc), T2-benthic diatom Navicula (Nsp) as biofilm and concentrate, T3- Navicula as biofilm + Cc, T4Spirulina as paste on settling plate + Cc, and T5- Spirulina (Sp) as paste on settling plates + Nsp concentrate. An experiment was conducted in small (3-li) aquaria using a cohort of Day 14 (postfertilization) sandfish larvae. Simultaneously, three of the 5 post-larval rearing methods (i.e. T2, T3 and T4) were done in medium scale (30-li) aquaria to determine how a conventional method (T2) employed in a pilot sea cucumber hatchery in Central Philippines compared with method observed in Viet Nam (T3) or with a hybrid method (T4). Visible post-settled juveniles were counted weekly for the next three weeks and expressed as percentage yield. After three days of rearing, transparent but visible early settled juveniles were observed. Mean percentage (%) juvenile yield in week 1 was highest in T1 (Cc only)(17% + 1.3) followed by T3 (Sp + Cc) (14% + 1.6) in a 3 li scale. Yield increased and peaked in week 2 especially for rearing methods with Nsp while those without (e.g T1 and T2) declined dramatically by week 3. In the 30-li scale, the highest mean yield was consistent with T5 (Nsp + Cc) until Week 3 (12% + 11.2). The mean juvenile yield on the 2nd and 3rd week were better than the 2% average for this stage or the 2.5% benchmark based on experiences in the Philippines and Viet Nam as indicated in published references.