Status of sea cucumber fishery and populations across sites with different levels of management in Palawan, Philippines
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This study was conducted to investigate the sea cucumber fishery and compare populations between exploited and unexploited sites. Three islands were selected, the Arrecife Island as the unexploited site and the Johnson and Green Islands representing the exploited sites. In each site, sea cucumber species richness, diversity and densities were assessed by laying as much as 15 transects (50 m × 5 m) per habitat in each island. Differences in species richness, diversity and relative densities across sites and habitats were tested using a Two-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Tukey test for post hoc comparisons. An interview with gatherers, key informants and focus group discussions were also conducted to gather information on the sea cucumber fishery and its management. Results showed that the unexploited site had a higher species richness (14 vs. 7 and 7). Relative density of species was also higher in the unexploited site at 1245 ind ha-1 while it was only 78 and 39 ind ha-1 in exploited sites (p < 0.05). Interviews and a focus group discussion revealed that national regulations on permit system and size limits were not enforced at the local level and that gatherers had low levels of awareness regarding regulations on sea cucumber harvest. Current management measures appear to be ineffective and insufficient, leaving the sea cucumbers in areas open to exploitation at risk of depletion. Given that sea cucumbers provide substantial income to local communities, the depletion of this resource could compromise the livelihood of people in island communities that rely heavily on marine resources for living. Thus, this study highlights the need to review national policies on sea cucumber fishery and place the management at the local level.
CitationJontila, J. B. S., Monteclaro, H. M., Quinitio, G. F., Santander-de Leon, S. M., & Altamirano, J. P. (2018). Status of sea cucumber fishery and populations across sites with different levels of management in Palawan, Philippines.
This study was jointly funded by the Department of Science and Technology- Science Education Institute (DOST-SEI), the University of the Philippines Visayas and the Western Philippines University. The support and cooperation of the Municipality of Roxas, Palawan, the management of Arrecife Island especially Ms. Glesselle T. Batin, and the sea cucumber gatherers in Green and Johnson Islands are greatly appreciated.
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ArticleJBS Jontila, HM Monteclaro, GF Quinitio, SM Santander-de Leon & JP Altamirano -
Kuroshio Science, 2018 - 高知大学大学院黒潮圏海洋科学研究科This paper presents the nature of sea cucumber fishery in Palawan, Philippines with information on gathering practices, commonly traded species and secondary accounts on wild populations. Current issues on sea cucumber fishery are also presented here along with recommended doable management measures.
Conference paperS Watanabe, M Kodama, JG Sumbing & MJH Lebata-Ramos - In K Gruenthal, M Rust, P Olin & E Trentacoste (Eds.), Genetics in Aquaculture: Proceedings of the 42nd U.S.-Japan Aquaculture Panel Symposium, La Jolla, CA, October 1, 2014, 2017 - United States Department of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Marine Fisheries Service
Series: NOAA technical memorandum; NMFS-F/SPO-168In Southeast Asian countries, aquaculture production continues to increase. Environmental deterioration associated with water and sediment eutrophication by aquaculture effluent has been problematic, sometimes resulting in disease outbreaks and fish kills due to hypoxia and hydrogen sulfide poisoning. Integrated multi-trophic aquaculture (IMTA) is one of the promising measures for sustainable aquaculture. In this study, a box model estimation of nitrogen (N) budget based on experimental data and values from literature was made for a system of sandfish (Holothuria scabra) in sea cage IMTA with milkfish (Chanos chanos) and Elkhorn sea moss (Kappaphycus alvarezii). Information on stocking density, stocking size, mortality, growth, feed ration, feed assimilation, NH4-N production and NH4-N absorption of these species was obtained from a series of experiments and existing literature. In the production system 26 g milkfish were cultured in a 5 x 5 x 4 m cage at the stocking density of 36.7 ind/m3 with the initial feeding ration of 10% of body weight which was gradually decreased to 4% over time; 10 g sandfish were cultured in a cage with the same bottom area as milkfish cage hanged under the milkfish cage to trap particulate N waste (i.e. feces and leftover feed) at the stocking density of 35 ind/m2; the stocking weight of Elkhorn sea moss line culture was 10 kg; culturing period was 200 days. It was estimated that milkfish culture cumulatively produced 145 kg of particulate N, and milkfish and sandfish together produced 60 kg of NH4-N in 200 days of culture. Daily assimilation rate of the particulate N by sandfish ranged 3.4 - 12.4%, and 4.3% of the particulate N was estimated to be removed by sandfish in 200 days of culture. Daily absorption rate of NH4-N by Elkhorn sea moss increased exponentially with time and reached 100% after 125 days of culture. Cumulative NH4-N was estimated to be depleted after 162 days of culture. For complete utilization of particulate N by the end of culture, sandfish stocking density should be 805 ind/m2, which is 200 times as high as that in existing sandfish aquaculture operations.
Conference paperMJH Lebata-Ramos, EF Doyola-Solis, R Sibonga, J Sumbing, JB Abroguena, A Santillan & M Dimzon - In MRR Romana-Eguia, FD Parado-Estepa, ND Salayo & MJH Lebata-Ramos (Eds.), Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia: Challenges in Responsible Production … International Workshop on Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia 2014 (RESA), 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterThe Aquaculture Department of the Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center (SEAFDEC/AQD) started its Stock Enhancement Program more than a decade ago with the first stock enhancement initiative on the mud crab Scylla spp. funded by the European Commission. This was followed by another stock enhancement program in 2005 supported by the Government of Japan Trust Fund. In preparation for its implementation, a Regional Technical Consultation on Stock Enhancement of Species Under International Concern was convened in Iloilo City, Philippines in July 2005 to identify species for stock enhancement. During the meeting, seahorses Hippocampus spp., giant clam Tridacna gigas, abalone Haliotis asinina, and sea cucumbers Holothuria spp. were among the priority species for stock enhancement work. Stock enhancement, restocking and ranching are management approaches involving the release of wild or hatchery-bred organisms to enhance, conserve or restore fisheries. This paper reports SEAFDEC/AQD release activities and some of the release strategies that have been established for mud crabs, giant clams and abalone.