The sea cucumber fishery in Palawan, Philippines
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CitationJontila, J. B. S., Monteclaro, H. M., Quinitio, G. F., Santander-de Leon, S. M., & Altamirano, J. P. (2018). The sea cucumber fishery in Palawan, Philippines.
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Status of sea cucumber fishery and populations across sites with different levels of management in Palawan, Philippines JBS Jontila, HM Monteclaro, GF Quinitio, SM Santander-de Leon & JP Altamirano -
Ocean and Coastal Management, 2018 - ElsevierThis study was conducted to investigate the sea cucumber fishery and compare populations between exploited and unexploited sites. Three islands were selected, the Arrecife Island as the unexploited site and the Johnson and Green Islands representing the exploited sites. In each site, sea cucumber species richness, diversity and densities were assessed by laying as much as 15 transects (50 m × 5 m) per habitat in each island. Differences in species richness, diversity and relative densities across sites and habitats were tested using a Two-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Tukey test for post hoc comparisons. An interview with gatherers, key informants and focus group discussions were also conducted to gather information on the sea cucumber fishery and its management. Results showed that the unexploited site had a higher species richness (14 vs. 7 and 7). Relative density of species was also higher in the unexploited site at 1245 ind ha-1 while it was only 78 and 39 ind ha-1 in exploited sites (p < 0.05). Interviews and a focus group discussion revealed that national regulations on permit system and size limits were not enforced at the local level and that gatherers had low levels of awareness regarding regulations on sea cucumber harvest. Current management measures appear to be ineffective and insufficient, leaving the sea cucumbers in areas open to exploitation at risk of depletion. Given that sea cucumbers provide substantial income to local communities, the depletion of this resource could compromise the livelihood of people in island communities that rely heavily on marine resources for living. Thus, this study highlights the need to review national policies on sea cucumber fishery and place the management at the local level.
Conference paperPA Alpasan & RA Billones - In MRR Romana-Eguia, FD Parado-Estepa, ND Salayo & MJH Lebata-Ramos (Eds.), Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia: Challenges in Responsible Production … International Workshop on Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia 2014 (RESA), 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterA resource assessment of sea cucumber was conducted in six out of eight coastal towns in northern Iloilo, a fisheries rich area facing the Visayan Sea in the central Philippines. A yearlong assessment was conducted in 2012. Fishery dependent survey was done with the use of survey questionnaire translated into dialect. Six trained enumerators administered the questionnaires to 114 gatherers and 18 local traders. Fishery independent survey involving Belt Transect Method (BTM) for intertidal areas and Timed-Search Method (TSM) for subtidal areas were conducted in 21 GPS (Global Positioning System)-referenced sampling stations. Sample specimens were also collected and prepared for taxonomic identification. External morphology, internal structures (dissected samples) and spicule analysis were used in the identification. Fishery dependent survey showed that gleaning (40%) is the most dominant extraction method used. Various methods were also employed including the dangerous compressor diving and the destructive karas, a method using a rake-like device to scrape the sea bed. In terms of volume, the most heavily exploited sea cucumber belongs to the Stichopus groups. The trade of sea cucumber is dominated by island-based traders. Almost half of the traders are women, signifying that trading is a woman's domain as well. Derived monthly income from sea cucumber trade ranges from PhP 2,000-3,000 for gatherers and PhP 2,000-5,000 for the traders. Fishery independent survey resulted in the identification of six sea cucumber genera (Bohadschia, Holothuria, Paracaudina, Pseudocholochirus and Stichopus). Of the 32 species found belonging to the six genera, only 16 were identified up to the species level. Samples of unidentified specimen were sent to the University of the Philippines - Marine Science Institute (UP MSI) laboratory for molecular taxonomic identification. In terms of species count, the most dominant genera is the Holothuria with nine identified and seven unidentified species. H. impatiens is also the most dominant sea cucumber found in the area. Further, the recorded catch per unit effort (CPUE) for fishery-independent survey is 3-4 pcs/diver/hr. The resource assessment showed that the trade of sea cucumber is dictated by economic value rather than by ecological abundance. While the scale and extent of sea cucumber fishery in northern Iloilo is small-scale and island based, the study highlights the need for trade regulation and stock enhancement of heavily exploited species as extraction affects the ecological distribution of sea cucumber stocks in the area.
Utilization of organic waste from black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon, by sandfish, Holothuria scabra S Watanabe, JM Zarate, MJH Lebata-Ramos, MFJ Nievales & M Kodama - In K Tanaka, S Morioka & S Watanabe (Eds.), Sustainable stock management and development of aquaculture technology suitable for Southeast Asia, 2012 - Japan International Research Center for Agricultural Sciences
Series: JIRCAS Working Report; No. 75In Southeast Asian countries, a large proportion of shrimp aquaculture has switched its target species from native black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon, to exotic P. vannamei because of frequent viral disease outbreaks. One of the causes of disease outbreaks is thought to be poor water and sediment conditions in the shrimp pond, which aggravate disease symptoms. To establish co-culture methods of black tiger shrimp and sandfish, Holothuria scabra, for possible mitigation of shrimp pond eutrophication and prevention of disease outbreaks, laboratory experiments were conducted at the Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center (SEAFDEC/AQD) in Iloilo, Philippines. A feeding trial of juvenile H. scabra using benthic diatom, Navicula ramossisima, and powdered P. monodon feed showed that H. scabra do not grow with fresh shrimp feed on a hard substrate. A feeding trial with and without sand substrate with shrimp feed as food showed that the substrates enhance the growth of H. scabra. H. scabra juveniles were found to grow with detritus and P. monodon feces as food sources in tanks. It was also shown that addition of ground oyster shell to the sand substrate enhances the growth of H. scabra when fed with N. ramossisima. Thus, these results suggest that H. scabra can grow by feeding on organic matter present in a P. monodon pond and may be used to mitigate organic load in P. monodon ponds.